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1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(5): 481-484, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288613

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Sports dance is widely known as a competitive game, but as a leisure activity, there is little research on the efficacy of human health and fitness. Sports dance, as a popular national fitness exercise, has sound health promotion effects. At present, domestic and foreign researches mostly focus on the impact of sports dance on young men and women. Objective: This study will explore the influence of regular physical dance exercises on the body shape, function, and quality of middle-aged and older adults, provide a scientific basis for the role of physical dance in national fitness. Methods: This study recruited 20 healthy middle-aged and elderly members of a leisure sports dance club without professional dance experience for three months of dance training. The first two weeks are pre-experiments five times a week. Each exercise time is 60 minutes. The last ten weeks are formal experiments, two times a week, 90 minutes each time, and no other physical exercises are involved in everyday life. By comparing part of the body shape, physical function, and physical fitness index before and after the experiment, the impact of sports dance on middle-aged and older adults' healthy physical fitness is evaluated. Results: After three months of physical dance exercise with different dance styles, in male, BMI index, body fat percentage, waist circumference, hip circumference, and thigh circumference indicators all decreased, but there was no significant difference. In women, BMI index, body fat percentage (P<0.01), waist circumference (P<0.05), diastolic blood pressure (P<0.01), sitting body forward bending (P<0.05), and standing with one foot and closed eyes all increased. In women, the indexes of grip strength (P<0.01), forward bending in sitting position (P<0.055), and standing with eyes closed on one foot all increased. Conclusions: It is suggested that long-term moderate-intensity aerobic sport dance exercise can improve the body shape of middle-aged and older adults and help increase physical fitness; meanwhile, sports dance can effectively improve the cardiovascular function of middle-aged and elderly subjects. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução: A dança esportiva é amplamente conhecida como um jogo competitivo, mas como atividade de lazer, existem poucas pesquisas sobre sua eficácia na saúde e forma física humana. A dança esportiva, como exercício físico popular em âmbito nacional, tem importantes efeitos na promoção da saúde. Atualmente, a pesquisa nacional e estrangeira está focada principalmente no impacto da dança esportiva em jovens de ambos os sexos. Objetivo: Este estudo irá explorar a influência dos exercícios regulares de dança física na forma, função e qualidade do corpo de adultos mais velhos e de meia-idade, e fornecerá uma base científica para o papel da dança física no fitness nacional. Métodos: Este estudo recrutou 20 pessoas saudáveis, de meia-idade e idosos de um clube esportivo sem experiência profissional em dança durante três meses de treinamento. As primeiras duas semanas foram pré-experimentos cinco vezes por semana. Cada tempo de exercício foi de 60 minutos. As últimas dez semanas foram experimentos formais, duas vezes por semana, 90 minutos cada vez, sem nenhum outro exercício físico na vida cotidiana. Ao comparar a forma corporal, a função física e o índice de aptidão física antes e depois do experimento, o impacto da dança esportiva na aptidão física saudável de adultos mais velhos e de meia-idade é avaliado. Resultados: Após três meses de exercício físico de dança com diferentes estilos de dança, nos homens, o índice de IMC, o percentual de gordura corporal, a circunferência da cintura, a circunferência do quadril e a circunferência da coxa diminuíram, mas não houve diferença significativa. Nas mulheres, o índice de IMC, o percentual de gordura corporal (P <0,01), a circunferência da cintura (P <0,05), a pressão arterial diastólica (P <0,01), o corpo sentado inclinado para frente (P <0,05) e com um pés e olhos fechados aumentaram. Nas mulheres, os índices de força de preensão (P <0,01), de inclinação para a frente na posição sentada (P <0,055) e com um pé com os olhos fechados aumentaram. Conclusões: Sugere-se que o exercício de dança esportiva aeróbica de intensidade moderada de longa duração pode melhorar a forma corporal de adultos mais velhos e de meia idade e ajudar a aumentar a aptidão física; enquanto isso, a dança esportiva pode efetivamente melhorar a função cardiovascular de indivíduos de meia-idade e idosos. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos: investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: La danza deportiva es ampliamente conocida como un juego competitivo, pero como actividad de ocio hay poca investigación sobre la eficacia en la salud y el estado físico humanos. La danza deportiva, como ejercicio físico popular a nivel nacional, tiene importantes efectos en la promoción de la salud. En la actualidad, las investigaciones nacionales y extranjeras se centran principalmente en el impacto de la danza deportiva en hombres y mujeres jóvenes. Objetivo: Este estudio explorará la influencia de los ejercicios regulares de danza física en la forma, función y calidad del cuerpo de los adultos mayores y de mediana edad, y proporcionará una base científica para el papel de la danza física en la aptitud nacional. Métodos: Este estudio reclutó a 20 miembros sanos de mediana edad y ancianos de un club deportivo sin experiencia profesional en danza durante tres meses de entrenamiento. Las dos primeras semanas eran experimentos previos cinco veces por semana. Cada tiempo de ejercicio fue de 60 minutos. Las últimas diez semanas eran experimentos formales, dos veces por semana, 90 minutos cada vez, sin otros ejercicios físicos en la vida cotidiana. Al comparar la forma del cuerpo, la función física y el índice de aptitud física antes y después del experimento, se evalúa el impacto de la danza deportiva en la aptitud física saludable de los adultos mayores y de mediana edad. Resultados: Después de tres meses de ejercicio físico de baile con diferentes estilos de baile, en los hombres, el índice de IMC, el porcentaje de grasa corporal, la circunferencia de la cintura, la circunferencia de la cadera y la circunferencia del muslo disminuyeron, pero no hubo diferencia significativa. En las mujeres, el índice de IMC, el porcentaje de grasa corporal (P <0.01), la circunferencia de la cintura (P <0.05), la presión arterial diastólica (P <0.01), el cuerpo sentado inclinado hacia adelante (P <0.05) y con un pie y ojos cerrados aumentaron. En las mujeres, aumentaron los índices de fuerza de agarre (P <0.01), de inclinación hacia adelante en posición sentada (P <0.055) y con un pie con los ojos cerrados. Conclusiones: Se sugiere que el ejercicio de danza deportiva aeróbica de intensidad moderada a largo plazo puede mejorar la forma del cuerpo de los adultos mayores y de mediana edad y ayudar a aumentar la aptitud física; mientras tanto, la danza deportiva puede mejorar eficazmente la función cardiovascular de sujetos de mediana edad y ancianos. Nivel de evidencia II;Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esportes/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Constituição Corporal/fisiologia , Dança/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13611, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431165

RESUMO

Covariance components were estimated for growth traits (BW, birth weight; WW, weaning weight; YW, yearling weight), visual scores (BQ, breed quality; CS, conformation; MS, muscling; NS, navel; PS, finishing precocity), hip height (HH), and carcass traits (BF, backfat thickness; LMA, longissimus muscle area) measured at yearling. Genetic gains were obtained and validation models on direct and maternal effects for BW and WW were fitted. Genetic correlations of growth traits with CS, PS, MS, and HH ranged from 0.20 ± 0.01 to 0.94 ± 0.01 and were positive and low with NS (0.11 ± 0.01 to 0.20 ± 0.01) and favorable with BQ (0.14 ± 0.02 to 0.37 ± 0.02). Null to moderate genetic correlations were obtained between growth and carcass traits. Genetic gains were positive and significant, except for BW. An increase of 0.76 and 0.72 kg is expected for BW and WW, respectively, per unit increase in estimated breeding value (EBV) for direct effect and an additional 0.74 and 1.43, respectively, kg per unit increase in EBV for the maternal effect. Monitoring genetic gains for HH and NS is relevant to maintain an adequate body size and a navel morphological correction, if necessary. Simultaneous selection for growth, morphological, and carcass traits in line with improve maternal performance is a feasible strategy to increase herd productivity.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Constituição Corporal/genética , Estatura/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Materna/genética , Fenótipo
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069915

RESUMO

Depression is commonly observed in university students, who are a high risk group for developing psychiatric disorders during adulthood. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression and its traditional Chinese medicine body constitutions and psychological determinants among university students in Malaysia. A cross-sectional pilot study was conducted between 9 and 28 September 2020 among 80 university students in Malaysia. Participants completed online survey questionnaires, including the validated Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Constitution in Chinese Medicine Questionnaire (CMCQ), Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS), Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) stress subscale, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), which assess depression, body constitution, dysfunctional attitude, stress, perceived stress, and self-esteem. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine the associated risk factors for depression. The overall prevalence of depression among university students was 33.8%. The multiple regression analysis showed a significant relationship between depression and qi-stagnation constitution (B = 0.089, p = 0.011), balanced constitution (B = -0.077, p = 0.049), and self-esteem (B = -0.325, p = 0.001). Our findings suggest that some traditional Chinese medicine body constitutions and self-esteem are significant risk factors affecting depression among university students. Identifying risk factors of depression is vital to aid in the early detection of depression among university students.


Assuntos
Depressão , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Adulto , Constituição Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Estresse Psicológico , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
4.
J Nurs Res ; 29(4): e160, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevention and treatment of hypertension is valued globally. The World Health Organization advocates combining traditional medicines in the prevention and treatment of diseases. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) assumes that diseases originate from the attenuation of one's body constitution. A few studies have found that hypertension is correlated with TCM body constitution. However, body constitution is also affected by living environment. Therefore, investigating the correlation between deviations in body constitution and essential hypertension in different living environments is necessary to provide the basis for using TCM in combination with conventional Western medicine to prevent and treat hypertension. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the association between TCM body constitution deviation and essential hypertension. METHODS: A case-control study was designed. Participants were selected from the outpatient clinics and neighboring communities of a regional teaching hospital in southern Taiwan. The study included 210 hypertension and 210 nonhypertension cases. Blood pressures were measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer to confirm the presence or absence of hypertension. The TCM Body Constitution Questionnaire, demographic datasheet, and hypertension-related factors questionnaire were used to collect data. RESULTS: A higher proportion of patients with body constitution deviation were found in the hypertension group than the nonhypertension group. The proportions of patients with Yin-Xu, Yang-Xu, and stasis constitution were 44.8%, 32.4%, and 30.6%, respectively, in the hypertension group and 28.6%, 25.2%, and 19.6%, respectively, in the nonhypertension group. After performing univariate analysis, the results showed significant differences between the two groups in terms of average body mass index; emotional traits of anger, worry, and fear; hyperlipidemia; hyperuricemia; Yin-Xu constitution; and stasis constitution. However, the multivariate analysis revealed having a Yin-Xu constitution to be a risk factor of essential hypertension after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, emotional traits, drinking habit, hyperlipidemia, and hyperuricemia. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The results suggest that Yin-Xu and stasis constitutions are respectively associated with essential hypertension. The findings offer a valuable reference to governments and healthcare professionals to prevent the risk of essential hypertension. Screening and healthcare measures for TCM Yin-Xu or stasis constitution may be included in related prevention plans to minimize public exposure to the risk factors of essential hypertension.


Assuntos
Constituição Corporal , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hipertensão Essencial , Humanos , Deficiência da Energia Yin
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 635818, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34055713

RESUMO

Background: From the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) constitution theory perspective, the phlegm-dampness constitution is thought to be closely related to the occurrence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, this viewpoint still lacks rigorous statistical evidence. This study aimed to test the association between the phlegm-dampness constitution and NAFLD. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study. Participants were residents living in Chengdu, China, undergoing health checkups at the health management center of Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine between December 2018 and September 2020. TCM constitution type was diagnosed by DAOSH four examinations instrument, NAFLD was diagnosed according to the liver ultrasonography and medical history. Multivariate logistic regression and propensity score matching (PSM) were used to analyze a total of 1,677 qualified data. Results: 1,037 participants had biased constitution(s), 67.8% of which had mixed constitutions (with at least two constitutions). Among 1,677 participants, the phlegm-dampness constitution was associated with the yang-deficiency, yin-deficiency, dampness-heat, qi-depression, and blood-stasis constitutions. The correlation coefficients were 0.11, 0.32, 0.42, 0.20, 0.14, respectively. Between the phlegm-dampness constitution and NAFLD, the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) was 2.05 (1.57-2.69) in the crude model. After adjusting for age, gender, Body mass index (BMI), other biased constitutions, smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, the OR reduced to 1.51 (1.04-2.18). The associations of seven other biased TCM constitutions and NAFLD were not statistically significant in the fully adjusted model. The PSM analysis showed consistent results with the logistic regression. Conclusions: Among eight biased TCM constitutions, the phlegm-dampness constitution is independently associated with NAFLD. We speculate the phlegm-dampness constitution is a risk factor of NAFLD. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this causal relationship in the future. In addition, inconsistent with some TCM practitioners' experience, we disagree that the blood-stasis constitution is associated with NAFLD.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Constituição Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7277, 2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790366

RESUMO

Effective management of exploited populations is based on an understanding of population dynamics and evolutionary processes. In spatially structured populations, dispersal is a central process that ultimately can affect population growth and viability. It can be influenced by environmental conditions, individual phenotypes, and stochastic factors. However, we have a limited knowledge of the relative contribution of these components and its interactions, and which traits can be used as reliable predictors of the dispersal ability. Here, we conducted a longitudinal field experiment aimed to identify traits which can be used as proxy for dispersal in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). We measured body size and standard metabolic rates, and estimated body shapes for 212 hatchery-reared juvenile fish that were marked with individual codes and released in a small coastal stream in northwest Spain. We registered fish positions and distances to the releasing point after 19, 41, 60 and 158 days in the stream. We detected a high autocorrelation of dispersal distances, demonstrating that most individuals settle down relatively soon and then hold stable positions over the study period. Body size and fish shape were reliable predictors of dispersal, with bigger and more robust-set individuals being more likely to settle closer to the release site than smaller and more elongated fish. In addition, the analysis of spacing and spatial patterns indicated that the dispersal of introduced fish could affect the distribution of resident conspecifics. All together, these results suggest that stocking programs aimed to the enhancement of overexploited populations at fine spatial scales can be optimized by adjusting the size and shape of the introduced fish to specific management targets and environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Variação Biológica da População , Constituição Corporal , Truta/genética , Animais , Ecótipo , Feminino , Genes Dominantes , Masculino , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Truta/fisiologia
7.
Exp Gerontol ; 149: 111316, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) defined constitution as a health statue or physical fitness that determines individual susceptibility to diseases. Yin deficiency constitution (YinDC) is a type of constitution closely related to aging. Previous studies found that the characteristic genes of YinDC are part of the inflammatory aging signaling pathways (e.g., NF-kappa B). Therefore, the aim of the study was to further reveal the dysregulation of genes associated with inflammatory aging in YinDC women. METHODS: This study adopted the industrial standard of constitutional judgment, and screened YinDC (n = 30) and Balanced constitution (BC) (n = 30) from women between the ages of 35 to 49, a range categorized as the degenerating period by TCM. Five genes CCL4, BCL2A1, NFKBIA, TAK1, and IL-8 were analyzed by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: Logistical regression revealed the correlation between body constitution and the expression of the five genes: the expression of NFKBIA and CCL4 mRNA was significantly up-regulated, whereas the expression of BCL2A1 mRNA was significantly down-regulated in YinDC (P < 0.05). Age or weight, when included in the model, did not affected the correlations. CONCLUSION: Increased mRNA expression of CCL4 and NFKBIA and decreased mRNA expression of BCL2A1 may be the molecular basis of premature aging of YinDC women. These results provide a mechanistic basis for early conditioning of YinDC, anti-aging, and the prevention of aging-related diseases.


Assuntos
Senilidade Prematura , Deficiência da Energia Yin , Constituição Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/genética , Transdução de Sinais
8.
N Z Med J ; 134(1531): 76-90, 2021 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767489

RESUMO

AIMS: The incidence of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing in children. Early identification of pre-diabetes is an important first step in preventing the progression to T2DM. The aim was to investigate the association of selected factors with pre-diabetes in children. METHODS: This data were from a subset of the 685 children recruited for the Children's Bone Study, a cross-sectional study of children aged 8-11 years in Auckland, New Zealand. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured from a finger-prick blood test. Children were classified as normoglycaemic (HbA1c≤39mmol/mol) and pre-diabetic (HbA1c>39mmol/mol). Anthropometry included weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and percentage body fat (%BF) measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Information about age, gender, ethnicity and physical activity was collected by questionnaires. RESULTS: HbA1c was measured in 451 children (10.4±0.6years, 45% male). Pre-diabetes was present in 71 (16%) children and was greatest in South Asian (n=13, 30%), Pacific Island (n=29, 27%) and Maori (n=10, 18%) children, compared with European children (n=10, 6.0%) (P< 0.001). South Asian and Pacific Island ethnicity, high WC, high %BF and low physical activity were associated with pre-diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Factors associated with pre-diabetes in children were ethnicity, anthropometric measures and physical-activity levels. The prevalence of pre-diabetes in children of South Asian and Pacific Island ethnicities suggests the need for appropriate and timely identification and intervention to halt the progression to T2DM.


Assuntos
Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Constituição Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Prevalência
9.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(4): e1591-e1602, 2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417714

RESUMO

CONTEXT: No studies have examined the association between body habitus and incidence of pituitary adenoma. OBJECTIVE: To determine if body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body somatotype, or height are associated with risk of pituitary adenoma. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of 3 prospective cohort studies. SETTING: Population-based study. PARTICIPANTS: Participants of the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII), and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS), totaling 284 946 American health professionals. EXPOSURES: BMI, waist circumference, body somatotype, and height. OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported incident pituitary adenoma. Multivariable (MV)-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of pituitary adenoma were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During 7 350 156 person-years of follow-up, 387 incident pituitary adenomas were reported. Comparing BMI of ≥30 to <25 kg/m2, higher adult BMI was associated with higher risk of pituitary adenoma (MV HR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.33-2.28), as was higher maximum adult BMI (MV HR = 1.76; 95% CI, 1.34-2.30), higher waist circumference (MV HR = 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.09 per inch), and higher BMI during early adulthood (at age 18 to 21, MV HR = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.56-4.49). Taller adult height was associated with pituitary adenoma (MV HR = 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.09 per inch). Overall findings were similar in women and men, although power was limited in men (n = 62 cases). Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the association between adult BMI and pituitary adenoma extended to at least 14 years prior to diagnosis and that the results were not affected when analyses were restricted to participants with similar healthcare utilization. CONCLUSION: Higher BMI and waist circumference, from early adulthood to the time of diagnosis, were associated with higher risk of pituitary adenoma.


Assuntos
Adenoma/epidemiologia , Constituição Corporal , Longevidade , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/epidemiologia , Adenoma/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(2): e24265, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466213

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), except for the balanced constitution, other constitutions are unbalanced and may lead to susceptibility to certain diseases. This study made the first efforts to explore the relationship between TCM constitutions and the dry eye condition.This cross-sectional study collected information from 2760 subjects aged 30 to 70 years who had participated in a questionnaire survey conducted by Taiwan Biobank (TWB) in 2012 to 2017. The questionnaire included questions on basic demographic characteristics, chronic diseases, depression, blood lipid levels, lifestyles, and drug allergies, as well as a TCM constitution scale developed by a research team of TCM constitution and syndrome at China Medical University College of Chinese Medicine.Unadjusted and stratified multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the relationships between TCM constitutions and dry eye. The analysis revealed that subjects falling into the constitution category of Yang deficiency, Yin deficiency, or Phlegm stasis were more likely to develop dry eyes (crude odds ratio [OR] = 1.741, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.361-2.227; crude OR = 2.4821, 95% CI = 1.968-3.131; and crude OR = 2.082, 95% CI = 1.597-2.714, respectively). After adjusting for important risk factors (demographic characteristics, chronic diseases, blood lipid levels, lifestyles, depression, and drug allergies), subjects with an unbalanced constitution were 1.6 to 2.5 times more likely to develop dry eye than those with a balanced constitution.These results confirm a high correlation of TCM constitution with dry eye. Considering that the current treatment outcome is not fully satisfactory to the patients with dry eyes, integration of TCM and Western medicine may be an alternative treatment option. Individualized treatments and lifestyle recommended should be provided to patients with different TCM constitutions to alleviate dry eye symptoms.


Assuntos
Constituição Corporal , Síndromes do Olho Seco/etiologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Deficiência da Energia Yang/complicações , Deficiência da Energia Yin/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan/epidemiologia
11.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467102

RESUMO

Since 1955, international adoption has been a way of finding homes for children who have been orphaned or abandoned. We aimed to describe the nutritional status of individuals adopted internationally and their long-term nutritional and health outcomes. We searched four databases for articles published from January 1995 to June 2020, which included information on anthropometric or micronutrient status of children adopted internationally (CAI). Mean Z-scores on arrival to adoptive country ranged from -2.04 to -0.31 for weight for age; -0.94 to 0.39 for weight for height; -0.7 to 0 for body mass index; -1.89 to -0.03 for height for age; -1.43 to 0.80 for head circumference for age. Older children, those adopted from institutionalized care or with underlying disability, were more likely to be malnourished. Though long-term data was scarce, mean Z-scores post-adoption ranged from -0.59 to 0.53 for weight for age; -0.31 to 1.04 for weight for height; 0.39 to 1.04 for body mass index; -1.09 to 0.58 for height for age; -0.06 to 1.23 for head circumference for age. We conclude that though CAI are at high risk of malnutrition at baseline, marked catch-up growth is possible, including for those older than two years of age on arrival. This has implications not only for CAI but for the wider population of malnourished children worldwide. Research on how to optimize catch-up growth is a priority.


Assuntos
Adoção , Constituição Corporal , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Criança Adotada , Internacionalidade , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 223: 91-99, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129810

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We sought to assess the effects of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) on peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (p-RNFL) thickness in children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Children 6-8 years of age were consecutively recruited from the population-based Hong Kong Children Eye Study. All participants received comprehensive ophthalmic examinations and p-RNFL thickness was measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. SHS data were derived from a validated questionnaire. Associations between p-RNFL thickness and SHS exposure status, number of smokers in the family, and quantity of smoking in the family were determined by multivariate linear regression after adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Among the Hong Kong Children Eye Study cohort (n = 3,103), approximately one-third of children were exposed to SHS (35.4%, n = 1,097). Compared to those without exposure to SHS, children exposed to SHS had similar age (P = .83), gender (P = .17), body mass index (P = .44), birth weight (P = .23), and axial length (P = .34), but had lower family income (P < .001) and lower parental education level (P < .001). After adjusting for all the above factors, exposure to SHS was associated with a thinner global p-RNFL by 4.4 µm (P < .001). Reduced p-RNFL was also associated with increased numbers of smokers in the family (ß = -3.40, P < .001) and increased quantity of SHS (ß = -0.22, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to SHS in children was associated with a thinner p-RNFL. A thinner p-RNFL may increase the risk of irreversible visual impairment in the future. Our results provide evidence to recommend that children avoid exposure to SHS.


Assuntos
Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Disco Óptico/patologia , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/etiologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , /etnologia , Constituição Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Disco Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/diagnóstico , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/etnologia , Exame Físico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
13.
J Fish Biol ; 98(2): 566-571, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111319

RESUMO

Following a lack of detected change in white shark Carcharodon carcharias L. 1758 diet and nutritional condition attributed to the interaction with the cage-diving industry, Lusseau and Derous (Tourism Management, 2019, 75, 547-549) cautioned the use of muscle lipids and fatty acids in this context, advocating for other biomarkers. This study provides additional evidence from peer-reviewed literature to contend the usefulness of elasmobranch muscle fatty acid profiles to detail diet and habitat use. It also presents findings from a controlled experiment on captive Port Jackson sharks Heterodontus portusjacksoni (Meyer 1793) whereby long-term (daily for 33 days) 3 min exhaustive chase exercise changed muscle lipid class profiles, supporting its use to infer nutritional condition after activities such as interactions with wildlife tourism operators. Conversely, the unaltered muscle fatty acid and lipid content suggests their use in trophic ecology is not confounded by activities such as interacting with tourism operators, remaining useful biomarkers to investigate diet and habitat use.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Lipídeos/análise , Músculo Esquelético/química , Tubarões/fisiologia , Animais , Constituição Corporal/fisiologia , Ecossistema
14.
Clin Nutr ; 40(3): 690-701, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The year 2019 marked the centenary of the publication of the Harris and Benedict equations for estimation of energy expenditure. In October 2019 a Scientific Symposium was organized by the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) in Vienna, Austria, to celebrate this historical landmark, looking at what is currently known about the estimation and measurement of energy expenditure. METHODS: Current evidence was discussed during the symposium, including the scientific basis and clinical knowledge, and is summarized here to assist with the estimation and measurement of energy requirements that later translate into energy prescription. RESULTS: In most clinical settings, the majority of predictive equations have low to moderate performance, with the best generally reaching an accuracy of no more than 70%, and often lead to large errors in estimating the true needs of patients. Generally speaking, the addition of body composition measurements did not add to the accuracy of predictive equations. Indirect calorimetry is the most reliable method to measure energy expenditure and guide energy prescription, but carries inherent limitations, greatly restricting its use in real life clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: While the limitations of predictive equations are clear, their use is still the mainstay in clinical practice. It is imperative to recognize specific patient populations for whom a specific equation should be preferred. When available, the use of indirect calorimetry is advised in a variety of clinical settings, aiming to avoid under-as well as overfeeding.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Política Nutricional , Necessidades Nutricionais , Idoso , Metabolismo Basal , Constituição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Calorimetria Indireta , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Consumo de Oxigênio , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(1): 550-560, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189290

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to identify potential quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 27 production, fitness, and conformation traits of Guernsey cattle through genome-wide association (GWA) analyses, with extra emphasis on BTA19, where major QTL were observed for several traits. Animals' de-regressed predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) from the December 2018 traditional US evaluation were used as phenotypes. All of the Guernsey cattle included in the QTL analyses were predictor animals in the reference population, ranging from 1,077 to 1,685 animals for different traits. Single-trait GWA analyses were carried out by a mixed-model approach for all 27 traits using imputed high-density genotypes. A major QTL was detected on BTA19, influencing several milk production traits, conformation traits, and livability of Guernsey cattle, and the most significant SNP lie in the region of 26.2 to 28.3 Mb. The myosin heavy chain 10 (MYH10) gene residing within this region was found to be highly associated with milk production and body conformation traits of dairy cattle. After the initial GWA analyses, which suggested that many significant SNP are in linkage with one another, conditional analyses were used for fine mapping. The top significant SNP on BTA19 were fixed as covariables in the model, one at a time, until no more significant SNP were detected on BTA19. After this fine-mapping approach was applied, only 1 significant SNP was detected on BTA19 for most traits, but multiple, independent significant SNP were found for protein yield, dairy form, and stature. In addition, the haplotype that hosts the major QTL on BTA19 was traced to a US Guernsey born in 1954. The haplotype is common in the breed, indicating a long-term influence of this QTL on the US Guernsey population.


Assuntos
Constituição Corporal/genética , Bovinos/genética , Leite , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Animais , Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Fenótipo
16.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 42: 101288, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: and purpose: Depression is a common mental disorder and reduces quality of life. As traditional Chinese medicine constitution (TCMC) has become an increasingly popular complementary and alternative approach for early detection and treatment of disease, this study investigated the relationship of female-related factors and constitution with depression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1423 women from the Taiwan Biobank. A questionnaire of 44 items was used covering a variety of factors and the Body Constitution Questionnaire. The constitution types were divided into Yang-deficiency, Yin-deficiency, and Phlegm stasis. RESULTS: Yang (p = 0.022) or Yin (p = 0.017) deficiencies, being single (p = 0.027-0.033), previous use of women's health supplements (p = 0.005-0.008), and smoking (p = 0.033-0.036) were associated with a higher risk of depression. CONCLUSION: Integration of TCMC with Western medicine may be an alternative option towards depression prevention and alleviation.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Constituição Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 2266-2279, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246612

RESUMO

Managing body condition in dairy cows during the close-up period could alter the availability of nutrients to the fetus during the final growth stages in utero. We investigated how maternal body condition score (BCS) in late pregnancy affected calf whole-blood mRNA abundance and IL-1ß concentrations after ex vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Thirty-eight multiparous Holstein cows and their calves from a larger cohort were retrospectively grouped by prepartal BCS as normal BCS (≤3.25; n = 22; NormBCS) and high BCS (≥3.75; n = 16; HighBCS). Calf blood samples collected at birth (before receiving colostrum, d 0) and at ages 21 and 42 d (at weaning) were used for ex vivo whole-blood challenge with 3 µg/mL of LPS before mRNA isolation. Target genes evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR were associated with immune response, antioxidant function, and 1-carbon metabolism. Plasma IL-1ß concentrations were also measured. Responses in plasma IL-1ß and mRNA abundance were compared between LPS-challenged and nonchallenged samples. Statistical analyses were performed at all time points using a MIXED model in SAS 9.4. Neither birth body weight (NormBCS = 43.8 ± 1.01 kg; HighBCS = 43.9 ± 1.2 kg) nor colostrum IgG concentration (NormBCS = 70 ± 5.4 mg/mL; HighBCS = 62 ± 6.5 mg/mL) differed between groups. At birth, whole blood from calves born to HighBCS cows had greater mRNA abundance of IL1B, NFKB1, and GSR and lower GPX1 and CBS abundance after LPS challenge. The longitudinal analysis of d 0, 21, and 42 data revealed a BCS × age effect for SOD2 and NOS2 due to lower mRNA abundance at 42 d in the HighBCS calves. Regardless of maternal BCS, mRNA abundance decreased over time for genes encoding cytokines (IL1B, IL6, IL10, TNF), cytokine receptors (IRAK1, CXCR1), toll-like receptor pathway (TLR4, NFKB1), adhesion and migration (CADM1, ICAM1, ITGAM), and antimicrobial function (MPO). Concentration of IL-1ß after LPS challenge was also markedly lower at 21 d regardless of maternal BCS. Overall, results suggested that maternal BCS in late prepartum influences the calf immune system response to an inflammation challenge after birth. Although few genes among those studied were altered due to maternal BCS, the fact that genes related to oxidative stress and 1-carbon metabolism responded to LPS challenge in HighBCS calves underscores the potential role of methyl donors (e.g., methionine, choline, and folic acid) in the early-life innate immune response.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Bovinos/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Inflamação/veterinária , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/imunologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Constituição Corporal , Colina/metabolismo , Feminino , Inflamação/imunologia , Metionina/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Complement Ther Med ; 56: 102607, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220452

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Suboptimal health status (SHS) is a dynamic state wherein people have not been diagnosed with a disease but tend to develop diseases. People with SHS often experience fatigue and other nonspecific symptoms, which are related to a deviated body constitution in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, the correlation between TCM constitution and SHS has not been adequately investigated. Furthermore, no study has explored the radial pulse analysis-an assistive objective indicator of TCM constitution-in healthy people and people with SHS. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTINGS/LOCATION: Center for Traditional Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan. SUBJECTS: Sixty-six adults (27 healthy participants and 39 participants with SHS) who were aged 20-39 years. OUTCOME MEASURES: The body constitution questionnaire (BCQ) scores, suboptimal health status questionnaire-25 (SHSQ-25) scores, and radial pulse waves detected using sphygmography were recorded. Pulse wave analyses are presented as the ratio of frequency below 10 Hz to that above 10 Hz (SER10), which represent energy changes in organ blood flow. RESULTS: Participants with SHS had significantly higher Yang-Xu, Yin-Xu, and stasis scores of BCQ compared with healthy participants. The SHSQ-25 scores of the participants with SHS were moderately correlated with their Yang-Xu, Yin-Xu, and stasis scores (r = 0.65, 0.66, and 0.72, respectively; all p < 0.001), but weak correlations were discovered for healthy participants. The participants with SHS had significantly higher SER10 at the left guan (the "liver" system in TCM) than did the healthy participants. CONCLUSIONS: SHS is moderately correlated with TCM-based constitution and those with SHS had increased SER10 at the leftguan of the radial pulse.


Assuntos
Constituição Corporal/fisiologia , Nível de Saúde , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pulso Arterial/métodos , Artéria Radial/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Psicol. soc. (Online) ; 33: e219735, 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1155193

RESUMO

Resumo O artigo analisa os sentidos que a ideia de controle do corpo e da vida adquire nos discursos acerca da decisão sobre o parto, a partir das falas de mulheres que realizaram cirurgia cesariana em maternidades privadas da região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro e do município de São Paulo. A abordagem teórico-metodológica é da análise das práticas discursivas e produção de sentidos. Dor, integridade corporal, controle dos riscos, estética do parto e os tempos (social e reprodutivo) são acionados como elementos contidos no ideário de controle que circunda a cesárea como uma prática de nascimento. Esse controle seria exercido em redes de interações entre mulheres, familiares, profissionais, objetos tecnológicos médicos e não médicos e instituições.


Resumen El artículo analiza los sentidos que la idea de control del cuerpo y de la vida adquiere en los discursos acerca de la decisión sobre el parto a partir de las palabras de mujeres que realizaron cirugía cesárea en maternidades privadas de la región metropolitana de Río de Janeiro y del municipio de São Paulo. El enfoque teórico-metodológico es del análisis de las prácticas discursivas y la producción de sentidos. El dolor, integridad corporal, control de los riesgos, estética del parto y los tiempos (social y reproductivo) son accionados como elementos contenidos em el ideario de control que circunda la cesárea como una práctica de nacimiento. Este control se ejerceren redes de interacción entre mujeres, familiares, profesionales, objetos tecnológicos médicos y no médicos, e instituciones.


Abstract This paper analyses the way that the idea of control of body and life gets in the discourse about the decision on childbirth from the speech of women who underwent cesarean surgery in private hospitals in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. The theoretical-methodological approach is the analysis of discursive practices and the production of meanings. Pain, body integrity, risk control, birth aesthetics and times (social and reproductive) are triggered as elements contained in the control idea that surrounds cesarean delivery as a birth practice.This control would be exercised in interaction networks among women, family, professional, medical and non-medical technological objects, and institutions.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Hospitais Privados , Corpo Humano , Parto , Dor do Parto/psicologia , Controle , Constituição Corporal , Comportamento de Escolha , Decisões
20.
J Healthc Eng ; 2020: 8834465, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274038

RESUMO

Background: Body constitution (BC) is the abstract concept indicating the state of a person's health in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The doctor identifies the body constitution of the patient through inspection and inquiry. Previous research simulates doctors to identify BC types according to a patient's objective physical indicators. However, the lack of subjective feeling information can reduce the accuracy of the machine to imitate the doctor's diagnosis. The Constitution in Chinese Medicine Questionnaire (CCMQ) is used to collect subjective information but suffers from low acquisition efficiency. Methods: This paper presents a personalized body constitution inquiry method based on a machine learning technique. It employs a random generator, a feature extractor, and a classifier to simulate the doctor inquiry and generate a personalized questionnaire. Specifically, the feature extractor evaluates and sorts the question of the constitution in the CCMQ based on the recognition results of the tongue coating image of patients. The sorted questions and relevant BC label are inputted into the classifier; the best questions are screened out for patients. Results: The experimental results show that our method can select personalized questions from the CCMQ for the patients, significantly reducing the time and the number of questions to answer. It also improves the accuracy of recognizing BC. Compared with the CCMQ, patients had 68.3% fewer questions to answer and the time occupied by answering is reduced by 80.3%. Conclusions: The proposed method can simulate the doctor's inquiry and pick out personalized questions for patients. It can act as auxiliary diagnosis tools to collect subjective patient feelings and help make further judgments on the patient's BC types.


Assuntos
Constituição Corporal , Médicos , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Inquéritos e Questionários
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