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1.
Nutrition ; 114: 112131, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37467529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Body Composition Monitor (BCM) (Fresenius Medical Care) measures body impedances in alternating currents to subsequently calculate fat and lean tissue mass, fluid compartments, and overhydration (OH). The aim of this study was to investigate differences between two versions of the BCM (an older version, 3.2.5, and a newer version, 3.3.3). METHODS: Between September 2021 and December 2021, 28 hemodialysis patients were included to undergo BCM measurements before each of 14 consecutive dialysis sessions with versions 3.2.5 and 3.3.3 devices. Measurements were performed according to instructions provided by the manufacturer. Differences between BCM devices were tested for statistical significance using paired Wilcoxon tests, neglecting clustering. RESULTS: A total of 288 measurement pairs of 27 patients were left after exclusion of 43 flawed data points. The mean difference in OH between both BCM devices was 0.548 L (higher for version 3.2.5). Analysis of impedance data revealed differences in the high-frequency spectrum, quantifiable by the intracellular resistance, Ri (median Ri version 3.2.5 = 1750.3 Ω; Ri version 3.3.3 = 1612.45 Ω; P < 0.001), and the time delay, Td (median Td version 3.2.5 = 1.85 ns; Td version 3.3.3 = 8.88 nanoseconds; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study finds that results between the two versions of the BCM differed in a clinically meaningful fashion and that the newer version 3.3.3 device had a bias toward less OH. Circulating BCM devices should be checked for versions and only devices of the same version should be used for each patient to ensure better within-patient consistency.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Diálise Renal , Humanos , Impedância Elétrica , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais
2.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678300

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of creatine (Cr) loading on body mass (BM) and fluid markers of total body water (TBW), extra-cellular fluid (ECF), and intra-cellular fluid (ICF) across the menstrual cycle (MC). Thirty moderately active females, either naturally-menstruating (NM) or using hormonal contraceptives (HC), were randomized to Cr (Cr; 4 × 5 g/day of creatine monohydrate for 5 days; n = 15) or a non-caloric placebo (PL; n = 15) using a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, with a menstrual phase crossover. BM, TBW, ECF, and ICF were measured at pre- and post-supplementation in randomized order of follicular phase (FP; NM: MC days 0−8, HC: inactive pill days) or luteal phase (LP; NM: ≤15 days from next projected cycle start date, HC: active pill days) using bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy. Acute hydration status and salivary estrogen were used as covariates. Change in BM was not different between groups across MC ([PL-Cr] Δ 0.40 ± 0.50 kg; p = 0.427) or between MC phase across groups ([FP-LP] Δ 0.31 ± 0.48 kg; p = 0.528). TBW (p = 0.802), ECF (p = 0.373), and ICF (p = 0.795) were not different between supplement groups at pre-supplementation/FP time points. There were no significant differences between the NM and HC subjects at any time point, for any outcome (p > 0.05). Following LP supplementation, significant changes were observed in TBW (Cr: Δ 0.83 ± 0.38 L, PL: Δ −0.62 ± 0.38 L; p = 0.021), ECF (Cr: Δ 0.46 ± 0.15 L, PL: Δ −0.19 ± 0.15 L; p = 0.013), and ICF (Cr: Δ 0.74 ± 0.23 L, PL: Δ −0.02 ± 0.23 L; p = 0.041). These data demonstrate an increase in all fluid compartments in the LP following Cr loading, without observed alterations in body weight for females.


Assuntos
Creatina , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Peso Corporal , Líquido Extracelular , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais , Método Duplo-Cego
3.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 274, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inadequate refilling from extravascular compartments during hemodialysis can lead to intradialytic symptoms, such as hypotension, nausea, vomiting, and cramping/myalgia. Relative blood volume (RBV) plays an important role in adapting the ultrafiltration rate which in turn has a positive effect on intradialytic symptoms. It has been clinically challenging to identify changes RBV in real time to proactively intervene and reduce potential negative consequences of volume depletion. Leveraging advanced technologies to process large volumes of dialysis and machine data in real time and developing prediction models using machine learning (ML) is critical in identifying these signals. METHOD: We conducted a proof-of-concept analysis to retrospectively assess near real-time dialysis treatment data from in-center patients in six clinics using Optical Sensing Device (OSD), during December 2018 to August 2019. The goal of this analysis was to use real-time OSD data to predict if a patient's relative blood volume (RBV) decreases at a rate of at least - 6.5 % per hour within the next 15 min during a dialysis treatment, based on 10-second windows of data in the previous 15 min. A dashboard application was constructed to demonstrate how reporting structures may be developed to alert clinicians in real time of at-risk cases. Data was derived from three sources: (1) OSDs, (2) hemodialysis machines, and (3) patient electronic health records. RESULTS: Treatment data from 616 in-center dialysis patients in the six clinics was curated into a big data store and fed into a Machine Learning (ML) model developed and deployed within the cloud. The threshold for classifying observations as positive or negative was set at 0.08. Precision for the model at this threshold was 0.33 and recall was 0.94. The area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) for the ML model was 0.89 using test data. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from our proof-of concept analysis demonstrate the design of a cloud-based framework that can be used for making real-time predictions of events during dialysis treatments. Making real-time predictions has the potential to assist clinicians at the point of care during hemodialysis.


Assuntos
Volume Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais , Hipotensão , Falência Renal Crônica , Aprendizado de Máquina , Cãibra Muscular , Diálise Renal , Vômito , Computação em Nuvem , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Hipotensão/etiologia , Hipotensão/prevenção & controle , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cãibra Muscular/diagnóstico , Cãibra Muscular/etiologia , Cãibra Muscular/prevenção & controle , Prognóstico , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Diálise Renal/métodos , Vômito/diagnóstico , Vômito/etiologia , Vômito/prevenção & controle
4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444975

RESUMO

This review evaluated the effects of milk-based protein supplementation on resistance training (RT)-induced gains in lean body mass or fat free mass (LBM/FFM) and muscle strength for older adults. A systematic search of PubMed, Scopus and EBSCOhost/SPORTDiscus was conducted. Eligibility criteria: Randomized controlled trials comparing all types of milk-based protein supplements with control supplements for the training older adults at mean age ≥ 60 y. Twenty studies were included in the qualitative synthesis, whilst seventeen studies were included in the quantitative synthesis. A dose of 10-15 g of milk protein supplementation was sufficient to augment RT-induced LBM/FFM. Intriguingly, four out of five studies show negative effect of whey protein supplementation at the same dose range (or even higher) compared with control supplementation (-0.49 kg, 95% CI: -0.69, -0.29, I2 = 14%, Z = 4.82, p < 0.001). For milk-based protein supplementation, RT-induced improvements in muscle strength were observed only when the protein doses ≥22 g (+0.66 kg, 95% CI: 0.07, 1.25, I2 = 0%, Z = 2.18, p = 0.03). Conclusion: Milk protein is superior to whey protein in enhancing RT-induced LBM/FFM gains for older adults. Optimal daily protein intake can dilute the protein supplementation effect.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Proteínas do Leite/farmacologia , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Treinamento Resistido , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/farmacologia
5.
Nutr Res ; 92: 129-138, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304058

RESUMO

Diagnosing malnutrition by the recently published Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria requires using modern techniques for body composition measurements. We hypothesized that the prevalence of malnutrition identified by usual nutritional scores and according to GLIM criteria may be close to each other due to the number of components shared between them. Our aim was to compare the concurrent validity of four nutritional scores, malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS), objective score of nutrition on dialysis, geriatric nutritional index (GNRI), and nutritional risk index against the GLIM criteria for malnutrition in maintenance hemodialysis patients. This prospective observational study was performed on 318 maintenance hemodialysis outpatients (37% women) with a mean age of 68.7 ± 13.1 years and a median dialysis vintage of 21 months. According to the GLIM criteria, 45.9% of these patients were diagnosed with malnutrition. Nutritional scores, dietary intake and body composition parameters were measured. All nutritional scores showed a strong association with malnutrition in multivariable logistic regression models. In discriminating the nutritional risk, the ROC AUC was largest for GNRI (0.70, 95% CI: 0.65-0.75; P< .001). Nutritional risk index and MIS showed high specificity but lower sensitivity compared to GNRI and objective score of nutrition on dialysis. Compared to MIS, GNRI had better concurrent validity (higher sensitivity and acceptable specificity) but was inferior to MIS in terms of relation to certain etiologic and phenotypic components of the GLIM criteria (specifically, to dietary intake and decrease in dry weight). In summary, of the nutritional scores tested, GNRI is the most sensitive score in identifying malnutrition diagnosed by GLIM criteria, but MIS is more specific and better in predicting the individual components of the GLIM criteria.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Diálise Renal , Tecido Adiposo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Composição Corporal , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Dieta , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Inflamação , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Liderança , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
Adv Skin Wound Care ; 34(5): 268-272, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fasciotomy with resection of nonviable muscle is often necessary when there is a delay in compartment syndrome (CS) diagnosis after revascularization. The reported rate of major amputation following missed CS or delayed fasciotomy ranges from 12% to 35%. Herein, the authors present a series of critically ill patients who experienced delayed CS diagnosis and required complete resection of the anterior and/or lateral compartments but still achieved limb salvage and function. METHODS: A retrospective chart review identified five patients from April 2018 to April 2019 within a single institution who met the inclusion criteria. Patient charts were reviewed for demographic data, risk factors, time to diagnosis following revascularization, muscle compartments resected, operative and wound care details, and functional outcome at follow-up. RESULTS: All of the patients developed CS of the lower extremity following revascularization secondary to acute limb ischemia and required two-incision, four-compartment fasciotomies. Further, they all required serial operative debridements to achieve limb salvage; however, there were no major amputations, and all of the patients were walking at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Delay in CS diagnosis can have devastating consequences, resulting in major amputation. In cases where myonecrosis is isolated to two or fewer compartments, complete compartment muscle resection can be safely performed, and limb preservation and function can be maintained with aggressive wound management and physical therapy.


Assuntos
Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais , Salvamento de Membro/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Síndromes Compartimentais/prevenção & controle , Síndromes Compartimentais/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Salvamento de Membro/normas , Salvamento de Membro/estatística & dados numéricos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos de Cirurgia Plástica/métodos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Trop Med Int Health ; 26(4): 428-434, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405245

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Better understanding of glucose metabolism in patients with HIV after initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important to target treatment and follow-up for diabetes risk and other non-communicable diseases in resource-limited settings. The aim of this study was to assess the changes and predictors of glucose metabolism and blood pressure among patients with HIV on ART for 12 months. METHODS: One-year follow-up of Ethiopian patients with HIV after initiation of ART was done. Outcomes were changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and 30-minute (30mPG) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) after oral glucose tolerance test, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma insulin (p-insulin), homeostatic model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and blood pressure.   RESULTS: The mean age was 33 years, and the majority were women. During the first 12 months, levels of all plasma glucose parameters decreased, while p-insulin (10B 3.1; 95% CI2.4, 4.0), HOMA-IR (10B 3.1; 95% CI2.3, 4.0) and systolic blood pressure (B 4.0; 95% CI2.5, 5.5) increased. Fat-free mass at baseline predicted higher increments in p-insulin, HOMA-IR and blood pressure; whereas, fat mass predicted higher increment in HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS: Among Ethiopian patients with HIV, blood pressure and insulin increased, and all glucose parameters declined during 12-month of ART. Only longer-term follow-up will tell us whether insulin increase is due to insulin resistance or from recovering ß-cells.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/sangue , Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Tecido Adiposo , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Etiópia , Jejum , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hemoglobinas Glicadas/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina , Longevidade , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 320(1): R44-R54, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085913

RESUMO

The measurement of fluid compartmentalization, or the distribution of fluid volume between extracellular (ECF) and intracellular (ICF) spaces, historically requires complicated, burdensome, and often terminal methodologies that do not permit repeated or longitudinal experiments. New technologies including time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR)-based methods allow for highly accurate measurements of total body water (TBW) within minutes in a noninvasive manner, but do not permit dissection of ECF versus ICF reservoirs. In contrast, methods such as bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) allow dissection of ECF versus ICF reservoirs but are hampered by dependence on many nuanced details in data collection that undermine confidence in experimental results. Here, we present a novel combinatorial use of these two technologies (NMR/BIS) to improve the accuracy of BIS-based assessments of ECF and ICF, while maintaining the advantages of these minimally invasive methods. Briefly, mice undergo TD-NMR and BIS-based measures, and then fat masses as derived by TD-NMR are used to correct BIS outputs. Mice of the C57BL/6J background were studied using NMR/BIS methods to assess the effects of acute furosemide injection and diet-induced obesity on fluid compartmentalization, and to examine the influence of sex, body mass and composition, and diet on TBW, ECF, and ICF. We discovered that in mice, sex and body size/composition have substantial and interactive effects on fluid compartmentalization. We propose that the combinatorial use of NMR/BIS methods will enable a revisioning of the types of longitudinal, kinetic studies that can be performed to understand the impact of various interventions on body fluid homeostasis.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Deslocamentos de Líquidos Corporais , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Adiposidade , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais
9.
Can Vet J ; 61(11): 1181-1185, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149356

RESUMO

High pulmonary blood pressure contributes to exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. The objective of this study was to use bioimpedance spectroscopy to assess body fluid compartment volumes under 3 conditions in 6 racehorses: i) Pre- and post-supramaximal treadmill exercise (control); ii) Exercise 4 hours after furosemide (0.5 mg/kg body weight, IV); iii) Exercise, removal of ~14 L of blood and subsequent reinfusion of the blood. Statistical analysis used linear mixed effects models. Body compartment volumes did not change during the control runs. Total body water (TBW) (P = 0.007, P = 0.007), extracellular fluid (ECF) (P = 0.003, P = 0.003), and intracellular fluid (ICF) volumes (P = 0.04, P = 0.04) decreased pre- and post-exercise following furosemide administration. The ICF trended to decrease (P = 0.07) after slow removal of blood. Blood reinfusion increased TBW (P = 0.02, P = 0.02) and ICF (P = 0.005, P = 0.005) pre- and post-exercise.


Effets de l'exercice, du furosémide, de la diminution sanguine et de la ré-infusion sur les volumes des liquides corporels compartimentés chez les chevaux. Une pression sanguine pulmonaire élevée contribue à des hémorragies pulmonaires induites par l'exercice. L'objectif de la présente étude était d'utiliser la spectroscopie à bio-impédance pour évaluer les volumes des liquides corporels compartimentés sous trois conditions chez six chevaux de course : i) Pré- et post-supramaximal exercice au tapis roulant (témoin); ii) Exercice 4 h après administration de furosémide (0,5 mg/kg de poids corporel, IV); iii) Exercice, retrait d'environ 14 L de sang et ré-infusion subséquente du sang. Les analyses statistiques utilisaient des modèles linéaires à effets mixtes. Les volumes des compartiments corporels n'ont pas changé durant les essais témoins. Les volumes de la quantité totale d'eau corporelle (TBW) (P = 0,007, P = 0,007), de liquide extracellulaire (ECF) (P = 0,003, P = 0,003) et liquide intracellulaire (ICF) (P = 0,04, P = 0,04) ont diminué pré- et post-exercice à la suite de l'administration de furosémide. L'ICF avait tendance à diminuer (P = 0,07) à la suite du lent retrait de sang. La ré-infusion de sang augmenta la TBW (P = 0,02, P = 0,02) et l'ICF (P = 0,005, P = 0,005) pré- et post-exercice.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Furosemida , Doenças dos Cavalos , Animais , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais , Furosemida/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/terapia , Cavalos
10.
J Nutr ; 150(Suppl 1): 2538S-2547S, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000166

RESUMO

The central position of methionine (Met) in protein metabolism indicates the importance of this essential amino acid for growth and maintenance of lean body mass. Therefore, Met might be a tempting candidate for supplementation. However, because Met is also the precursor of homocysteine (Hcy), a deficient intake of B vitamins or excessive intake of Met may result in hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This review discusses the evidence generated in preclinical and clinical studies on the importance and potentially harmful effects of Met supplementation and elaborates on potential clinical applications of supplemental Met with reference to clinical studies performed over the past 20 y. Recently acquired knowledge about the NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) of 46.3 mg · kg-1 · d-1 and the LOAEL (lowest observed adverse effect level) of 91 mg · kg-1 · d-1 of supplemented Met will guide the design of future studies to further establish the role of Met as a potential (safe) candidate for nutritional supplementation in clinical applications.


Assuntos
Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Homocisteína/metabolismo , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/etiologia , Metionina , Deficiência de Vitaminas do Complexo B/complicações , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/metabolismo , Masculino , Metionina/efeitos adversos , Metionina/metabolismo , Metionina/farmacologia , Metionina/uso terapêutico , Proteínas/metabolismo , Complexo Vitamínico B/sangue , Deficiência de Vitaminas do Complexo B/sangue
11.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 319(5): G573-G583, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877220

RESUMO

Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) includes persistent systemic inflammation (SIRS) and multiorgan failure (MOF). The mechanism of transition from SIRS to MOF is unclear. We developed a fluid compartment model and used clinical data to test predictions. The model includes vascular, interstitial and "third-space" compartments with variable permeability of plasma proteins at the capillaries. Consented patients from University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Presbyterian Hospital were studied. Preadmission and daily hematocrit (HCT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatine (Cr), albumin (Alb), and total protein (TP) were collected, and nonalbumin plasma protein (NAPP = TP minus the Alb) was calculated. Subjects served as their own controls for trajectory analysis. Of 57 SAP subjects, 18 developed MOF (5 died), and 39 were non-MOF (0 died). Compared with preadmission levels, admission HCT increased in MOF +5.00 [25%-75% interquartile range, IQR] versus non-MOF -0.10 [-1.55, 1.40] (P < 0.002) with HCT > +3 distinguishing MOF from non-MOF (odds ratio 17.7, P = 0.014). Preadmission Alb fell faster in MOF than non-MOF (P < 0.01). By day 2, TP and NAPP dropped in MOF but not non-MOF (P < 0.001). BUN and Cr levels increased in MOF (P = 0.001), but BUN-to-Cr ratios remained constant. Pancreatic necrosis was more common in MOF (56%) than non-MOF (23%). Changing capillary permeability to allow loss of NAPP in this model predicts loss of plasma oncotic pressure and reduced vascular volume, hypotension with prerenal azotemia and acute kidney dysfunction, pancreas necrosis, and pulmonary edema from capillary leak in the lung with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Sequential biomarker analysis in humans with or without MOF is consistent with this model. This study is registered on https://clinicaltrials.gov at NCT03075605.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Acute pancreatitis is a sudden inflammatory response to pancreatic injury that may spread to systemic inflammation, multiorgan failure, and death in some patients. With the use of the predictions of a new mechanistic model, we compared patients with severe acute pancreatitis with or without multiorgan failure. All biomarkers of capillary leak and clinical features of multiorgan failure were accurately predicted. This provides a new paradigm for understanding and developing new treatments for patients with severe acute pancreatitis.


Assuntos
Permeabilidade Capilar , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/fisiopatologia , Pancreatite/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/fisiopatologia , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais , Síndrome de Vazamento Capilar/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Hematócrito , Humanos , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Hipovolemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Necrose , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo
12.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785021

RESUMO

Old age is associated with lower physical activity levels, suboptimal protein intake, and desensitization to anabolic stimuli, predisposing for age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia). Although resistance exercise (RE) and protein supplementation partially protect against sarcopenia under controlled conditions, the efficacy of home-based, unsupervised RE (HBRE) and multi-ingredient supplementation (MIS) is largely unknown. In this randomized, placebo-controlled and double-blind trial, we examined the effects of HBRE/MIS on muscle mass, strength, and function in free-living, older men. Thirty-two sedentary men underwent twelve weeks of home-based resistance band training (3 d/week), in combination with daily intake of a novel five-nutrient supplement ('Muscle5'; M5, n = 16, 77.4 ± 2.8 y) containing whey, micellar casein, creatine, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids, or an isocaloric/isonitrogenous placebo (PLA; n = 16, 74.4 ± 1.3 y), containing collagen and sunflower oil. Appendicular and total lean mass (ASM; +3%, TLM; +2%), lean mass to fat ratios (ASM/% body fat; +6%, TLM/% body fat; +5%), maximal strength (grip; +8%, leg press; +17%), and function (5-Times Sit-to-Stand time; -9%) were significantly improved in the M5 group following HBRE/MIS therapy (pre vs. post tests; p < 0.05). Fast-twitch muscle fiber cross-sectional areas of the quadriceps muscle were also significantly increased in the M5 group post intervention (Type IIa; +30.9%, Type IIx, +28.5%, p < 0.05). Sub-group analysis indicated even greater gains in total lean mass in sarcopenic individuals following HBRE/MIS therapy (TLM; +1.65 kg/+3.4%, p < 0.05). We conclude that the Muscle5 supplement is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective complement to low-intensity, home-based resistance exercise and improves lean mass, strength, and overall muscle quality in old age.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento Resistido , Sarcopenia/terapia , Idoso , Anabolizantes/uso terapêutico , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais , Caseínas/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Creatina/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Exercício Físico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Fibras Musculares de Contração Rápida , Proteínas Musculares , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Quadríceps , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Autocuidado , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/uso terapêutico
13.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 66(3): 219-223, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612083

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to identify the factors associated with nutrition in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Overall, 409 patients with RA who underwent the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), bone mineral density determination, and body composition assessment by bioelectrical impedance analysis were enrolled. The analysis of factors associated with malnutrition was performed by comparing groups categorized by MNA score (≥24, 17-23.5, and <17). Moreover, correlation analysis for MNA score and variables was performed. The factors associated with malnutrition were the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) (p=0.005; odds ratio, 1.98), fat-free mass index (FFMI) (p=0.002; odds ratio, 0.59), and fat mass index (FMI) (p=0.022; odds ratio, 0.75). Statistical correlations of the MNA score with the following variables were observed: HAQ-DI (correlation coefficient [R], -0.261; p<0.001), FFMI (R, 0.371; p<0.001), and FMI (R, 0.272; p<0.001). This study identified nutrition-associated factors in Japanese patients with RA. The nutrition-associated factors were HAQ-DI, FFMI, and FMI. Therefore, physicians should evaluate nutrition of patients with RA.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Composição Corporal , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais , Desnutrição/complicações , Estado Nutricional , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albuminas/metabolismo , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Caquexia , Pessoas com Deficiência , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Razão de Chances , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Nutr Rev ; 78(12): 1001-1014, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483626

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Military personnel are subjected to physiologically stressful environments during combat and its associated training. Evidence suggests that fish oil-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (FO n-3 PUFAs) may affect military personnel's performance by promoting or preserving lean body mass, strength, and power, while enhancing recovery from training-associated muscle damage. OBJECTIVE: Following PRISMA guidelines, this systematic review assessed the evidence for FO n-3 PUFA supplementation across various military-relevant outcomes related to physical performance in healthy adult populations. DATA SOURCES: The PubMed, Embase, and the CINAHL databases were searched along with references lists of selected articles and reviews. DATA EXTRACTION: Eighteen trials were assessed for bias, and descriptive data were extracted. DATA ANALYSIS: Of the 18 studies included, 12 trials favored FO n-3 PUFA supplementation in ≥ 1 of the performance outcomes. CONCLUSION: Overall, FO n-3 PUFA supplementation likely preserves strength and very likely enhances recovery from physiological stress in young, healthy adults. However, FO n-3 PUFAs' role in promoting or preserving lean body mass or promoting strength is unclear and warrants additional investigation. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration no. CRD42020152786.


Assuntos
Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Estresse Fisiológico , Adulto , Anabolizantes/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Militares , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Adulto Jovem
16.
Physiol Rep ; 8(2): e14360, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994353

RESUMO

Most of the filtered glucose is reabsorbed in the early proximal tubule by the sodium-glucose cotransporter SGLT2. The glycosuric effect of the SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin is linked to a diuretic and natriuretic effect that activates compensatory increases in fluid and food intake to stabilize body fluid volume (BFV). However, the compensatory mechanisms that are activated on the level of renal tubules remain unclear. Type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were treated with vehicle or 0.01% (in diet) ipragliflozin with free access to fluid and food. After 8 weeks, GK rats were placed in metabolic cages for 24-hr. Ipragliflozin decreased body weight, serum glucose and systolic blood pressure, and increased fluid and food intake, urinary glucose and Na+ excretion, urine volume, and renal osmolar clearance, as well as urine vasopressin and solute-free water reabsorption (TcH2O). BFV, measured by bioimpedance spectroscopy, and fluid balance were similar among the two groups. Urine vasopressin in ipragliflozin-treated rats was negatively and positively associated with fluid balance and TcH2O, respectively. Ipragliflozin increased the renal membrane protein expression of SGLT2, aquaporin (AQP) 2 phosphorylated at Ser269 and vasopressin V2 receptor. The expression of SGLT1, GLUT2, AQP1, and AQP2 was similar between the groups. In conclusion, the SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin induced a sustained glucosuria, diuresis, and natriuresis, with compensatory increases in fluid intake and vasopressin-induced TcH2O in proportion to the reduced fluid balance to maintain BFV. These results indicate that the osmotic diuresis induced by SGLT2 inhibition stimulates compensatory fluid intake and renal water reabsorption to maintain BFV.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Diurese/fisiologia , Osmose/fisiologia , Reabsorção Renal/fisiologia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia , Vasopressinas/urina , Água/metabolismo , Animais , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/efeitos dos fármacos , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Líquidos Corporais/efeitos dos fármacos , Diurese/efeitos dos fármacos , Diuréticos Osmóticos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Osmose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Reabsorção Renal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiofenos/farmacologia
17.
Disabil Health J ; 13(1): 100828, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few researchers have examined the effects of surf programs on children with disabilities. Due to previous research findings, surfing is being used, as the focus of physical activity intervention due to its numerous health and therapeutic benefits. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of an eight-week surfing intervention on various physical fitness measures in 71 children with disabilities such as autism spectrum disorder, down syndrome, global developmental delays, and cerebral palsy. The study also sought to compare the differences in overall fitness levels between the surf therapy group and an unstructured pool playgroup. Researchers predicted significant differences in the surf therapy group. METHODS: The assessment procedure consisted of pre and post physical fitness measures selected from the Brockport Physical Fitness Test in two groups: surfing (n = 71) and an unstructured aquatic program (n = 20). RESULTS: The results demonstrated significant improvements in core strength (p = 0.00), upper body strength (p = 0.00), flexibility (p = 0.01) and cardiorespiratory endurance (p = 0.00) in the surfing group. However, there were no significant differences in overall fitness levels between the surfing and unstructured pool playgroups. Body composition measurements on the surfing group demonstrated a significant reduction in total body fat % (p = 0.016) and fat free mass (p = 0.008) and a significant improvement in bone mineral density (p = 0.004) pre to post surf therapy. CONCLUSIONS: This research demonstrated the effectiveness and physiological benefits of surf therapy for children with selected disabilities.


Assuntos
Crianças com Deficiência , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Aptidão Física , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Composição Corporal , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Densidade Óssea , Paralisia Cerebral/terapia , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/terapia , Síndrome de Down/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Resistência Física , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Jogos e Brinquedos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Esportes/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Água
18.
Clin Nutr ; 39(8): 2624-2630, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alterations in body hydration can have an impact on muscle performance, with consequences not only at a sporting level, but on overall health and daily functional competence. Given that the estimation of body water from BIA is based on prediction equations involving assumptions on tissue hydration and body geometry, it is unclear if phase angle (PhA), which is not influenced by assumptions, is a better marker of muscle performance than the BIA estimated parameters of body water. Therefore, the aims of this investigation were to analyze the relationships of BIA-estimated body water compartments with muscle performance among youth, adults, and older adults, and to assess the added value of PhA as a marker of muscle performance. METHODS: BIA assessments were completed on 263 youth (ages 6-17), 249 adults (ages 18-64), and 75 older adults (ages 65+). Muscle performance was assessed by jumping mechanography (power and force) and handgrip strength. Partial correlations were used to compare the degree of association among the BIA measures with muscle performance for each age group, controlling for sex, age, and body weight. RESULTS: TBW, ICW, and PhA were associated with muscle performance at the lower and upper limbs in all age groups (p < 0.05), with the exception of PhA with handgrip strength in adults and older adults and TBW with lower limb total force in the older adults. In youth, the highest associations observed were PhA with lower limb muscle power (r = 0.45, CI:0.35-0.54, p < 0.05) and with handgrip strength (r = 0.42, CI:0.32-0.52, p < 0.05). In adults and older adults, the major associations observed were those of ICW with lower limb muscle power (adults, r = 0.53, CI:0.43-0.61, p < 0.05; older adults, r = 0.52, CI = 0.33-0.67, p < 0.05). ECW had significantly lower associations (p < 0.05) with both lower limb force and power in adults and older adults compared to youth. In the older adults, ECW was negatively associated with lower limb total force (r = -0.24; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: BIA derived hydration parameters may be useful markers of muscle performance in all age groups. In particular, the ICW compartment was a better predictor of muscle performance in adults and older adults compared to youth. In youth, PhA had stronger associations with muscle performance than those of ICW. Thus, phase angle appears to be a useful marker of muscle performance, particularly in youth.


Assuntos
Água Corporal/citologia , Impedância Elétrica , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo/fisiologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais , Criança , Feminino , Força da Mão , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Pletismografia de Impedância , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMJ Open ; 9(12): e028518, 2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796472

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Portal hypertension (PH) is a severe disease with a poor outcome. Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG), the current gold standard to detect PH, is available only in few hospitals due to its invasiveness and technical difficulty. This study aimed to establish and assess a novel model to calculate HVPG based on biofluid mechanics. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a prospective, randomised, non-controlled, multicentre trial. A total of 248 patients will be recruited in this study, and each patient will undergo CT, blood tests, Doppler ultrasound and HVPG measurement. The study consists of two independent and consecutive cohorts: original cohort (124 patients) and validation cohort (124 patients). The researchers will establish and improve the HVPG using biofluid mechanics (HVPGBFM)model in the original cohort and assess the model in the validation cohort. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the Scientific Research Projects Approval Determination of Independent Ethics Committee of Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (approval number 2017-430 T326). Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03470389.


Assuntos
Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Hipertensão Portal/diagnóstico , Veia Porta/diagnóstico por imagem , Pressão Venosa/fisiologia , Pesquisa Biomédica , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/diagnóstico por imagem , Testes de Função Hepática/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia Doppler
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