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2.
Growth Horm IGF Res ; 63: 101457, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35334425

RESUMO

This is the story of a giant who lived in Abruzzo 200 years ago. He became a symbol for his people and a strong resilience generator. Gigantism, in the history of humanity has always attracted attention, albeit passing over the centuries from myth, from divinity to the freak phenomenon, the freak of nature that becomes a spectacle to show off. The attraction for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying gigantism developed by the end of 19th century. Increased levels of growth hormone (GH) or insulin-like growth hormone 1 (IGF1) causes overgrowth in pituitary gigantism. The imposing size of the body, in our imagination, represents strength and health, reason why in our imagination it almost becomes a divine mythical image. The story of the Acciano's Giant represents a cultural heritage that passes from one generation to the next, that contributes in giving a sense of identity and continuity. It provides a link from past to present and to the future. Encourages a sense of identity and responsibility contributing to social cohesion, helping individuals to feel members of one community. A disease, represented by the Giant, has become a symbol capable of bringing the community together and giving it the strength to react to environment, nature and history. This is a lesson that teaches us the sense of community.


Assuntos
Gigantismo , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Hormônio do Crescimento , Humanos , Masculino
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 97, 2022 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35277171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sheep (Ovis aries) have been largely used as animal models in a multitude of specialties in biomedical research. The similarity to human brain anatomy in terms of brain size, skull features, and gyrification index, gives to ovine as a large animal model a better translational value than small animal models in neuroscience. Despite this evidence and the availability of advanced imaging techniques, morphometric brain studies are lacking. We herein present the morphometric ovine brain indexes and anatomical measures developed by two observers in a double-blinded study and validated via an intra- and inter-observer analysis. RESULTS: For this retrospective study, T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans were performed at 1.5 T on 15 sheep, under general anaesthesia. The animals were female Ovis aries, in the age of 18-24 months. Two observers assessed the scans, twice time each. The statistical analysis of intra-observer and inter-observer agreement was obtained via the Bland-Altman plot and Spearman rank correlation test. The results are as follows (mean ± Standard deviation): Indexes: Bifrontal 0,338 ± 0,032 cm; Bicaudate 0,080 ± 0,012 cm; Evans' 0,218 ± 0,035 cm; Ventricular 0,241 ± 0,039 cm; Huckman 1693 ± 0,174 cm; Cella Media 0,096 ± 0,037 cm; Third ventricle ratio 0,040 ± 0,007 cm. Anatomical measures: Fourth ventricle length 0,295 ± 0,073 cm; Fourth ventricle width 0,344 ± 0,074 cm; Left lateral ventricle 4175 ± 0,275 cm; Right lateral ventricle 4182 ± 0,269 cm; Frontal horn length 1795 ± 0,303 cm; Interventricular foramen left 1794 ± 0,301 cm; Interventricular foramen right 1,78 ± 0,317 cm. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides baseline values of linear indexes of the ventricles in the ovine models. The acquisition of these data contributes to filling the knowledge void on important anatomical and morphological features of the sheep brain.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Animais , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/veterinária , Feminino , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ovinos
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5259, 2022 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347174

RESUMO

The sphenoid has a complicated shape, and its morphogenesis during early development remains unknown. We aimed to elucidate the detailed morphogenesis of the sphenoid and to visualize it three-dimensionally using histological section (HS) and phase-contrast X-ray CT (PCX-CT). We examined 54 specimens using HS and 57 specimens using PCX-CT, and summarized the initial morphogenesis of the sphenoid during Carnegie stage (CS) 17 to 23. The 3D models reconstructed using PCX-CT demonstrated that some neural foramina have the common process of "neuro-advanced" formation and revealed that shape change in the anterior sphenoid lasts longer than that of the posterior sphenoid, implying that the anterior sphenoid may have plasticity to produce morphological variations in the human face. Moreover, we measured the cranial base angle (CBA) in an accurate midsagittal section acquired using PCX-CT and found that the CBA against CS was largest at CS21. Meanwhile, CBA against body length showed no striking peak, suggesting that the angulation during the embryonic period may be related to any developmental events along the progress of stages rather than to a simple body enlargement. Our study elucidated the normal growth of the embryonic sphenoid, which has implications for the development and evolution of the human cranium.


Assuntos
Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Base do Crânio , Cabeça , Humanos , Morfogênese , Radiografia
6.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265255, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35271672

RESUMO

Traditional body measurement techniques are commonly used to assess physical health; however, these approaches do not fully represent the complex shape of the human body. Three-dimensional (3D) imaging systems capture rich point cloud data that provides a representation of the surface of 3D objects and have been shown to be a potential anthropometric tool for use within health applications. Previous studies utilising 3D imaging have only assessed body shape based on combinations and relative proportions of traditional body measures, such as lengths, widths and girths. Geometric morphometrics (GM) is an established framework used for the statistical analysis of biological shape variation. These methods quantify biological shape variation after the effects of non-shape variation-location, rotation and scale-have been mathematically held constant, otherwise known as the Procrustes paradigm. The aim of this study was to determine whether shape measures, identified using geometric morphometrics, can provide additional information about the complexity of human morphology and underlying mass distribution compared to traditional body measures. Scale-invariant features of torso shape were extracted from 3D imaging data of 9,209 participants form the LIFE-Adult study. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were created to determine the extent to which variations in human torso shape are explained by existing techniques. The results of this investigation suggest that linear combinations of body measures can explain 49.92% and 47.46% of the total variation in male and female body shape features, respectively. However, there are also significant amounts of variation in human morphology which cannot be identified by current methods. These results indicate that Geometric morphometric methods can identify measures of human body shape which provide complementary information about the human body. The aim of future studies will be to investigate the utility of these measures in clinical epidemiology and the assessment of health risk.


Assuntos
Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Tronco , Adulto , Antropometria , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Matemática
7.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 5600804, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35126628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphedema is a common complication of breast cancer treatment, affecting 1/5 of breast cancer survivors, but there is no reliable way to detect subclinical lymphedema. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and reliability of using an oversleeve as a postoperative limb volume measurement tool in breast cancer patients. METHODS: Fifty patients were analyzed based on inclusion criteria. A body volume measurement kit was designed based on the drainage volume method and the circumference measurement method. Twenty-two normal healthy people were measured by the drainage volume (LV) and oversleeve measuring limb volume (OMLV) methods, so as to verify the accuracy of OMLV. Twenty-eight patients with lymphedema diagnosed by the circumdiameter measurement (CDM) method were measured with OMLV for comparison. The difference in measurements between OMLV and CDM was compared in 50 patients with early lymphedema diagnosed by the LV method. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the sleeve method and the drainage volume method in the normal population (P = 0.74). All patients with lymphedema diagnosed by CDM met the diagnostic criteria by the OMLV method. In patients with early lymphedema diagnosed by LV, the diagnostic rate with OMLV was significantly higher than that with CDM (P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Similar to LV in the diagnosis of lymphedema, OMLV can effectively improve the diagnostic rate of early lymphedema, providing a new option for the diagnosis and treatment of lymphedema.


Assuntos
Pesos e Medidas Corporais/instrumentação , Linfedema Relacionado a Câncer de Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Extremidade Superior/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/estatística & dados numéricos , Linfedema Relacionado a Câncer de Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Valores de Referência , Têxteis
8.
Chemosphere ; 295: 133947, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35151700

RESUMO

Morphological characteristics are the leading indicators of the health status of birds. To explore the effects of heavy metals on bird morphometry in natural populations, tree sparrows (Passer montanus) were studied in a polluted site [Baiyin (BY)] and a relatively unpolluted site [Liujiaxia (LJX)]. This study aimed to examine whether morphological variables, the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of the wing, tarsus, and toe length, were associated with heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd) and Ca levels in different tissues and feces of adults and nestlings. Results showed that adults collected from BY contained relatively higher heavy metal concentrations and lower Ca concentrations in different tissues than those from LJX. Smaller body sizes and higher FA levels of adults and nestlings were found in BY than in LJX. Although higher heavy metal concentrations in some tissues were associated with smaller morphological characteristics of adults, the effects were not obvious in nestlings. The most correlated heavy metal with as many characteristics was heavy metal in primary feather in both sites, and the most affected characteristic was body mass in BY. The FA values of adults and nestlings in BY were positively affected by heavy metal concentrations in different tissues and feces. The growth rate of wing and tarsus length of nestlings in BY were negatively affected by the FA values of wing and tarsus length, respectively. Taken together, environmental metal pollution might affect the morphological characteristics of tree sparrows. These findings suggest that the morphological characteristics of tree sparrows, especially FA, can be used as indicators of metal pollution, underscoring the importance of measuring morphological characteristics in avian ecotoxicology field studies.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Pardais , Animais , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Plumas/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade
9.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e257023, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35195173

RESUMO

The present study examines the correlations between fifteen morphometric and ten meristic characters and total length (TL) of males, females, and combined sexes of Alepes vari (Cuvier, 1833) collected from Karachi fish harbor, West Wharf of Karachi Coast. Statistical analyses of linear regression relationships show mostly strong correlations (r≥0.70; p<0.05) between total length (TL) and most morphometric characters in males, females, and combined sexes, except the height of pectoral-fin (PFH), and pelvic-fin base length (PelFL); whereas, meristic characters were found to be constant and indicate weak or negative type correlations (r≤0.50; p>0.05) with total length (TL). Hence, according to our present results, there is a direct relationship between the total length of fish and all morphometric characters, which were found to be the best indicators of positive allometric pattern growth in fish. Moreover, analysis of the 2-sample t-test revealed (t-test; p>0.05) that no sexual dimorphism was reported in Alepes vari. Thus, our present study could be valuable in systematic classification, sexual dimorphism, and management of this species on the Karachi coast.


Assuntos
Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Peixes , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2551, 2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35169240

RESUMO

Shorter people are at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but data remain limited. This study sought to determine whether height loss is associated with an increased incidence of CVD. From the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Senior database (2002-2015), data of 134,952 individuals with available information on height loss was obtained. Height loss as percentages was measured 3-5 years from the baseline height. To assess hazard ratios for CVD incidence, multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were used before and after applying propensity score matching. The unmatched cohort consisted of 109,546 participants without height loss (< 1%): 20,208 participants with 1-2% height loss, and 5126 participants with ≥ 2% height loss. During a median follow-up period of 6.5 years (interquartile range, 3.7-8.5 years), 21,921 were newly diagnosed with CVD. Adults with height loss of > 2% had a greater risk of incident CVD than those with no height loss. This finding was statistically significant both in the original- and propensity score-matched cohorts. The increased risk for ischemic stroke was significant in the male subgroups, in line with degree of height loss. Overall, height loss is associated with an increased risk of subsequent ischemic stroke in Korean men.


Assuntos
Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
11.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(2): e24246, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35037318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between elevated serum uric acid (SUA) levels and hypertension, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease has been established. In this study, the relation of SUA levels to anthropometric indices, blood cell count and lipid profile was examined. METHODS: Anthropometric parameters including body-mass index, waist circumference, waist to height ratio, waist to hip ratio, waist to pelvic ratio, neck circumference (NC), body fat mass (BFM), basal metabolic rate (BMR), visceral fat level (VFL) and percent body fat (PBF), along with complete blood cell count, lipid profile and SUA were obtained from 2921 young and middle-aged Iranian healthy subjects. To assess the normality of data, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used. Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-square and Spearman correlation tests were used for evaluating the association between variables. Simple and multiple regression analyses were also performed. RESULTS: The results of data analysis showed all studied factors were correlated with SUA level except VFL, BFM, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio. The highest correlation was with NC, BMR, hematocrits (HCT) and triglycerides (TG). The backward method revealed that TG, LDL, HDL, neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet, HCT, BMR and skinfold fat thickness were factors related to SUA. CONCLUSIONS: According to the finding of this study, SUA level is related to anthropometric indices, lipid profile and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in healthy population. SUA measurement might be advisable to identify those at increased risk of health problems whom might benefit from further evaluation.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Plaquetas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Lipídeos/sangue , Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos , Projetos Piloto
12.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 28: 10760296211069998, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35073208

RESUMO

AIM: There is no model for predicting the outcomes for coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). To develop and validate a model to predict major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in patients with comorbid CKD and CHD undergoing PCI. METHODS: We enrolled 1714 consecutive CKD patients who underwent PCI from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2017. In the development cohort, we used least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression for data dimension reduction and feature selection. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to develop the prediction model. Finally, we used an independent cohort to validate the model. The performance of the prediction model was evaluated with respect to discrimination, calibration, and clinical usefulness. RESULTS: The predictors included a positive family history of CHD, history of revascularization, ST segment changes, anemia, hyponatremia, transradial intervention, the number of diseased vessels, dose of contrast media >200 ml, and coronary collateral circulation. In the validation cohort, the model showed good discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.612; 95% confidence interval: 0.560, 0.664) and good calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, P = 0.444). Decision curve analysis demonstrated that the model was clinically useful. CONCLUSIONS: We created a nomogram that predicts MACEs after PCI in CHD patients with CKD and may help improve the screening and treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/cirurgia , Nomogramas , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Revascularização Miocárdica/estatística & dados numéricos , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
13.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 78(3): 393-403, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35059757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional research was undertaken to determine the serum levels of asprosin, a novel white adipose tissue-derived glucogenic adipokine, in epileptic patients on valproic acid treatment. METHODS: Sixty-six patients diagnosed with idiopathic tonic-clonic generalized epilepsy were divided into three groups: those treated with valproic acid (n = 22), those treated with lamotrigine (n = 22), and twenty-two newly diagnosed or untreated patients. A control group was twenty-two, healthy volunteers with a similar distribution of gender and age. Body mass index (BMI) and fasting serum levels of asprosin, glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin, and lipid profile were measured for both patients and control groups. Additionally, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was also calculated for the investigated groups. RESULTS: The mean BMI values and fasting serum levels of glucose, HbA1c, insulin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride were much higher in subjects treated with valproic acid than those in the other study groups. Furthermore, a higher number of participants in the valproic acid group fulfilled the insulin resistance criterion (defined as HOMA-IR > 2.5) compared with those in other study groups. The mean fasting serum asprosin concentration was also significantly higher in the valproic acid group than in other study groups. This was while the values of the study parameters were comparable in the healthy, un-treated, and lamotrigine groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding suggested that elevated asprosin level might be one of the pathological mechanisms involved in the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic disturbances related to valproic acid treatment.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Epilepsia Tônico-Clônica/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilina-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Lamotrigina/farmacologia , Ácido Valproico/farmacologia , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Lamotrigina/uso terapêutico , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico
14.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 149(2): 248e-253e, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35077422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left clefts occur twice as frequently as right ones. The sidedness has been suggested to influence certain outcomes. Some surgeons consider a right cleft more challenging to repair. This is often attributed to their reduced prevalence. The authors question whether this may be caused by morphologic differences. The authors' hypothesis is that there are anthropometric differences between left and right complete cleft lips. METHODS: Patients with complete unilateral cleft lip, with or without cleft palate, operated on at the age of 3 to 6 months, between 2000 and 2018, by a single surgeon, were included. Eight standardized anthropometric measurements of the cleft lip, collected just before cleft lip repair, compare lip and vermillion dimensions and ratios between left and right clefts. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-nine left and 80 right unilateral cleft lips were compared. A significant difference was found between left and right clefts for cleft-side to non-cleft-side ratios comparing the lateral lip element vertical heights and vermillion heights. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with right cleft lips have a greater degree of lateral lip element hypoplasia, demonstrating greater deficiencies of lateral lip element vertical height and vermillion height when compared to patients with left clefts. This has clinical implications for preoperative assessment, choice of surgical technique, and postoperative and long-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/patologia , Fissura Palatina/patologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0249803, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35100275

RESUMO

Participation in women's rugby league has been growing since the foundation of the English women's rugby league Super League in 2017. However, the evidence base to inform women's rugby league remains sparse. This study provides the largest quantification of anthropometric and physical qualities of women's rugby league players to date, identifying differences between positions (forwards & backs) and playing level (Women's Super League [WSL] vs. International). The height, weight, body composition, lower body strength, jump height, speed and aerobic capacity of 207 players were quantified during the pre-season period. Linear mixed models and effects sizes were used to determine differences between positions and levels. Forwards were significantly (p < 0.05) heavier (forwards: 82.5 ± 14.8kg; backs: 67.7 ± 9.2kg) and have a greater body fat % (forwards: 37.7 ± 6.9%; backs: 30.4 ± 6.3%) than backs. Backs had significantly greater lower body power measured via jump height (forwards: 23.5 ± 4.4cm; backs: 27.6 ± 4.9cm), speed over 10m (forwards: 2.12 ± 0.14s; backs: 1.98 ± 0.11s), 20m (forwards: 3.71 ± 0.27s; backs: 3.46 ± 0.20s), 30m (forwards: 5.29 ± 0.41s; backs: 4.90 ± 0.33s), 40m (forwards: 6.91 ± 0.61s; backs: 6.33 ± 0.46s) and aerobic capacity (forwards: 453.4 ± 258.8m; backs: 665.0 ± 298.2m) than forwards. Additionally, international players were found to have greater anthropometric and physical qualities in comparison to their WSL counterparts. This study adds to the limited evidence base surrounding the anthropometric and physical qualities of elite women's rugby league players. Comparative values for anthropometric and physical qualities are provided which practitioners may use to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of players, informing training programs to prepare players for the demands of women's rugby league.


Assuntos
Pesos e Medidas Corporais/estatística & dados numéricos , Aptidão Física , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Força Muscular , Corrida , Adulto Jovem
17.
Gene ; 819: 146220, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35093446

RESUMO

The SMAD1 and SMAD5 genes belong to mothers against decapentaplegic proteins family, which participate in the BMP pathway to control skeletal myogenesis and growth. In the present study, we analyzed the associations between polymorphisms of SMAD1 and SMAD5 genes promoter and important economical traits in Qinchuan cattle. Four SNPs in the SMAD1 gene promoter and three SNPs in the SMAD5 promoter were identified by sequencing of 448 Qinchuan cattles. Allelic and frequency analyses of these SNPs resulted in eight haplotypes both in the promoters of the two genes promoter and identified potential cis-regulatory transcription factor (TF) components. In addition, correlation analysis showed that cattle SMAD1 promoter activity of individuals with Hap4 (P < 0.01) was stronger than that of individuals with Hap2. while the transcriptional activity of individuals with Hap3 within SMAD5 gene promoter was significantly (P < 0.01) higher followed by H2. Uniformly, diplotypes H4-H6 of SMAD1 gene and H1-H3 of SMAD5 gene performed significant (P < 0.01) associations with body measurement and improved carcass quality traits. All these results have indicated that polymorphisms in SMAD1 and SMAD5 genes promoter could impact the transcriptional regulation and then affect muscle content in beef cattle. Moreover, both the SMAD1 and SMAD5 genes were expressed ubiquitously in 10 tissues and had higher expression in the longissimus thoracis tissue from 6-month-old and 12-month-old cattle than in cattle of other ages. We can conclude that SMAD1 and SMAD5 genes may play an important role in muscle growth and development, and the variants mapped within SMAD1 and SMAD5 genes can be utilized in molecular marker-assisted selection for cattle carcass quality and body measurement traits in breed improvement programs of Qinchuan cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/metabolismo , Estudos de Associação Genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteína Smad1/genética , Proteína Smad5/genética , Alelos , Animais , Tamanho Corporal/genética , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Proteína Smad1/metabolismo , Proteína Smad5/metabolismo
18.
STAR Protoc ; 3(1): 101057, 2022 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35005639

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) is linked to congenital defects including microcephaly. An infection model that can recapitulate most microcephaly-related phenotypes is crucial for understanding ZIKV pathogenesis. Here, we present a protocol to generate ZIKV from an infectious clone through a reverse genetic system and subsequently perform embryonic brain infection with the rescued ZIKV in pregnant mice. We optimized several aspects of the procedures including virus rescue and in utero injection. This protocol facilitates reproducible investigation of virus-induced cortical development defects. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Zeng et al. (2020).


Assuntos
Microcefalia , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Feminino , Camundongos , Microcefalia/etiologia , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Gravidez , Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/congênito
19.
Orthop Surg ; 14(1): 3-9, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783159

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To confirm whether a novel sagittal patellar angle linear equation used for evaluating patellar height by calculating expected sagittal patellar angle (SPA) at any degree of knee flexion angle is suitable for patients older than 17 years and its reliability compared with other commonly used methods. METHODS: From September 2016 to September 2019, a total number of 202 consecutive outpatients' knee lateral X-ray radiographs were retrospectively measured and evaluated using a recently proposed linear equation Y = 1.94 + 0.74 × knee flexion(KF) angle. Patients were divided by ages into ayounger group, whose ages were between 17-49 years, and an older group, whose ages were older than 49 years, which has not been validated in the original study. Parameters such as KF, SPA, patella and patella tendon length and so on were measured on computer with picture archiving and communication system by two independent observers at an interval of 1 month. Insall-Salvati (IS) index, Caton-Deschamps (CD) index and Y value, correlation coefficients were calculated and compared using SPSS 22.0 software. RESULTS: In the younger group, 143 patients (165 knees) were included, ages were 17-49 (31.62 ± 11.38) years, males/females were 70 (48.95%)/73 (51.05%), left knees/right knees were 83 (50.30%)/82 (49.70%), mean value of Y was 31.50° ± 10.07°, and SPA was 34.38° ± 12.38°, mean value of IS was 1.06 ± 0.17, mean value of CD was 1.04 ± 0.18. While in older group, 59 patients (78 knees) were included, ages were 50-60 (mean 54.61 ± 2.99) years, there were 32 males (54.24%) and 27 females (45.76%), 42 knees were left (53.85%) and 36 knees were right (46.15%), mean values of Y and SPA were 25.90° ± 11.55° and 29.36° ± 14.22°, mean IS index in older group was 1.06 ± 0.18, mean CD index was 1.00 ± 0.16. Intra- and inter-observer reliabilities of Y in younger and older groups were 0.999, 0.999, 1.000 and 0.999, meaning high reliability and reproducibility, but low Pearson's correlation coefficients with IS and CD index were showed as -0.213 and - 0.216 in younger group and - 0.113 and - 0.316 in older group. CONCLUSIONS: In patients older than 17 years, the linear equation Y = 1.94 + 0.74 × KF is a reliable and practical method to evaluate SPA regardless of age and knee flexion angle, but has weak correlation coefficients with the IS and CD index.


Assuntos
Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Patela/diagnóstico por imagem , Patela/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
20.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 54(1): 162-168, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431826

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Handgrip strength (HGS) is an important indicator of health. Because HGS is strongly associated with body size, most investigators normalize HGS for some measure of body size as a more sensitive indicator of strength within a population. We aimed to 1) identify the optimal body size dimension to remove (normalize) HGS for differences in body size among adults and 2) generate norm-referenced centiles for HGS using the identified body size dimension. METHODS: Data were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a representative sample of the US noninstitutionalized civilian population. Exclusions resulted in a final sample of 8690 adults 20 yr and older. HGS was measured using handheld dynamometry. Body size dimensions included body mass, height, and waist circumference. The most appropriate dimension(s) associated with HGS is identified using allometry. We fitted centile curves for normalized HGS using the generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape. RESULTS: Findings suggest that neither body mass nor body mass index is appropriate to normalize HGS. Incorporating all three body size dimensions of body mass, height, and waist circumference, or the reduced subsets of body mass and height, or height alone, suggests that the most appropriate normalizing (body size) dimension associated with HGS should be a cross-sectional or surface area measure of an individual's body size (i.e., L2, where L is a linear dimension of body size). Given that height was also identified as the signally best body size dimension associated with HGS, we recommend HGS be normalized by height2 (i.e., HGS/HT2). Centile curves for HGS/HT2 by age group and gender were therefore provided. CONCLUSIONS: Scaling adult HGS by height2 may help normalize strength for population-based research.


Assuntos
Pesos e Medidas Corporais/normas , Força da Mão , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
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