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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255055, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355865

RESUMO

Abstract This study was aimed to investigate Carbofuran (CF)-induced pathological changes in cattle egret. Two hundred cattle egrets were reared and equally divided into four groups and given different CF concentrations (0.03 mg/L, 0.02 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0 mg/L (control group)). Hematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, and immunological markers were studied. Our results confirm that CF induces anemic conditions, leukocytosis, elevated liver enzymatic activity, and alterations in renal biomarkers. Moreover, specific microscopic lesions such as multifocal necrosis, pyknotic nuclei, hemorrhages, congestion, and inflammatory cell proliferation were observed in the liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus. These findings suggest that CF can induce harmful effects, so the application of this pesticide in the field must be strictly monitored to mitigate the possibility of exposure to non-target species.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as alterações patológicas induzidas por carbofurano (CF) em garças-vaqueiras. Duzentas dessas garças foram criadas e divididas igualmente em quatro grupos e receberam diferentes concentrações de CF: 0,03 mg/L; 0,02 mg/L; 0,01 mg/L; e 0 mg/L (grupo controle). Foram realizadas análises de hematologia, bioquímica sérica, histopatologia e marcadores imunológicos. Nossos resultados confirmaram que CF induz condições anêmicas, leucocitose, atividade enzimática hepática elevada e alterações nos biomarcadores renais. Além disso, lesões microscópicas específicas, como necrose multifocal, núcleos picnóticos, hemorragias, congestão e proliferação de células inflamatórias, foram observadas no fígado, rim, baço e timo. Esses achados sugerem que o CF pode causar efeitos nocivos, portanto a aplicação desse agrotóxico no campo deve ser rigorosamente monitorada para mitigar a possibilidade de exposição a espécies não alvo.


Assuntos
Animais , Carbofurano/toxicidade , Aves , Bovinos
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254011, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355886

RESUMO

Abstract Livestock is a fundamental part of the agriculture industry in Pakistan and contributes more than 11.53% to GDP. Among livestock species, the buffaloes are regarded as the black gold of Pakistan. Being the highest milk producers globally, Nili-Ravi buffaloes are the most famous ones. Buffaloes are affected by many endemic diseases, and "Hemorrhagic septicemia" (HS) is one of them. This study was designed to ascertain the effects of experimental exposure ofP. multocida B:2 (oral) and its immunogens, i.e., LPS (oral and intravenous) and OMP (oral and subcutaneous) on reproductive hormonal profiles in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Repeated serum samples were collected from the jugular vein of experimental animals for 21 days (0, 02, 04, 08, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 and 504 hours). Hormonal assays to determine the serum concentrations of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) were performed using (MyBioSource) commercial Elisa kits. The hormonal profile of all treatment groups of the buffalo heifers exhibited significant (P<0.05) variations as compared to the control group (G-1). These results indicate suppression in Nili-Ravi buffaloes' reproductive hormonal profile on exposure to P. multocida B:2 and its immunogens. This influence warrants that exposure to H.S may be a possible reason for delayed puberty and poor reproduction performance in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.


Resumo A pecuária é uma parte fundamental da indústria agrícola no Paquistão e contribui com 11,53% do PIB nacional. Entre as espécies de gado, os búfalos são considerados o ouro negro do Paquistão. Sendo os maiores produtores de leite em todo o mundo, os búfalos Nili-Ravi são os mais famosos. Os búfalos são afetados por muitas doenças endêmicas, entre as quais a "septicemia hemorrágica" (SH). Este estudo busca verificar os efeitos da exposição experimental de P. multocida B:2 (oral) e seus imunógenos, ou seja, LPS (oral e intravenoso) e OMP (oral e subcutâneo), nos perfis hormonais reprodutivos em búfalos Nili-Ravi. Amostras de soro repetidas foram coletadas da veia jugular de animais experimentais por 21 dias (0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 e 504 horas). Os ensaios hormonais para determinar as concentrações séricas do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina (GnRH), hormônio foliculoestimulante (FSH), hormônio luteinizante (LH), estrogênio (E2) e progesterona (P4) foram realizados usando kits comerciais Elisa (MyBioSource). O perfil hormonal de todos os grupos de tratamento das novilhas bubalinas apresentou variações significativas (P < 0,05) em relação ao grupo controle (G-1). Esses resultados indicam supressão no perfil hormonal reprodutivo de búfalos Nili-Ravi na exposição a P. multocida B:2 e seus imunógenos. Essa influência garante que a exposição à SH possa ser uma possível razão para o atraso da puberdade e o baixo desempenho reprodutivo em búfalos Nili-Ravi.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Reprodução , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Búfalos , Progesterona , Bovinos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Pasteurella multocida
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679683

RESUMO

The economic and environmental sustainability of extensive livestock production systems requires the optimisation of soil management, pasture production and animal grazing. Soil compaction is generally viewed as an indicator of soil degradation processes and a determinant factor in crop productivity. In the Montado silvopastoral ecosystem, characteristic of the Iberian Peninsula, animal trampling is mentioned as a variable to consider in soil compaction. This study aims: (i) to assess the spatial variation in the compaction profile of the 0-0.30 m deep soil layer over several years; (ii) to evaluate the effect of animal trampling on soil compaction; and (iii) to demonstrate the utility of combining various technological tools for sensing and mapping indicators of soil characteristics (Cone Index, CI; and apparent electrical conductivity, ECa), of pastures' vegetative vigour (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI) and of cows' grazing zones (Global Positioning Systems, GPS collars). The significant correlation between CI, soil moisture content (SMC) and ECa and between ECa and soil clay content shows the potential of using these expedient tools provided by the development of Precision Agriculture. The compaction resulting from animal trampling was significant outside the tree canopy (OTC) in the four evaluated dates and in the three soil layers considered (0-0.10 m; 0.10-0.20 m; 0.20-0.30 m). However, under the tree canopy (UTC), the effect of animal trampling was significant only in the 0-0.10 m soil layer and in three of the four dates, with a tendency for a greater CI at greater depths (0.10-0.30 m), in zones with a lower animal presence. These results suggest that this could be a dynamic process, with recovery cycles in the face of grazing management, seasonal fluctuations in soil moisture or spatial variation in specific soil characteristics (namely clay contents). The NDVI shows potential for monitoring the effect of livestock trampling during the peak spring production phase, with greater vigour in areas with less animal trampling. These results provide good perspectives for future studies that allow the calibration and validation of these tools to support the decision-making process of the agricultural manager.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , Feminino , Animais , Bovinos , Argila , Agricultura , Gado , Árvores
4.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1414, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36697478

RESUMO

Genetic selection for increased milk yield has been a key driver of dairy intensification. The modern dairy cow produces much higher amounts of milk than the cattle of several years ago, and this may have an influence on hematologic values at different stages of lactation and on cows with different levels of milk production. The purpose of the study was to investigate the variations in blood parameters such as Ht, tHb, sO2, FO2Hb, FCOHb, FMetHb, FHHb, pH, pCO2, pO2, standard HCO3-, actual HCO3-, BE, BE ecf, ctCO2, BO2, p50, and ctO2 in cows at different milk production levels. In addition, ions such as Na+, K+ , Ca++, Ca++ (7.4), and Cl-, and AnGap and glucose were examined. Our findings indicated that differences in the examined blood parameters between low and high-production dairy cattle do exist. The most apparent differences were connected with blood pH (p < 0.01), oxygen metabolism (Ht, tHb, sO2, FO2Hb; p < 0.01), and glucose utilization (p < 0.01) The results confirm that the parameters connected with blood oxygen metabolism and glucose metabolism increase significantly in high-production animals. In conclusion, reference values should be considered in light of the lactation stage and level of milk production, because these might influence how changes should be interpreted. The main limitation of the study is the delay to analysis. However, the blood was properly stored (4C), thus changes were delayed. Anyway, it is very hard in the field practice to perform it within 5 min after the blood collection and according to studies it has low impact on clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Dieta , Leite , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Leite/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Polônia , Lactação/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Íons/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo
5.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 93: 101942, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is one of the most prevalent zoonotic diseases. Using serological tests are valid and rapid methods that could be used in the detection of the history of getting brucellosis. Considering that Iran is an endemic country for brucellosis, we aimed to investigate the rate of seroprevalence of brucellosis among livestock and human in Kurdistan province. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Serum sampling was performed from 51 slaughterhouse workers, veterinarians, and husbandry workers, along with 260 livestock (80 cattle, 120 sheep, and 60 goats). Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used for livestock and the anti-Brucella IgG antibody was evaluated in human participants. RESULTS: The seroprevalence (based on ELISA assay) in sheep, goats, and cows was 5.8%, 5%, and 1.2%, respectively. Also, the rate of anti-Brucella IgG was 3.9% among human participants. DISCUSSION: the current study, provided some valuable information on the seroprevalence of brucellosis in animal and human participants from the west of Iran. Considering the effects of brucellosis on causing reproductive disorders, including abortion, placental retention, andendometritis controlling the infection could have a significant impact on terms of economy.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Animais , Humanos , Feminino , Ovinos , Bovinos , Gravidez , Gado , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Placenta , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Fatores de Risco , Cabras , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia
6.
Animal ; 17(1): 100695, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608539

RESUMO

Various studies with growing ruminants report increases in nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) when feeding oscillating (OS) dietary CP, whereas limited research with lactating dairy cows demonstrates a lack of improvement in NUE when feeding OS diets. We hypothesised that a total mixed ration (TMR) delivering OS CP (48-h phases of 134 and 171 g CP/kg DM, respectively) compared to a static CP TMR (ST; 152 g CP/kg DM) would result in similar or increased urinary purine derivative excretion (as a marker of microbial protein synthesis (MPS)) and greater urinary nitrogen excretion in lactating dairy cows. Responses in intake, production, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), nutrient balance, and estimated MPS were evaluated using faecal and urine collection in 12 multiparous cows (172 ± 39 d in milk) in a randomised complete block design, where total urinary output was estimated indirectly. All measurements were taken during d 8 (at 1700) to d 16 (at 1700) of the 16-d study that followed a 28-d period in which cows already received their respective treatments. Dry matter intake, yields of milk, protein, fat, lactose, and fat- and protein-corrected milk were similar for ST and OS. Milk composition, BW, and body condition score also did not differ between treatments, except for a tendency for increased milk urea concentration with OS (13.7 vs 12.4 mg/dL). Feed efficiency, NUE and ATTD of organic matter, NDF, CP and gross energy did not differ, but ATTD of crude fat (658 vs 627 g/kg) and starch (980 vs 975 g/kg) increased, and ATTD of DM (702 vs 691 g/kg) tended to increase with OS. Milk energy as a proportion of digested energy tended to decrease with OS (34.6 vs 37.1%), but other energy metabolism variables were not affected by treatment. Estimated urinary nitrogen excretion increased (165 vs 144 g/d), estimated urinary nitrogen as a proportion of nitrogen intake tended to increase (25.3 vs 22.7%), and milk nitrogen as a proportion of digested nitrogen decreased (47.3 vs 51.8%) in response to OS. Estimated urinary excretion of creatinine (184 vs 165 mmol/d), uric acid (29 vs 20 mmol/d) and urea (3.1 vs 2.5 mol/d) increased, but other nitrogen metabolism parameters were not affected by OS. Overall, oscillating dietary CP content did not affect lactational performance, milk NUE, or estimated MPS. However, ATTD of some nutrients increased, postabsorptive energy use for milk synthesis tended to decrease, and estimated urinary nitrogen losses increased with OS.


Assuntos
Digestão , Lactação , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Lactação/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Leite/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Ureia/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679493

RESUMO

South African legislation regulates the classification/labelling and compositional specifications of raw beef patties, to combat processed meat fraud and to protect the consumer. A near-infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) system was investigated as an alternative authentication technique to the current destructive, time-consuming, labour-intensive and expensive methods. Eight hundred beef patties (ca. 100 g) were made and analysed to assess the potential of NIR-HSI to distinguish between the four patty categories (200 patties per category): premium 'ground patty'; regular 'burger patty'; 'value-burger/patty' and the 'econo-burger'/'budget'. Hyperspectral images were acquired with a HySpex SWIR-384 (short-wave infrared) imaging system using the Breeze® acquisition software, in the wavelength range of 952-2517 nm, after which the data was analysed using image analysis, multivariate techniques and machine learning algorithms. It was possible to distinguish between the four patty categories with accuracies ≥97%, indicating that NIR-HSI offers an accurate and reliable solution for the rapid identification and authentication of processed beef patties. Furthermore, this study has the potential of providing an alternative to the current authentication methods, thus contributing to the authenticity and fair-trade of processed meat products locally and internationally.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne , Animais , Bovinos , Algoritmos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674131

RESUMO

Traditional ritual slaughter is an underlying practice in religious Jewish communities and it translates into eating in accordance with core beliefs. This paper aims to comprehensively analyze factors determining the kosher status of beef (sex, slaughter method, and muscle type) and assess their impact on selected quality properties, such as color or texture profile. Sensory evaluation was also performed. The muscles were obtained from 80 carcasses (50% of heifers and 50% of young bulls). The experimental results indicate that each studied kosherness determinant influenced beef quality properties. The process of koshering caused the darkening of beef and lowered the share of color parameters red (a*) and yellow (b*). The influence of the type of slaughter on the values of adhesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness of beef was confirmed; higher values were mostly obtained in the muscles of cattle from kosher slaughter. As to sensory evaluation, the study showed that in the case of muscle type, the sex and slaughter method positively influenced only some of the properties.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Carne , Masculino , Bovinos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Carne/análise , Músculos , Judeus , Comportamento Ritualístico , Cor
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 19(1): 10, 2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: S. aureus is one of the causative agents of bovine mastitis. The treatment using conventional antimicrobials has been hampered due to the development of antimicrobial resistance and the ability of the bacteria to form biofilms and localize inside the host cells. OBJECTIVES: Here, the efficacy of graphene oxide (GO), a carbon-based nanomaterial, was tested against the biofilms and intracellular S. aureus invitro. Following that, the mechanism for the intracellular antimicrobial activities and GO toxicities was elucidated. METHODS: GO antibiofilm properties were evaluated based on the disruption of biofilm structure, and the intracellular antimicrobial activities were determined by the survival of S. aureus in infected bovine mammary cells following GO exposure. The mechanism for GO intracellular antimicrobial activities was investigated using endocytosis inhibitors. GO toxicity towards the host cells was assessed using a resazurin assay. RESULTS: At 100 ug/mL, GO reduced between 30 and 70% of S. aureus biofilm mass, suggesting GO's ability to disrupt the biofilm structure. At 200 ug/mL, GO killed almost 80% of intracellular S. aureus, and the antimicrobial activities were inhibited when cells were pre-treated with cytochalasin D, suggesting GO intracellular antimicrobial activities were dependent on the actin-polymerization of the cell membrane. At < 250 ug/mL, GO enhanced the viability of the Mac-T cell, and cells were only affected at higher dosages. CONCLUSION: The in vitro efficacy of GO against S. aureus in vitro suggested the compound could be further tested in Vivo to zrecognize its potential as one of the components of bovine mastitis therapy.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Mastite Bovina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Feminino , Animais , Bovinos , Staphylococcus aureus , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Mastite Bovina/tratamento farmacológico , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Biofilmes , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
10.
Water Res ; 230: 119470, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36621274

RESUMO

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in river watersheds dynamically changes based on its source during a monsoon period with storm event. However, the variations in DOM in urban and rural river watersheds that are dominated by point and non-point sources have not been adequately explored to date. We developed an innovative approach to reveal DOM sources in complex river watershed systems during pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon periods using end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) by combining multi-isotope values (δ13C-DOC, δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3) and spectroscopic indices (fluorescence index [FI], biological index [BIX], humification index [HIX], and specific UV absorbance [SUVA]). Several potential end-members of DOM sources were collected from watersheds, including top-soils, groundwater, plant group (fallen leaves, riparian plants, suspended algae), and different effluents (cattle and pig livestock, agricultural land, urban, industry facility, swine treatment facility and wastewater treatment facility). Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, dissolved organic nitrogen, NO3-N, and NH4-N increased during the monsoon period with an increase in the input of anthropogenic DOM, which have higher HIX values owing to the flushing effect. The results of EMMA indicate that soil and agricultural effluents accounted for a substantial contribution of anthropogenic DOM at varying rates based on seasons. We also found that results of EMMA based on combining spectroscopic indices and δ13C-DOC isotope values were more accurate in tracing DOM sources with respect to land-use characteristics compared to applying only spectroscopic indices. The positive relationship between FI, BIX and δ15N-NO3 were revealed that nitrate would be decomposed from DOM affected by intensive agricultural activities. In addition, consistent with the EMMA results, the molecular composition of the DOM was clearly evidenced by a large number of CHON formulas, accounting for over 50% of the total characterized compounds, including pesticides and pharmaceuticals used in agriculture farmland and livestock. Our results clearly demonstrated that EMMA based on combing multi-stable isotopes and spectroscopic indices could be trace the DOM source, which is important for understanding changes in the DOM quality, and application of nitrate isotopes and molecular analysis supports in-depth interpretation. This study provides easy and intuitive techniques for the estimation of the relative impacts of DOM sources in complex river watersheds, which can be verified in various ways rather than relying on a single technique approach.


Assuntos
Matéria Orgânica Dissolvida , Rios , Animais , Bovinos , Suínos , Rios/química , Nitratos/análise , Análise Espectral , Solo , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Isótopos/análise
11.
Anal Chem ; 95(2): 1608-1617, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598775

RESUMO

As RNA post-transcriptional modifications are of growing interest, several methods were developed for their characterization. One of them established for their identification, at the nucleosidic level, is the hyphenation of separation methods, such as liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis, to tandem mass spectrometry. However, to our knowledge, no software is yet available for the untargeted identification of RNA post-transcriptional modifications from MS/MS data-dependent acquisitions. Thus, very long and tedious manual data interpretations are required. To meet the need of easier and faster data interpretation, a new user-friendly search engine, called Nucleos'ID, was developed for CE-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS users. Performances of this new software were evaluated on CE-MS/MS data from nucleoside analyses of already well-described Saccharomyces cerevisiae transfer RNA and Bos taurus total tRNA extract. All samples showed great true positive, true negative, and false discovery rates considering the database size containing all modified and unmodified nucleosides referenced in the literature. The true positive and true negative rates obtained were above 0.94, while the false discovery rates were between 0.09 and 0.17. To increase the level of sample complexity, untargeted identification of several RNA modifications from Pseudomonas aeruginosa 70S ribosome was achieved by the Nucleos'ID search following CE-MS/MS analysis.


Assuntos
Nucleosídeos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Bovinos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Nucleosídeos/análise , Ferramenta de Busca , RNA de Transferência
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(2): 1234-1245, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36601774

RESUMO

The beef quality significantly varies between breeds. Pingliang Red Cattle resembles Wagyu in fat deposition and flavor. To screen key factors affecting beef quality, we performed meat quality trait testing, RNA-seq, and metabolomics on the longissimus dorsi of Pingliang Red Cattle, Wagyu cross F1 generation, and Simmental cattle. The gene and metabolite expression profiles were similar between Pingliang Red Cattle and Wagyu cross F1 generation. Genes such as FASN, ACACA, PLIN1, and FABP4 were significantly upregulated in the Pingliang Red Cattle and Wagyu cross F1 generation (P < 0.05). Similarly, numerous metabolites, such as 3-iodo-l-tyrosine, arachidonic acid, and cis-aconitate, which may improve the beef quality such as fat deposition and tenderness, were found in higher levels in the Pingliang Red Cattle and Wagyu cross F1 generation. This study revealed differences in the transcriptional and metabolic levels between Pingliang Red Cattle and premium beef breeds, suggesting that Pingliang Red Cattle harbors the genetic potential for breeding high-grade beef cattle.


Assuntos
Carne , Transcriptoma , Bovinos/genética , Animais , Carne/análise , Fenótipo , Metaboloma , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 12(2): e027391, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36628965

RESUMO

Background We assessed the Ozaki procedure, aortic valve reconstruction using autologous pericardium, with respect to its learning curve, hemodynamic performance, and durability compared with a stented bioprosthesis. Methods and Results From January 2007 to January 2016, 776 patients underwent an Ozaki procedure at Toho University Ohashi Medical Center. Learning curves, aortic regurgitation (AR), and peak gradient, assessed by serial echocardiograms, valve rereplacement, and survival were investigated. Valve performance and durability were compared with 627 1:1 propensity-matched patients receiving stented bovine pericardial valves implanted from 1982 to 2011 at Cleveland Clinic. Learning curves were observed for aortic clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass times, AR prevalence, and early mortality. Decreased aortic clamp time was observed over the first 300 cases. New surgeons performing parts of the procedure after case 400 resulted in a slight increase in aortic clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass times. Among matched patients, the Ozaki cohort had more AR than the PERIMOUNT cohort (severe AR at 1 and 6 years, 0.58% and 3.6% versus 0.45% and 1.0%, respectively; P[trend]=0.006), although with a steep learning curve. Peak gradient showed the opposite trend: 14 and 17 mm Hg for Ozaki and 24 and 28 mm Hg for PERIMOUNT at these times (P[trend]<0.001). Freedom from rereplacement was similar (P=0.491). Survival of the Ozaki cohort was 85% at 6 years. Conclusions Patients undergoing the Ozaki procedure had lower gradients but more recurrent AR than those receiving PERIMOUNT bioprostheses. Although recurrent AR is concerning, results confirm low risk and good midterm performance of the Ozaki procedure, supporting its continued use.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica , Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Bioprótese , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Humanos , Animais , Bovinos , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Pericárdio/cirurgia , Hemodinâmica , Resultado do Tratamento , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia
14.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 568, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631508

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive review with meta-analysis to determine the effects of the dose-response relationship between monensin supplementation and dairy cow performance and milk composition. Results from 566 full-text articles and 48 articles with 52 studies were meta-analyzed for pooled estimates. Monensin supplementation up to 23 ppm increased milk production, with the optimal dose being 12.6 ppm. Monensin supplementation at doses ranging from 16 to 96 ppm increased milk production in the prepartum phase (- 28 to 0 day relative to calving). From 60 to 150 DIM, monensin supplementation up to 21 ppm had a significant positive effect on this outcome, while supplementation in the 37 to 96 ppm range caused a decrease in this variable. At 0 to 60 and > 150 DIM, monensin supplementation had no effect on milk yield. At dosages of 22 to 96 ppm, 12 to 36 ppm, and below 58 ppm and 35 ppm, respectively, monensin supplementation resulted in significant decreases in dry matter intake (DMI), milk protein percentage, milk fat percentage, and milk fat yield. Overall, based on the results of this meta-analysis and considering all variables, the recommended optimal dose of monensin could be about 16 ppm.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Lactação , Leite , Monensin , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Dieta/veterinária , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Monensin/administração & dosagem , Monensin/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Gorduras/análise
15.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1096, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658270

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium parvum is an apicomplexan parasite that causes severe zoonotic diarrhea in humans and calves. Since there are no effective treatments or vaccines for infants or immunocompromised patients, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of the parasite-host interaction for novel drug discovery. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) is a key host factor in interactions between host and various pathogens, including parasites. Although the function of conventional MAP kinases against parasite infection has been investigated, that of atypical MAP kinases remains largely unknown. Therefore, we focused on one of the atypical MAP kinases, MAPK4, and its effect on C. parvum infection in human intestinal cells. Here, we report that MAPK4-deficient intestinal cells showed a significant reduction in C. parvum infection. We also show that host MAPK4 has a role in host cell survival from C. parvum infection. In addition, we show that C. parvum requires host MAPK4 for its successful invasion and asexual reproduction. Taken together, our data suggest that MAPK4 is an important host factor contributing to C. parvum infection in human intestinal cells.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium parvum , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/fisiologia , Intestinos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
16.
Res Vet Sci ; 154: 145-150, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599268

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of IgG antibodies against A. marginale, the occurrence of this bacterium by qPCR, and the effect of bovine anaplasmosis as a risk factor for clinical cases of retained placenta, mastitis, and abomasal displacement in dairy cattle. For that 179 Holstein cows out of three dairy herds, in the municipality of Sertão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. These cows were on farms that were vulnerable to risk factors that are crucial to susceptibility among these animals to this intracellular hemoparasite. The mean seropositivity for A. marginale from the periods evaluated was 54% on farm A, 69.4% on farm B, and 27.3% on farm C. Molecular diagnosis was performed with qPCR and the mean positivity for A. marginale among the cows on farms A, B, and C in December 2017 was 34.6% (67/179). Infected animals showed clinical cases of retained placenta (6.1%), mastitis (6.1%), and abomasal displacement (0.5%). The association between positivity for anaplasmosis and these clinical cases was assessed through the odds ratio. Our results show that females with a positive qPCR assay for A. marginale had 52.48 times increased probability (OR) to develop clinical cases of retained placenta and mastitis (P < 0.001). These clinical cases negatively impact the productivity of positive females. Thus, implementing preventive and prophylactic control measures to ensure the sanitary quality of the herds is needed to avoid losses due to morbidity and mortality and diminish the economic losses suffered by farmers.


Assuntos
Anaplasmose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Mastite Bovina , Placenta Retida , Feminino , Gravidez , Bovinos , Animais , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Placenta Retida/epidemiologia , Placenta Retida/veterinária , Fatores de Risco , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 263, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600112

RESUMO

Agroforestry parklands are an age-old traditional land use practice that integrates crop cultivation under scattered woody plants. This practice is widespread in West African savannas providing many essential ecological and socio-economic benefits to people such as food, fuelwood, and medicine. Currently, parklands are decreasing due to changes in agriculture and land use practices, often associated with human population growth. Understanding spatial patterns as well as identifying reliable methods of sampling to estimate the density of woody plants is necessary for the sustainable management of parklands. In this study, a comparative analysis of select plotless sampling methods was performed using field and simulated datasets with known spatial patterns from field assessments. Results of spatial indices tests indicated that woody plants in parklands exhibited two spatial patterns: i.e., aggregate and random, the latter being the dominant pattern observed in field datasets. Based on relative measure statistics (i.e., RRMSE and RBIAS), the ordered distance (OD), point-centered quarter (PCQ), and closest individual (CI) methods performed well when woody plants were located in a random pattern while the variable area transect (VAT) method was better at estimating density under patterns of spatial aggregation. Overall, OD and VAT methods are recommended for density estimation in parklands because they are relatively more accurate, less biased, and practical and computations are easy to undertake.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Pradaria , Humanos , Agricultura , Plantas , Madeira
18.
Can J Vet Res ; 87(1): 51-58, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36606037

RESUMO

Enterococci are environmental pathogens that can cause bovine mastitis, which is treated with macrolides, one of which is erythromycin (ERY). The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of high-level erythromycin-resistant (HLER) Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) isolates from bulk tank milk of 4 dairy companies, identified as A to D, in order to assess the threat to public health. Although isolates from company D showed the highest prevalence of E. faecalis, the prevalence of HLER E. faecalis in isolates from company A showed a significant difference. A total of 149 of the 301 HLER E. faecalis isolates showed the highest rate of resistance to tetracycline. In the distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes, 147 isolates carried the ermB gene alone and 2 isolates carried both ermA and ermB genes. Also, 72 and 60 isolates carried both tetM and tetL genes and the tetM gene alone, respectively, and 38 isolates carried the optrA gene. The prevalence of both aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)-la and ant(6')-Ia genes was the highest and 104 isolates harbored the Int-Tn gene carrying the Tn916/1545-like transposon. Although the distribution of the e rmB gene showed no significant difference among dairy companies, the prevalence of other resistance genes and transposons showed significant differences among dairy companies. Virulence genes were highly conserved in the HLER E. faecalis isolates. Our results indicated that there were significant differences in phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of HLER E. faecalis isolates in milk from 4 different dairy companies. A structured management protocol by companies and constant monitoring are therefore necessary to minimize public health hazards.


Les entérocoques sont des agents pathogènes environnementaux qui peuvent causer la mammite bovine, qui est traitée avec des macrolides, dont l'érythromycine (ERY). Le but de cette étude était de comparer les caractéristiques des isolats d'Enterococcus f aecalis (E. faecalis) hautement résistants à l'érythromycine (HLER) provenant du lait de réservoir en vrac de quatre entreprises laitières, identifiées comme A à D, afin d'évaluer la menace pour santé publique. Bien que les isolats de la société D aient montré la prévalence la plus élevée d'E. faecalis, la prévalence d'E. faecalis HLER dans les isolats de la société A montrait une différence significative. Un total de 149 des 301 isolats d'E. faecalis HLER ont montré le taux le plus élevé de résistance à la tétracycline. Dans la distribution des gènes de résistance aux antimicrobiens, 147 isolats portaient le gène ermB seul et deux isolats portaient à la fois les gènes ermA et ermB. En outre, 72 et 60 isolats portaient à la fois les gènes tetM et tetL et le gène tetM seul, respectivement, et 38 isolats portaient le gène optrA. La prévalence des gènes aac(6')Ie-aph(2″)-la et ant(6')-Ia était la plus élevée et 104 isolats portaient le gène Int-Tn portant le transposon de type Tn916/1545. Bien que la distribution du gène ermB n'ait montré aucune différence significative entre les entreprises laitières, la prévalence d'autres gènes de résistance et transposons a montré des différences significatives entre les entreprises laitières. Les gènes de virulence étaient hautement conservés dans les isolats d'E. faecalis HLER. Nos résultats ont indiqué qu'il y avait des différences significatives dans les caractéristiques phénotypiques et génotypiques des isolats d'E. faecalis HLER dans le lait de quatre entreprises laitières différentes. Un protocole de gestion structuré par les entreprises et une surveillance constante sont donc nécessaires pour minimiser les risques pour la santé publique.(Traduit par Docteur Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterococcus faecalis , Eritromicina , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Leite/microbiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos
19.
J Anim Sci ; 1012023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36611009

RESUMO

This experiment evaluated the effects of roughage levels and supplemental fat on intake, growth performance, health, and physiological responses of newly received finishing cattle during 58-d receiving period. A total of 72 crossbred steers (initial body weight [BW] = 200 ± 13 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, consisting of two roughage levels (wheat hay at 30% [R30] or 60% [R60]; dry matter [DM] basis) and two levels of supplemental fat (yellow grease at 0% [-FAT; no additional fat] or 3.5% [+FAT]; DM basis). Upon arrival, calves were individually weighed, blocked by off-truck shrunk BW, and assigned to 24 soil-surfaced pens (three calves per pen). Shrunk BW was also collected on day 58 for the calculation of average daily gain (ADG). Throughout the study, calves were assessed for bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Effects of roughage level × supplemental fat interaction were only observed for diet particle size distribution and estimated physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) of diets (P ≤ 0.10). Adding fat to R60 diets tended to increase the percentage of particles retained in the 8-mm screen (P = 0.06) and the estimated peNDF (P = 0.10), but did not affect R30 diets. Dietary roughage level did not affect DM intake (DMI; P = 0.85). Calves-fed R30 tended to have greater ADG and final BW than calves-fed R60 (P ≤ 0.08). Gain efficiency (gain:feed ratio; G:F) was greater for calves-fed R30 than calves-fed R60 (P = 0.01). Dietary roughage level did not affect morbidity and mortality (P ≥ 0.11). Supplemental fat did not affect DMI (P = 0.6) but tended (P = 0.09) to increase ADG compared to -FAT diets. The G:F was greater for calves-fed +FAT than -FAT (P = 0.03). The +FAT diet tended (P = 0.10) to increase the number of retreatments against BRD compared to -FAT, although the total number of antimicrobial treatments required to treat sick calves (P = 0.78) and the mortality rate (P = 0.99) were not affected by supplemental fat. Feeding +FAT diet tended (P ≤ 0.09) to increase plasma concentration of cortisol and immunoglobulin-G compared to -FAT. In summary, feeding 30% roughage diets or adding 3.5% yellow grease (DM basis) as supplemental fat increased G:F during the feedlot receiving period.


The low intake of feed that beef calves exhibit during the first weeks after feedlot arrival results in inadequate nutrient intake, especially energy, which leads to low rates of gain and decreased immune function and likely increases the risks for respiratory diseases. Increasing the energy density of receiving diets (Mcal/kg of dry matter) could result in increased energy intake of newly received finishing cattle. In this experiment, we evaluated the effects of two roughage levels (wheat hay at 30% [R30] or 60% [R60]; dry matter [DM] basis) combined with two levels of supplemental fat (yellow grease at 0% [−FAT; no supplemental fat] or 3.5% [+FAT]; DM basis). Calves-fed R30 tended to have greater average daily gain and final body weight than calves-fed R60. Gain efficiency (gain:feed ratio; G:F) was greater for calves-fed R30 than calves-fed R60. Feeding +FAT tended to increase average daily gain compared to −FAT diet, and G:F was greater for calves-fed +FAT than −FAT. In summary, feeding 30% roughage diets or adding 3.5% of yellow grease increased G:F during the feedlot receiving period, with minimal impact on morbidity rate from respiratory disease.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Fibras na Dieta , Bovinos , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Aumento de Peso , Ração Animal/análise , Composição Corporal , Dieta/veterinária
20.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 863, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650207

RESUMO

Agricultural fertilization with organic amendments of animal origin often leads to antibiotic resistance dissemination. In this study, we evaluated the effect of different treatments (anaerobic digestion, biochar application, ozonation, zerovalent iron nanoparticle application, and spent mushroom substrate addition) on the resistome in dairy cow manure-derived amendments (slurry, manure, and compost). Anaerobic digestion and biochar application resulted in the highest reduction in antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) and mobile genetic element (MGE) gene abundance. These two treatments were applied to cow manure compost, which was then used to fertilize the soil for lettuce growth. After crop harvest, ARG and MGE gene absolute and relative abundances in the soil and lettuce samples were determined by droplet digital PCR and high-throughput qPCR, respectively. Prokaryotic diversity in cow manure-amended soils was determined using 16S rRNA metabarcoding. Compared to untreated compost, anaerobic digestion led to a 38% and 83% reduction in sul2 and intl1 absolute abundances in the soil, respectively, while biochar led to a 60% reduction in intl1 absolute abundance. No differences in lettuce gene abundances were observed among treatments. We conclude that amendment treatments can minimize the risk of antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Solo , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Esterco/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Alface/genética , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Microbiologia do Solo
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