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2.
Drug Deliv ; 29(1): 3111-3122, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131565

RESUMO

Mitochondria play an important role in regulating tumor cell death and metabolism so that they can be potential therapeutic targets. Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) represents an attractive antitumor method that induces apoptosis by producing highly toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondria-targeting SDT can cause oxidative damage and improve the efficiency of tumor therapy. However, due to the nonselective distribution of nanosystems and the anti-apoptotic mechanism of cancer cells, the therapeutic effect of SDT is not ideal. Therefore, we proposed a novel mitochondria-targeting nanosystem ('Mito-Bomb') for ferroptosis-boosted SDT. Sonosensitizer IR780 and ferroptosis activator RSL-3 were both encapsulated in biocompatible poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles to form 'Mito-Bomb' (named IRP NPs). IR780 in this nanosystem was used to mediate mitochondria-targeting SDT. RSL-3 inhibited the activity of GPX4 in the antioxidant system to induce ferroptosis of tumor cells, which could rewire tumor metabolism and make tumor cells extremely sensitive to SDT-induced apoptosis. Notably, we also found that RSL-3 can inhibit hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and induce ROS production to improve the efficacy of SDT to synergistically antitumor. RSL-3 was applied as a 'One-Stone-Three-Birds' agent for cooperatively enhanced SDT against triple-negative breast cancer. This study presented the first example of RSL-3 boosting mitochondria-targeting SDT as a ferroptosis activator. The 'Mito-Bomb' biocompatible nanosystem was expected to become an innovative tumor treatment method and clinical transformation.


Assuntos
Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Ferroptose , Terapia por Ultrassom , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Mitocôndrias , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Terapia por Ultrassom/métodos
3.
Psychiatry Res ; 317: 114798, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057188

RESUMO

The news from Ukraine is currently full of heart-wrenching stories accompanied by graphic images of civilian casualties and massacres that are telecast world-wide on a daily basis. It is hard to fathom the magnitude of the devastation and disruption to regular lives and everyday routines that war brings with it, the witnessing of countless deaths, the associated trauma of living in perpetual fear, and the daily experience of many families and orphans who are crowded into basement bomb shelters now for months on end. These issues make us contemplate the mental health consequences, among other lasting effects, of this costly war in Ukraine, and wars in other countries not so widely featured in Western news. Despite people of all ages being affected by war, children are especially vulnerable. This commentary outlines some of the epidemiology of the consequences of war, the mental health sequelae specifically, and the complexity of providing culturally and contextually relevant interventions that meet the needs of children.


Assuntos
Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Criança , Ucrânia/epidemiologia
4.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 3): 113994, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931185

RESUMO

Atmospheric radiocarbon (14C) recorded in tree rings has been widely used for atmospheric 14C calibration purposes and climate studies. But atmospheric 14C records have been limited along tropical latitudes. Here we report a sequence from 1938 to 2007 of precisely measured 14C dates in tree rings of the parenchyma-rich Hymenolobium petraeum tree species (Porto Trombetas, 1°S, 56°W) from the Central Brazilian Amazon. H. petraeum has discernible growth ring boundaries that allow dating techniques to be employed to produce calendrical dates. Bomb-peak tree-ring 14C reconstruction coincides with the broader changes associated with reported values of the Southern Hemisphere atmospheric 14C curve (SH zone 3; values within the ±2σ interval), suggesting that inter-hemispheric air-mass transport of excess-14C injected into the stratosphere during intensive atmospheric nuclear tests is relatively uniform across distinct longitudinal regions. From the early 1980s onwards, H. petraeum had lower 14C values than other pantropical 14C records. Through 14C-based estimation, we found a strong influence of fossil-fuel CO2 contributions from Porto Trombetas mining operations and shipping traffic on inland waterways. An increase of at least 6.3 ± 0.8 ppm of fossil-fuel CO2 has been detected by 14C. Our findings invite further 14C analyses using tree rings of tropical tree species as a potential tracer for a wide range of environmental sources of atmospheric 14C-variability.


Assuntos
Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Combustíveis Fósseis , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Clima , Mineração
5.
Ann Clin Psychiatry ; 34(3): 183-191, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dissociation is a serious psychological condition that is characterized as a pathological outcome of trauma-related experience. Thus, dissociation could be expected to develop in survivors of disaster trauma and to be associated with trauma exposure and psychopathology. METHODS: A sample of 278 disaster-affected Kenyans was assessed 8 to 10 months after the 1998 terrorist bombing of the US Embassy in Nairobi for a study of trauma-related psychopathology and dissociation in the context of personality and culture. Instruments of assessment were the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, and the Temperament and Character Inventory. RESULTS: Dissociation appeared to represent a largely nonpathological response to the disaster experience that reflected personality variables and a cultural context. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that dissociation encountered in disaster-exposed groups in this cultural setting does not necessarily represent psychopathology, but attention to dissociative responses might help clinicians identify and provide interventions for individuals experiencing distressing intrusive and hyperarousal symptoms.


Assuntos
Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Terrorismo , Transtornos Dissociativos , Humanos , Quênia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Terrorismo/psicologia
6.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 625: 532-543, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749848

RESUMO

The rising risk of lung cancer has become a primary global concern with high mortality and mobility. Presently, clinically used anticancer drugs show limited efficacy and significant side effects. A new generation of anticancer weapons is in great demand for lung cancer therapy. Herein, we have developed a novel style of biomimetic zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) based on the merits of cell membranes derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs), which can navigate biological bombs herpes simplex virus type I thymidine kinase-encoded plasmids (pHSVtk) and ganciclovir (GCV) to treat lung cancer. The biological bomb-loaded structure can kill transfected lung cancer cells and neighboring lung cancer cells through the "bystander effect," which induces efficient suppression of lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo. The biomimetic nanoparticles show an enhanced circulation lifetime and drug accumulation in the tumor tissues and significantly inhibit the tumors. We have developed a straightforward approach to deliver biological bombs with biomimetic metal-organic frameworks for efficient lung cancer therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such a strategy for lung cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Biomimética , Ganciclovir/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/farmacologia
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 894306, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35592329

RESUMO

CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are the main cellular effectors of the adaptive immune response against cancer cells, which in turn have evolved sophisticated cellular defense mechanisms to withstand CTL attack. Herein we provide a critical review of the pertinent literature on early and late attack/defense events taking place at the CTL/target cell lytic synapse. We examine the earliest steps of CTL-mediated cytotoxicity ("the poison arrows") elicited within seconds of CTL/target cell encounter, which face commensurately rapid synaptic repair mechanisms on the tumor cell side, providing the first formidable barrier to CTL attack. We examine how breach of this first defensive barrier unleashes the inextinguishable "Greek fire" in the form of granzymes whose broad cytotoxic potential is linked to activation of cell death executioners, injury of vital organelles, and destruction of intracellular homeostasis. Herein tumor cells deploy slower but no less sophisticated defensive mechanisms in the form of enhanced autophagy, increased reparative capacity, and dysregulation of cell death pathways. We discuss how the newly discovered supra-molecular attack particles (SMAPs, the "scorpion bombs"), seek to overcome the robust defensive mechanisms that confer tumor cell resistance. Finally, we discuss the implications of the aforementioned attack/defense mechanisms on the induction of regulated cell death (RCD), and how different contemporary RCD modalities (including apoptosis, pyroptosis, and ferroptosis) may have profound implications for immunotherapy. Thus, we propose that understanding and targeting multiple steps of the attack/defense process will be instrumental to enhance the efficacy of CTL anti-tumor activity and meet the outstanding challenges in clinical immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Venenos , Animais , Grécia , Venenos/metabolismo , Escorpiões , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos
8.
Adv Mater ; 34(29): e2201978, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35606680

RESUMO

Hypoxia, as a characteristic feature of solid tumors, has a close relationship with tumor resistance to photodynamic therapy (PDT) and chemotherapy. Perfluorocarbon (PFC) is reported to relieve hypoxic in solid tumors by acting as an oxygen carrier via several nanostructures. However, the oxygen delivery process is mostly driven by a concentration gradient, which is uncontrollable. Herein, a photothermally controlled "oxygen bomb" PSPP-Au980 -D is designed by encapsulating a PFC core within a functionalized bilayer polymer shell. Near-infrared second window photothermal agent gold nanorods with excellent photo-to-heat energy-conversion ability are fabricated on the surface of the polymer shell via an innovative modified two-step seedless ex situ growth process to thermally trigger O2  release. Then, a programmed cascade therapy strategy is customized for hypoxic orthotopic pancreatic cancer. First, PSPP-Au980 -D is irradiated by a 980 nm laser to photothermally trigger O2  infusing into the hypoxic tumor microenvironment, which is accompanied by local hyperemia and doxorubicin release. Subsequently, a 680 nm laser is used to generate singlet oxygen in the oxygenated tumor microenvironment for PDT. This choreographed programmed cascade therapy strategy will provide a new route for suppressing hypoxic tumor growth under mild conditions based on controllable and effective oxygen release.


Assuntos
Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Neoplasias , Fotoquimioterapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Hipóxia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Oxigênio , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Polímeros/uso terapêutico , Microambiente Tumoral
9.
Child Abuse Negl ; 128: 105622, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366414

RESUMO

As the Russia-Ukraine conflict continues to unfold, the ever-evolving situation can be particularly difficult for children and teenagers. Children living in these areas face serious threats from bombing, landmines and unexploded ordnance. Their lives are also threatened by the destruction of vital infrastructure - health centers, schools and water supplies - because of the fighting. War can have a devastating effect on children's mental and physical health, with potentially lifelong consequences. Fears can generate fantasies of the end of the world, as well as the fear of losing a loved one or life itself, nightmares and regressions to previous evolutionary stages. This situation is creating dramatic scenes at train stations, where families are forced to say goodbye.


Assuntos
Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Adolescente , Criança , Medo , Humanos , Ucrânia
10.
Can J Surg ; 65(2): E242-E249, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early hemorrhage control after interpersonal violence is the most urgent requirement to preserve life and is now recognized as a responsibility of law enforcement. Although earlier entry of first responders is advocated, many shooting scenes remain unsafe for humans, necessitating first responses conducted by robots. Thus, robotic hemorrhage control warrants study as a care-under-fire treatment option. METHODS: Two bomb disposal robots (Wolverine and Dragon Runner) were retrofitted with hemostatic wound clamps. The robots' ability to apply a wound clamp to a simulated extremity exsanguination while controlled by 4 experienced operators was tested. The operators were randomly assigned to perform 10 trials using 1 robot each. A third surveillance robot (Stair Climber) provided further visualization for the operators. We assessed the success rate of the application of the wound clamp to the simulated wound, the time to application of the wound clamp and the amount of fluid loss. We also assessed the operators' efforts to apply the wound clamp after an initial attempt was unsuccessful or after the wound clamp was dropped. RESULTS: Remote robotic application of a wound clamp was demonstrated to be feasible, with complete cessation of simulated bleeding in 60% of applications. This finding was consistent across all operators and both robots. There was no difference in the success rates with the 2 robots (p = 1.00). However, there were differences in fluid loss (p = 0.004) and application time (p < 0.001), with the larger (Wolverine) robot being faster and losing less fluid. CONCLUSION: Law enforcement tactical robots were consistently able to provide partial to complete hemorrhage control in a simulated extremity exsanguination. Consideration should be given to using this approach in care-under-fire and care-behind-the-barricade scenarios as well as further developing the technology and doctrine for robotic hemorrhage control.


Assuntos
Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Hemostáticos , Robótica , Constrição , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos
11.
Clin Radiol ; 77(7): 522-528, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35469661

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the radiological images of children with musculoskeletal injuries and accompanying organ injuries caused by explosions to determine the differences and frequency of injury types and to emphasise the importance of radiology in war injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-four children with injuries caused by bomb explosions were included in the study. The paediatric trauma scores evaluated in the emergency department on the first admission were recorded. All radiographs and computed tomography (CT) images were evaluated for musculoskeletal injuries and accompanying organ injuries. RESULTS: The highest incidence of fracture in the primary blast injury (PBI) group was skull fracture in 15 (62.5%) patients (p=0.01) and fractures in the other groups were most common in the lower extremities. Amputation was observed in nine (31%) patients in the PBI group (p=0.003); however, there were no patients with amputations in the secondary blast injury (SBI) group (p=0.002). The frequency of pneumothorax (79.3%) and pulmonary contusion (59.4%) was high in the PBI group (p<0.001 and p=0.004, respectively). Skull fractures were observed in 15 (88.2%) of 17 patients with brain injury (p<0.001), and skull fractures were the most common fracture site accompanying pulmonary trauma. The average paediatric trauma score of individuals exposed to shrapnel was found to be high (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Because paediatric musculoskeletal injuries vary with the type of blast injury and severe trauma can occur in children due to blast effects, radiologists who triage mass injuries should understand the effects of blast injury patterns and the spectrum of injury.


Assuntos
Traumatismos por Explosões , Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Fraturas Cranianas , Traumatismos por Explosões/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos por Explosões/epidemiologia , Criança , Explosões , Humanos , Fraturas Cranianas/complicações , Síria/epidemiologia
12.
Injury ; 53(4): 1401-1415, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35144807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eye injuries comprise 10-13% of civilian improvised explosive device (IED) injuries. The bomb blast wave induces a normal and shear forces on the tissues, causing a large acute IOP elevation. This study calculated the biomechanical stresses and strains in the eye due to IED explosion via eye-specific fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models. METHODS: Blast occurred at 2, 3, and 4 m from the front and side of the victim and the weights of the IED were 1 and 2 kg. The ground was covered with the deformable soil to mimic the realistic IED explosion condition and reflect the blast wave. RESULTS: The IOP elevation of ∼6,000-48,000 mmHg was observed in the eyes while the highest IOP was occurred with the IED weight and distance of 2 kg and 2 m (front) and the lowest was occurred with the IED weight and distance of 1 kg and 4 m (side). Our findings suggest the importance of the victim location and orientation concerning the blast wave when it comes to ocular injury assessment. IOP elevation of ∼2900 and ∼2700 mmHg were observed in ∼1.6 ms after the blast for the IEDS weight of 2 kg and a victim distance of 2 m in front and side blasts, respectively, in consistence with the literature. Nonetheless, IOPs were considerably higher after ∼1.6 ms due to the merging of the bomb blast wave and its reflection off the ground. CONCLUSIONS: The stresses and strains were highest for the frontal blast. Both side and frontal blasts caused higher stresses and strains at the rectus muscle insertions where the sclera is thinnest and prone to rupture. Blast angle has no considerable role in the resultant IOP. Front blast with a heavier IED resulted a higher stresses and deformations in the eye connective tissues compared to the side blast.


Assuntos
Traumatismos por Explosões , Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Explosões , Humanos , Esclera
14.
Soc Stud Sci ; 52(2): 253-276, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35135406

RESUMO

The nexus between transnational mobilization and Science and Technology Studies (STS) offers a productive platform for studying the formation of scientific activism, the influence of mobilization on scientific developments, and the ways science is used to achieve government goals. Integrating concepts from both sets of literature - particularly national sociotechnical imaginaries and socio-spatial positionality - this article explores how Dr Chaim Weizmann, a prominent chemist and a Zionist leader, attempted to construct and mobilize a 'scientific diaspora'. Empirically, the article draws on new archival evidence, revealing the hitherto unknown early efforts of the Zionist movement to acquire nuclear reactor and utilize the Jewish involvement in the American nuclear project for political leverage abroad. Theoretically, rather than beginning the analysis with a scientific-diasporic network that was ready to be mobilized, we trace the selective and tailored practices employed by Weizmann to animate the Jewish connection among nuclear scientists and professionals.


Assuntos
Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Judeus , Governo , Migração Humana , Humanos , Estados Unidos
16.
Br J Anaesth ; 128(2): e120-e126, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Innovation and human adaptation in the face of unfolding catastrophe is the cornerstone of an effective systemwide response. Capturing, analysing, and disseminating this is fundamental in developing resilience for future events. The aim of this study was to understand the characteristics of adaptations to practice early in a paediatric major trauma centre during a mass casualty incident. METHODS: A qualitative interview study of 40 healthcare staff at a paediatric major trauma centre in the immediate aftermath of a terrorist bombing was conducted. An inductive thematic analysis approach was used, followed by a deductive analysis of the identified adaptations informed by constructs of resilience engineering. RESULTS: Five themes of adaptations to practice that enhanced the resilient performance of the hospital were identified: teamworking; psychologically supporting patients, families, and staff; reconfiguring infrastructure; working around the hospital electronic systems; and maintaining hospital safety. Examples of resilience potential in terms of respond, monitor, anticipate, and learn are presented. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows how adaptations to practice sustained the resilient performance of a paediatric major trauma centre during a mass casualty incident. Rapid, early capture of these data during a mass casualty incident provides key insights into enhancing future emergency preparedness, response, and resilience planning.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Terrorismo , Centros de Traumatologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Criança , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Resiliência Psicológica
17.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 48(1): 273-282, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175988

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report the types and effects of injuries to the thoracoabdominal region caused by blast and emphasize the importance of the early detection of primary blast injuries. METHODS: Of the 98 patients injured as a result of a bomb explosion, 31 with thoracoabdominal injuries were included in the study. The demographic and laboratory data, operations performed, and radiological findings were obtained from the electronic records of the patients. The injuries caused by the explosion were divided into four categories as primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. The patients with a new injury severity score (NISS) of ≥ 16 were considered to have critical injuries. RESULTS: While mortality developed in 16 (51.6%) of 31 patients included in the study, 15 (48.4%) were discharged after treatment. The mean ages of the patients in the mortality and survivor groups were 29.6 ± 4.5 and 31.1 ± 10.7 years, respectively (p > 0.005). When the two groups were examined, the rate of hypovolemic shock and NISS score were significantly higher in the mortality group (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively) and the pH of the patients in the mortality group was more acidic (7.18 ± 0.13 vs. 7.34 ± 0.13, p = 0.002). One patient in the survivor group required surgery after the explosion due to missed primary blast injuries. CONCLUSIONS: To make the best use of resources in terrorist attacks and mass casualties that place a huge burden on health systems, it is important to evaluate patients with the highest index of suspicion for concealed blast injuries in terms of hospitalization and observation. In addition, health systems need to develop a cost-effective strategy considering the possibility of delayed-onset blast injuries.


Assuntos
Traumatismos por Explosões , Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Terrorismo , Adulto , Traumatismos por Explosões/diagnóstico por imagem , Explosões , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento
19.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 85: 102275, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794085

RESUMO

When human remains are discovered, confirming the identification of the decedent is the first part of the forensic medical investigation. In cases where the remains are skeletonised or badly decomposed, differential preservation often increases the difficulty of this task. Bomb pulse dating, which directly compares levels of 14 C within human tissues to atmospheric levels, can provide an estimate of the year of death, which may assist in the identification process. This study measured the 14 C content in samples of hair, nail and puparia collected from donors at the Australian Facility for Taphonomic Experimental Research (AFTER). The radiocarbon results demonstrated that the nail samples provided the most accurate year of death estimation, with 91% correctly predicting YOD, closely followed by hair, with a 79% correct prediction rate, with both hair and nails having a lag time of 0-1 years. This is consistent with the time taken for atmospheric CO 2 to enter the food chain, and be taken in by humans. Puparia was found to have the highest levels of 14 C, and was the least consistent with the actual YOD (46% correct). However, predicted YOD ranges were still within 4 years of the actual YOD. Based on the results of this study, hair, nail and puparia should be considered as useful samples to obtain accurate estimates for YOD using bomb pulse dating.


Assuntos
Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Datação Radiométrica , Austrália , Radioisótopos de Carbono/análise , Humanos , Unhas/química
20.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 43(2): 199-203, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743143

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Crude bombs are country-made explosive weapons, usually prepared from locally available materials such as firecrackers or explosives used in mines. These are generally concealed inside the fruits, such as jackfruit, pineapple, and watermelon, to kill wild boars or other animals by poachers in India. Occasionally, crude bombs are remodeled resembling fruit or a ball and placed on the fields, where animals usually raid their crops. Such crude bombs may result in accidental explosions and contribute to the death of unintended targets, including humans. Despite these sporadic incidents reported in media, scientific data are lacking. Here, we report a young child who sustained injuries after an accidental explosion of such a crude bomb. It exploded when the child apparently mistook it for a ball and grasped it firmly while playing with his brother. This case is the first to report the accidental death of a child after the crude bomb's fatal explosion to the best of our knowledge. This report also briefly overviews the emerging menace of crude bombs in India.


Assuntos
Traumatismos por Explosões , Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Animais , Explosões , Humanos , Índia , Masculino
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