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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261194, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statins were shown to inhibit borrelial growth in vitro and promote clearance of spirochetes in a murine model of Lyme borreliosis (LB). We investigated the impact of statin use in patients with early LB. METHODS: In this post-hoc analysis, the association between statin use and clinical and microbiologic characteristics was investigated in 1520 adult patients with early LB manifesting as erythema migrans (EM), enrolled prospectively in several clinical trials between June 2006 and October 2019 at a single-center university hospital. Patients were assessed at enrollment and followed for 12 months. RESULTS: Statin users were older than patients not using statins, but statin use was not associated with Borrelia seropositivity rate, Borrelia skin culture positivity rate, or disease severity as assessed by erythema size or the presence of LB-associated symptoms. The time to resolution of EM was comparable in both groups. The odds for incomplete recovery decreased with time from enrollment, were higher in women, in patients with multiple EM, and in those reporting LB-associated symptoms at enrollment, but were unaffected by statin use. CONCLUSION: Statin use was not associated with clinical and microbiologic characteristics or long-term outcome in early LB.


Assuntos
Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritema Migrans Crônico/patologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Doença de Lyme/patologia , Pele/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , Eritema Migrans Crônico/tratamento farmacológico , Eritema Migrans Crônico/epidemiologia , Eritema Migrans Crônico/microbiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/microbiologia
2.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(4): 605-611, 2021 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969217

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze the concentrations of some serological parameters in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy for LD, and to assess the potential use of IgG anti-C6VlsE in the assessment of treatment effectiveness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 21 patients diagnosed with LD. To determine the levels of anti-C6VlsE IgG, metalloproteinases and cytokines, blood was collected three times: before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 3-4 months after treatment. RESULTS: Immediately after the antibiotic therapy, all the patients in the study group declared improvement in their health. At 3-4 months post-treatment, 50% of patients reported recurrence of the disease symptoms. The anti-C6VlsE IgG concentrations at the analyzed time points exhibited varied dynamics: in 15% of patients, a decrease in the concentration of anti-C6VlsE was observed in the three consecutive serum samples; an increase of anti-C6VlsE IgG was detected in 35% of cases; in 15% of the subjects, the concentration of anti-C6VlsE IgG increased immediately after the antibiotic therapy and declined after 3-4 months, whereas a reverse situation was noted in 10% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of high concentrations of anti-C6VlsE IgG is associated with appearance of response to Borreliella spp. infection, which suggests that the parameter can be used in the diagnosis of the active form of borreliosis. However, from a practical point of view, a marker of successful elimination of infection should indicate the effectiveness or failure of antibiotic therapy within a relatively short post-treatment period. The anti-C6VlsE IgG antibodies do not seem to satisfy this provision.


Assuntos
Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi , Doença de Lyme , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/tratamento farmacológico , Projetos Piloto
3.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(6): 101808, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455142

RESUMO

Spirochaetes constitute a unique phylum of bacteria, many of which cause severe clinical diseases. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l.)-the primary agent of Lyme borreliosis (LB)-is a quintessential member of this poorly understood phylum and the leading cause of tick-borne illness throughout most of the northern hemisphere. Despite its importance in human health, we lack a fundamental understanding of how B. burgdorferi s.l. is able to accomplish basic physiological tasks, such as DNA replication/segregation, and cell elongation or division. Recent advances in molecular tools to probe these essential cellular processes are great strides forward but require genetic manipulation. The latter is important since not all agents of LB are genetically tractable. Here, we describe a single method that is capable of fluorescently labeling B. burgdorferi s.l. proteins in different sub-cellular compartments. A comparative analysis of six different methods indicates that our optimized procedure outperforms all others and is the first to localize a cytoplasmic protein in B. burgdorferi s.l. by immunofluorescence. We contend that this strategy could be easily adapted to study the localization of any protein, in many Borrelia genospecies, information that will yield functional insights into the complex biology of this fascinating group of bacteria. In addition, it may provide new avenues of research in both in situ studies and in Lyme diagnostics.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/análise , Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , Imunofluorescência/métodos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(8): 2017-2024, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286689

RESUMO

Lyme disease, or Lyme borreliosis, is the most common tickborne disease in the United States and Europe. In both locations, Ixodes species ticks transmit the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato bacteria species responsible for causing the infection. The diversity of Borrelia species that cause human infection is greater in Europe; the 2 B. burgdorferi s.l. species collectively responsible for most infections in Europe, B. afzelii and B. garinii, are not found in the United States, where most infections are caused by B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. Strain differences seem to explain some of the variation in the clinical manifestations of Lyme disease, which are both minor and substantive, between the United States and Europe. Future studies should attempt to delineate the specific virulence factors of the different species of B. burgdorferi s.l. responsible for these variations in clinical features.


Assuntos
Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi , Borrelia , Ixodes , Doença de Lyme , Animais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/diagnóstico , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101766, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161868

RESUMO

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) is a bacterial species complex that includes the etiological agents of the most frequently reported vector-borne disease in the Northern hemisphere, Lyme borreliosis. It currently comprises > 20 named and proposed genospecies that use vertebrate hosts and tick vectors for transmission in the Americas and Eurasia. Host (and vector) associations influence geographic distribution and speciation in Bbsl, which is of particular relevance to human health. To target gaps in knowledge for future efforts to understand broad patterns of the Bbsl-tick-host system and how they relate to human health, the present review aims to give a comprehensive summary of the literature on host association in Bbsl. Of 465 papers consulted (404 after exclusion criteria were applied), 96 sought to experimentally establish reservoir competence of 143 vertebrate host species for Bbsl. We recognize xenodiagnosis as the strongest method used, however it is infrequent (20% of studies) probably due to difficulties in maintaining tick vectors and/or wild host species in the lab. Some well-established associations were not experimentally confirmed according to our definition (ex: Borrelia garinii, Ixodes uriae and sea birds). We conclude that our current knowledge on host association in Bbsl is mostly derived from a subset of host, vector and bacterial species involved, providing an incomplete knowledge of the physiology, ecology and evolutionary history of these interactions. More studies are needed on all host, vector and bacterial species globally involved with a focus on non-rodent hosts and Asian Bbsl complex species, especially with experimental research that uses xenodiagnosis and genomics to analyze existing host associations in different ecosystems.


Assuntos
Aves/parasitologia , Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Mamíferos/parasitologia , Répteis/parasitologia , Animais , Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/classificação
6.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(18): e0064121, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191531

RESUMO

The microbiome of blood-sucking arthropods can shape their competence to acquire and maintain infections with vector-borne pathogens. We used a controlled study to investigate the interactions between Borrelia afzelii, which causes Lyme borreliosis in Europe, and the bacterial microbiome of Ixodes ricinus, its primary tick vector. We applied a surface sterilization treatment to I. ricinus eggs to produce dysbiosed tick larvae that had a low bacterial abundance and a changed bacterial microbiome compared to those of the control larvae. Dysbiosed and control larvae fed on B. afzelii-infected mice and uninfected control mice, and the engorged larvae were left to molt into nymphs. The nymphs were tested for B. afzelii infection, and their bacterial microbiome underwent 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Surprisingly, larval dysbiosis had no effect on the vector competence of I. ricinus for B. afzelii, as the nymphal infection prevalence and the nymphal spirochete load were the same between the dysbiosed group and the control group. The strong effect of egg surface sterilization on the tick bacterial microbiome largely disappeared once the larvae molted into nymphs. The most important determinant of the bacterial microbiome of I. ricinus nymphs was the B. afzelii infection status of the mouse on which the nymphs had fed as larvae. Nymphs that had taken their larval blood meal from an infected mouse had a less abundant but more diverse bacterial microbiome than the control nymphs. Our study demonstrates that vector-borne infections in the vertebrate host shape the microbiome of the arthropod vector. IMPORTANCE Many blood-sucking arthropods transmit pathogens that cause infectious disease. For example, Ixodes ricinus ticks transmit the bacterium Borrelia afzelii, which causes Lyme disease in humans. Ticks also have a microbiome, which can influence their ability to acquire and transmit tick-borne pathogens such as B. afzelii. We sterilized I. ricinus eggs with bleach, and the tick larvae that hatched from these eggs had a dramatically reduced and changed bacterial microbiome compared to that of control larvae. These larvae fed on B. afzelii-infected mice, and the resultant nymphs were tested for B. afzelii and for their bacterial microbiome. We found that our manipulation of the bacterial microbiome had no effect on the ability of the tick larvae to acquire and maintain populations of B. afzelii. In contrast, we found that B. afzelii infection had dramatic effects on the bacterial microbiome of I. ricinus nymphs. Our study demonstrates that infections in the vertebrate host can shape the tick microbiome.


Assuntos
Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi , Ixodes/microbiologia , Doença de Lyme/transmissão , Animais , Etanol , Feminino , Larva/microbiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microbiota , Ninfa/microbiologia , Óvulo , Hipoclorito de Sódio , Esterilização
7.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 84(3): 593-606, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125334

RESUMO

Assessing the risk of tick-borne disease in areas with high visitor numbers is important from a public health perspective. Evidence suggests that tick presence, density, infection prevalence and the density of infected ticks can vary between habitats within urban green space, suggesting that the risk of Lyme borreliosis transmission can also vary. This study assessed nymph density, Borrelia prevalence and the density of infected nymphs across a range of habitat types in nine parks in London which receive millions of visitors each year. Ixodes ricinus were found in only two of the nine locations sampled, and here they were found in all types of habitat surveyed. Established I. ricinus populations were identified in the two largest parks, both of which had resident free-roaming deer populations. Highest densities of nymphs (15.68 per 100 m2) and infected nymphs (1.22 per 100 m2) were associated with woodland and under canopy habitats in Richmond Park, but ticks infected with Borrelia were found across all habitat types surveyed. Nymphs infected with Borrelia (7.9%) were only reported from Richmond Park, where Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia afzelii were identified as the dominant genospecies. Areas with short grass appeared to be less suitable for ticks and maintaining short grass in high footfall areas could be a good strategy for reducing the risk of Lyme borreliosis transmission to humans in such settings. In areas where this would create conflict with existing practices which aim to improve and/or meet historic landscape, biodiversity and public access goals, promoting public health awareness of tick-borne disease risks could also be utilised.


Assuntos
Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi , Borrelia burgdorferi , Cervos , Ixodes , Doença de Lyme , Animais , Londres/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Ninfa , Reino Unido
8.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101735, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989985

RESUMO

Many local anaesthetics, including lidocaine, procaine and ropivacaine inhibit bacterial growth. This study investigates potential effects of these local anaesthetics on growth of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (Bbss), Borrelia bavariensis (Bbav) and Borrelia afzelii (Ba). For this purpose, Borrelia spp. organisms were either continuously or temporarily exposed to one of four local anaesthetics preparations: 20 mg/ml procaine hydrochloride (P); 10 mg/ml ropivacaine hydrochloride (R); 20 mg/ml lidocaine hydrochloride (L1, L2). L2 also contained the preservatives methyl-benzoate and propyl-benzoate, whereas P, R and L1 did not. All four local anaesthetic preparations inhibited in vitro growth of Borrelia spp. depending on concentration and exposure time. There are differences in sensitivity among the Borrelia spp. with Bbav being more susceptible to growth inhibition than Bbss and Ba. When comparing the different local anaesthetic preparations with their regard to inhibition of growth of Borrelia spp. organisms, P showed the lowest impact. It cannot be completely excluded that preservatives present in L2, methyl-benzoate and propyl-benzoate, may be a reason for further inhibition of Borrelia spp. organisms. Concentrations of local anaesthetics used in these experiments may also be present in the skin of patients during regular medical procedures. These are preliminary findings and further experiments, preferably in vivo, are necessary. To minimize the risk to produce false negative results with cultures, we recommend using procaine in a preparation without preservatives for local anaesthesia prior to skin sampling.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/farmacologia , Borrelia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Borrelia burgdorferi/efeitos dos fármacos , Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Spirochaetales/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10686, 2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021230

RESUMO

Arthropod vectors carry vector-borne pathogens that cause infectious disease in vertebrate hosts, and arthropod-associated microbiota, which consists of non-pathogenic microorganisms. Vector-borne pathogens and the microbiota can both influence the fitness of their arthropod vectors, and hence the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases. The bacterium Borrelia afzelii, which causes Lyme borreliosis in Europe, is transmitted among vertebrate reservoir hosts by Ixodes ricinus ticks, which also harbour a diverse microbiota of non-pathogenic bacteria. The purpose of this controlled study was to test whether B. afzelii and the tick-associated microbiota influence the fitness of I. ricinus. Eggs obtained from field-collected adult female ticks were surface sterilized (with bleach and ethanol), which reduced the abundance of the bacterial microbiota in the hatched I. ricinus larvae by 28-fold compared to larvae that hatched from control eggs washed with water. The dysbiosed and control larvae were subsequently fed on B. afzelii-infected or uninfected control mice, and the engorged larvae were left to moult into nymphs under laboratory conditions. I. ricinus larvae that fed on B. afzelii-infected mice had a significantly faster larva-to-nymph moulting time compared to larvae that fed on uninfected control mice, but the effect was small (2.4% reduction) and unlikely to be biologically significant. We found no evidence that B. afzelii infection or reduction of the larval microbiota influenced the four other life history traits of the immature I. ricinus ticks, which included engorged larval weight, unfed nymphal weight, larva-to-nymph moulting success, and immature tick survival. A retrospective power analysis found that our sampling effort had sufficient power (> 80%) to detect small effects (differences of 5% to 10%) of our treatments. Under the environmental conditions of this study, we conclude that B. afzelii and the egg surface microbiota had no meaningful effects on tick fitness and hence on the R0 of Lyme borreliosis.


Assuntos
Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi , Insetos Vetores/microbiologia , Ixodes/microbiologia , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/transmissão , Aptidão Física , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Ixodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/microbiologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Doença de Lyme/imunologia , Camundongos , Prevalência , Picadas de Carrapatos
10.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(4): 101725, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865176

RESUMO

Lyme borreliosis (LB) is one of the most common vector-borne diseases transmitted by ticks. It is caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) genospecies. The Almaty oblast of Kazakhstan is considered endemic for LB. Nevertheless, there are significant gaps in the tick surveillance for LB agents in the region. We evaluated B. burgdorferi s.l. prevalence in 413 ixodid ticks collected from bitten people and the seroprevalence of antibodies to B. burgdorferi s.l. in 589 residents of the Almaty oblast, Kazakhstan. All samples were collected between 2018 and 2020. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. DNA was detected in 24 % (9/38) of I. persulcatus ticks that attacked humans in the city of Almaty and the Talgar and Karasay districts. Multilocus sequence typing identified two novel B. afzelii sequence types in I. persulcatus. The seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. in the analyzed population was detected to be 5.8 %. The obtained results confirm active circulation of B. burgdorferi s.l. in the Almaty oblast of Kazakhstan and raise concern regarding LB preventive measures in the region.


Assuntos
Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Animais , Feminino , Cazaquistão , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
11.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(7): 2383-2387, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33817927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) consists of pooled donor immunoglobulins (IgG), possibly including anti-Borrelia burgdorferi (Bbsl) antibodies. Apparent IVIg-related Bbsl seroconversion could lead to incorrect diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. This cohort study was designed to determine how often IVIg treatment leads to apparent Bbsl seroconversion and whether antibodies disappear post-treatment. METHODS: Sera from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and myositis patients were analyzed, drawn pre-treatment and 6-12 weeks after the start of IVIg. In patients with apparent seroconversion, follow-up samples after treatment withdrawal were analyzed, if available. Patients treated with corticosteroids were included as controls. A two-tier protocol was used for serological testing consisting of the C6 Lyme ELISA (Oxford Immunotec) and confirmation by immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) immunoblot (Mikrogen® ). RESULTS: We included 61 patients: 51 patients were treated with IVIg and 10 with dexamethasone. Of the patients treated with IVIg, 42 had CIDP (82%) and were treated with Nanogam® (Sanquin Plasma Products). Nine patients had myositis (18%) and were treated with Privigen® (CSL Behring). Anti-Bbsl IgG seroprevalence pre-treatment was 3% (2/61). Apparent seroconversion during IVIg treatment occurred in 39% (20/51) of patients, all treated with Nanogam. Post-treatment seroreversion occurred in 92% (12/13) of patients with available follow-up samples; in 78% (7/9) seroreversion was observed within 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Transient presence of anti-Bbsl IgG antibodies after IVIg is regularly observed. This effect appears to be dependent on the IVIg brand, probably reflecting variation in Bbsl exposure of plasma donors. Lyme borreliosis serological testing during, and weeks to months after, IVIg is therefore of limited utility.


Assuntos
Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi , Borrelia burgdorferi , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas , Soroconversão , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(2)2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669940

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne infectious disease in Europe, caused by the spirocheta bacteria of Borrelia burgdorferi. Several genospecies of B. burgdorferi are pathogenic to humans. B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, which is prevalent in North America, causes reactive arthritis, whereas B. garinii and B. afzelii, common in Europe, can affect the skin, heart, or nervous system; it has been shown that the clinical symptoms of the disease may be very different. The objective of this study was to identify the baseline characteristics of Lyme disease and to elucidate the frequency of different Lyme disease syndromes in Lithuania. Materials and Methods: Patients who were diagnosed with Lyme disease during an ambulatory visit to the Center of Infectious Diseases, Vilnius University Santaros clinics, from 2014 to 2016, were enrolled in this study. A retrospective material analysis was conducted. Results: In total, 1005 patients were enrolled with the following prevalence of clinical syndromes: erythema migrans (EM), 945 (94.02%); Lyme arthritis, 32 (3.18%); neuroborreliosis, 23 (2.28%); Lyme carditis, 4 (0.39%); and acrodermatitis, 1 (0.09%). Erythema migrans was dominant among middle-aged women, with a rash appearing mainly on the lower extremities. Lyme arthritis mainly manifested among middle-aged women as an oligoarthritis, mostly affecting the knee joint. Neuroborreliosis was seen more often in middle-aged women than men and the main symptom was nervus facialis neuropathy. Lyme carditis, manifested as an atrioventricular block, with a male/female ratio of 3:1, and the median age was 51. Acrodermatitis was diagnosed in a 61-year-old woman, as a painful, red rash on the hand. Conclusions: According to the prevalence of B. garinii and B. afzelii in Europe, previously it was thought that Lyme disease presented as erythema migrans, and less frequently as neuroborreliosis; however, this study revealed that other syndromes may also be seen. In addition, we revealed that the longer it takes for erythema migrans to appear, the greater the likelihood of Lyme arthritis developing.


Assuntos
Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi , Doença de Lyme , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Lituânia/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/diagnóstico , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
ISME J ; 15(8): 2390-2400, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658621

RESUMO

Pathogen species often consist of genetically distinct strains, which can establish mixed infections or coinfections in the host. In coinfections, interactions between pathogen strains can have important consequences for their transmission success. We used the tick-borne bacterium Borrelia afzelii, which is the most common cause of Lyme disease in Europe, as a model multi-strain pathogen to investigate the relationship between coinfection, competition between strains, and strain-specific transmission success. Mus musculus mice were infected with one or two strains of B. afzelii, strain transmission success was measured by feeding ticks on mice, and the distribution of each strain in six different mouse organs and the ticks was measured using qPCR. Coinfection and competition reduced the tissue infection prevalence of both strains and changed their bacterial abundance in some tissues. Coinfection and competition also reduced the transmission success of the B. afzelii strains from the infected hosts to feeding ticks. The ability of the B. afzelii strains to establish infection in the host tissues was strongly correlated with their transmission success to the tick vector. Our study demonstrates that coinfection and competition between pathogen strains inside the host tissues can have major consequences for their transmission success.


Assuntos
Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi , Coinfecção , Ixodes , Doença de Lyme , Animais , Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/genética , Europa (Continente) , Camundongos
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 168, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of Lyme borreliosis and other tick-borne diseases is increasing in Europe and North America. There is currently much interest in identifying the ecological factors that determine the density of infected ticks as this variable determines the risk of Lyme borreliosis to vertebrate hosts, including humans. Lyme borreliosis is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and in western Europe, the hard tick Ixodes ricinus is the most important vector. METHODS: Over a 15-year period (2004-2018), we monitored the monthly abundance of I. ricinus ticks (nymphs and adults) and their B. burgdorferi s.l. infection status at four different elevations on a mountain in western Switzerland. We collected climate variables in the field and from nearby weather stations. We obtained data on beech tree seed production (masting) from the literature, as the abundance of Ixodes nymphs can increase dramatically 2 years after a masting event. We used generalized linear mixed effects models and AIC-based model selection to identify the ecological factors that influence inter-annual variation in the nymphal infection prevalence (NIP) and the density of infected nymphs (DIN). RESULTS: We found that the NIP decreased by 78% over the study period. Inter-annual variation in the NIP was explained by the mean precipitation in the present year, and the duration that the DNA extraction was stored in the freezer prior to pathogen detection. The DIN decreased over the study period at all four elevation sites, and the decrease was significant at the top elevation. Inter-annual variation in the DIN was best explained by elevation site, year, beech tree masting index 2 years prior and the mean relative humidity in the present year. This is the first study in Europe to demonstrate that seed production by deciduous trees influences the density of nymphs infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. and hence the risk of Lyme borreliosis. CONCLUSIONS: Public health officials in Europe should be aware that masting by deciduous trees is an important predictor of the risk of Lyme borreliosis.


Assuntos
Fagus/fisiologia , Ixodes/microbiologia , Doença de Lyme/transmissão , Ninfa/microbiologia , Sementes/fisiologia , Animais , Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi , Clima , Feminino , Florestas , Humanos , Incidência , Doença de Lyme/etiologia , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Suíça
16.
J Intern Med ; 290(2): 335-348, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information on large groups of patients with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA) is limited. METHODS: We assessed clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with ACA diagnosed at a single medical centre and compared findings in periods 1991-2004 vs. 2005-2018. The cohort is representative of Slovenian ACA patients. RESULTS: We assessed 693 patients: 461 females and 232 males, with median age of 64 years. Median duration of ACA before diagnosis was 12 months. In all but 2 patients, the skin lesions were located on extremities, more often on the lower (70.0%) than the upper (45.2%), bilaterally in 42.4%. Reddish-blue discoloration, swelling, thinning and wrinkling of skin were present in 95.2%, 28.1%, 46.4% and 20.5% of patients, respectively. Overall, 64.4% of patients reported constitutional symptoms, 23.1% had local symptoms, and 20.8% had symptoms/signs of peripheral neuropathy. Nodules, arthritis, joint deformity, muscle atrophy and paresis were rare (<3%). Borreliae were isolated from 200/664 (30.1%) skin samples; 92.8% were Borrelia afzelii. B. garinii and B. burgdorferi s.s. were more often isolated from the skin of male patients (OR = 4.17) and from those with arthropathy (OR = 11.74). Patients included in the more recent period were older, complained less often of constitutional symptoms but more often of local symptoms, and more often had local swelling but less often skin atrophy and bilateral involvement, probably as a consequence of earlier diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: ACA, typically caused by B. afzelii, usually affects older women. Clinical presentation depends on the duration of illness and probably on the Borrelia species causing the disease.


Assuntos
Acrodermatite/microbiologia , Acrodermatite/patologia , Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , Doença de Lyme/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Atrofia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Eslovênia
17.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(5): 1003-1012, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387122

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic method for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in CSF of Swedish children with LNB. This study was performed retrospectively on CSF and serum samples collected from children evaluated for LNB (n = 233) and controls with other specific neurological disorders (n = 59) in a Swedish Lyme endemic area. For anti-Borrelia antibody index, the IDEIA Lyme Neuroborreliosis kit (Oxoid) was used. Two in-house real-time PCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA gene were evaluated (TaqMan® and LUX™). Among patients classified as LNB cases (n = 102), five children (5%) were Borrelia PCR-positive in CSF with the TaqMan® assay. In the Non-LNB group (n = 131), one patient was Borrelia PCR positive with the TaqMan® assay. Among controls (n = 59), all CSF samples were PCR negative. When amplifying and sequencing ospA, we found B. garinii (n = 2), B. afzelii (n = 2), B. bavariensis (n = 1), and one untypable (n = 1). With the LUX™ technology, all CSF samples were PCR negative. The TaqMan® assay could detect only few cases (n = 6) of B. burgdorferi s.l. in CSF among children with LNB and the sensitivity was very low (5%). However, using larger CSF volumes and centrifugation of samples, the PCR technique could still be useful as a complementary diagnostic method when evaluating LNB. Furthermore, detection of spirochete DNA in clinical matrices, including CSF, is the method of choice for studying epidemiological aspects of LNB, a tick-borne emerging disease.


Assuntos
Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Adolescente , Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/sangue , Masculino , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Suécia
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 608-611, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496234

RESUMO

We collected questing Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks from southeastern counties of Pennsylvania, USA. Of 263 ticks tested by PCR for pathogens, 1 adult female was positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, yielding a 0.4% infection rate. Continued monitoring of this invasive tick is essential to determine its public health role.


Assuntos
Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi , Borrelia burgdorferi , Ixodes , Ixodidae , Doença de Lyme , Carrapatos , Animais , Borrelia burgdorferi/genética , Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/genética , DNA , Feminino , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia
19.
Med Vet Entomol ; 35(3): 352-360, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415732

RESUMO

Understanding the variation in Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection rates in Ixodes ricinus ticks is important for assessing the potential for Lyme borreliosis transmission. This study aimed to investigate infection rates of B. burgdorferi s.l. bacteria in I. ricinus across 24 field sites in England and Wales, focussing on protected recreational areas in National Parks (NPs) and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONBs), to provide comparable data across multiple years to assess spatio-temporal changes in B. burgdorferi s.l. infection. Working with park rangers, questing ticks were collected each spring from 2014 to 2019. A subset of ticks, 4104 nymphs, were analysed using a pan-Borrelia qPCR assay, as well as a Borrelia miyamotoi-specific qPCR, and sequenced to determine Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. genospecies. Site-specific B. burgdorferi s.l. infection rates in I. ricinus nymphs varied from 0% to 24%, with overall infection rates ranging from 2.5% to 5.1% across the years. Genospecies composition of sequenced samples was 62.5% B. garinii, 20.3% B. valaisiana and 17.2% B. afzelii. Borrelia miyamotoi was detected in 0.2% of ticks. This study increases our knowledge on B. burgdorferi s.l.. infection in areas used by the public for outdoor activity across England and Wales, highlighting the spatial and temporal variability which can impact the changing risk to humans from infected tick bites.


Assuntos
Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi , Borrelia burgdorferi , Ixodes , Doença de Lyme , Animais , Borrelia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , País de Gales/epidemiologia
20.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(1): 101586, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059172

RESUMO

The distribution and prevalence of zoonotic pathogens infecting ixodid ticks in Western Europe have been extensively examined. However, data on ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Eastern Europe, particularly Ukraine are scarce. The objective of the current study was, therefore, to investigate the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasmataceae, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., Bartonella spp., and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in engorged and questing ixodid ticks collected from five administrative regions (oblasts) of Ukraine, namely Chernivtsi, Khmelnytskyi, Kyiv, Ternopil, and Vinnytsia. The ticks were collected from both wild and domestic animals and from vegetation. Of 524 ixodid ticks collected, 3, 99, and 422 ticks were identified as Ixodes hexagonus, Ixodes ricinus, and Dermacentor reticulatus, respectively. DNA samples individually extracted from 168 questing and 354 engorged adult ticks were subjected to pathogen-specific PCR analyses. The mean prevalence in I. ricinus and D. reticulatus were, respectively: 10 % (10/97) and 3 % (12/422) for A. phagocytophilum; 69 % (67/97) and 52 % (220/422) for members of the Anaplasmataceae family; 25 % (24/97) and 28 % (117/422) for Rickettsia spp.; 3 % (3/97) and 1 % (6/422) for Babesia spp.; and 9 % (9/97) and 5 % (20/422) for Bartonella spp. Overall, between the five cities, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of any of the pathogens for the respective ticks (p > 0.05). The prevalence of B. burgdorferi s. l. in the questing and engorged I. ricinus varied from 0 to 27 % and 14-44%, respectively, with no statistical significance identified between the five cities (p > 0.05). In addition to reporting the updated data for Kyiv and Ternopil, this study is the first to provide the prevalences of the tick-borne pathogens for Chernivtsi, Khmelnytskyi, and Vinnytsia. This investigation is also the first to detect Neoehrlichia mikurensis in ixodid ticks from Ukraine. These new data will be useful for medical and veterinary practitioners as well as public health officials when diagnosing infections and when implementing measures to combat tick-borne diseases in Ukraine.


Assuntos
Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/veterinária , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Anaplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/parasitologia , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , Dermacentor/microbiologia , Dermacentor/parasitologia , Ixodes/microbiologia , Ixodes/parasitologia , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Plantas , Prevalência , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia , Ucrânia/epidemiologia
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