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2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 475, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553290

RESUMO

The emergence of tick-borne diseases has been reported as a serious problem in public health worldwide and many aspects of its epidemiology and effects on the health of its hosts are unclear. We aimed to perform an epidemiological study of tick-borne zoonotic Rickettsia, Borrelia, and Anaplasmataceae in horses from Midwestern Brazil. We also evaluated whether Borrelia spp. and Anaplasmataceae may be associated with hematological disorders in the sampled animals. Blood and serum samples as well as ticks were collected from 262 horses. Serum samples were used to perform serological tests, and hematological analyses were made using whole blood. Furthermore, DNA extracted from whole blood and ticks was used for molecular tests. Campo Grande is enzootic for tick-borne studied bacteria, since we found an overall exposure of 59.9% of the sampled horses, 28.7% of them presented co-exposure. Seropositivity rates of 20.6% for Borrelia spp., 25.6% for Rickettsia spp., and 31.6% for Anaplasmataceae were found in the sampled horses. Considering both molecular and serological tests for Borrelia spp., the infection rate was 48.0% (126/262). None of the tested horses showed molecular positivity for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The horses sampled displayed 7.2% of parasitism by ixodid ticks in single and coinfestations. We did not find DNA of any studied bacteria in the sampled ticks. Positive horses for Borrelia spp. and Anaplasmataceae agents displayed leukopenia, monocytopenia, and lymphopenia. Together, our results suggest that horses may play a role as sentinel host for zoonotic bacteria and Borrelia spp. and Anaplasmataceae agents can impair the health of horses.


Assuntos
Borrelia , Doenças dos Cavalos , Ixodes , Rickettsia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária
3.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(3): 397-403, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to analyze some metalloproteinases, cytokines, and chemokines in LB patients and healthy seropositive subjects. The presence of IgM/IgG antibodies against specific Borreliella antigens was analyzed in the presence or absence of clinical manifestations of LB. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 38 patients diagnosed with LB and arthralgia and/or arthritis symptoms, and 57 foresters presenting no clinical symptoms of LB. The ELISA test was applied for general screening of anti-Borreliella IgM/IgG. Western blot was used for confirmatory diagnosis of LB for the positive and borderline results. Serum IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IFN-γ, TNF, IL-8, CCL5, CXCL9/MIG, CCL2/MCP-1, CXCL10/IP-10 concentrations were measured with the use of the Human Cytometric CBA test. The concentration of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the serum was determined with the use of ELISA tests. RESULTS: Analysis of the cytokines and chemokines revealed that only the concentration of IL-2 was significantly higher (2.4 pg/m; p=0.00641) in patients with LB symptoms than in the seropositive individuals (0.4 pg/ml). The MMP2 concentration was significantly higher (233.3 ng/ml; p=0.00294) in patients with clinical manifestations of LB than in those occupationally exposed to tick bites, but did not have anti-Borreliella antibodies (192.0 ng/ml). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of IgG antibodies against a number of Borreliella antigens and the differences in the IL-2 and MMP2 levels in seropositive or seronegative individuals and symptomatic LB patients, may indicate differences in the intensity of the immune response to the infection and, consequently, may induce development of clinical manifestations of the disease in seropositive and seronegative individuals.


Assuntos
Doença de Lyme/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Infecções Assintomáticas , Borrelia/imunologia , Borrelia/fisiologia , Quimiocinas/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Doença de Lyme/diagnóstico , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/sangue , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Picadas de Carrapatos/sangue , Picadas de Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Picadas de Carrapatos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 484, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570262

RESUMO

Vector-borne bacterial diseases (VBBD) are a diverse group of tropical and subtropical zoonotic diseases. This study investigated the possibility of domestic animals to carry certain vector-borne bacterial microorganisms (VBBMs), as well as the presence of these targeted DNAs in their ectoparasites in different localities of Egypt using molecular analyses. For this study, 234 animal hosts (112 cattle, 38 sheep, 28 goats, 26 buffaloes, 22 donkeys, and 8 horses) in addition to 115 ectoparasites (95 ticks and 20 lice) were investigated for the molecular detection of Bartonella spp., Borrelia spp., and Rickettsia spp., targeting 16S-23S rRNAITS, 16S rRNA, and gltA genes, respectively. The results indicated that the overall prevalence of VBBD was observed in 17 animals (7.26%), of which 16 (6.84%) were positive for Bartonella spp. and one (0.43%) was positive for Borrelia theileri. All blood samples were negative for the DNA of Rickettsia spp. In addition, the results demonstrated that all ectoparasites were free from VBBDNA. Furthermore, of the animals examined for ectoparasite infestation, 28 (11.97%) and 5 (2.14%) represented Rhipicephalus annulatus ticks and Haematopinus tuberculatus lice, respectively, which infested animals. Analysis of epidemiological factors revealed that gender, age, and ectoparasitic infestation of animals had a significant effect on Bartonella infection, whereas no significant difference between animal species was observed. Hence, we report a potential novel Bartonella sp. from cattle and buffaloes, including a new genotype of Bo. theileri from cattle, in Egypt.


Assuntos
Borrelia , Rhipicephalus , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Bovinos , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Egito/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Epidemiologia Molecular , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ovinos
6.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 85(1): 63-73, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528136

RESUMO

Pathogens carried by ticks pose a threat to both human and animal health across the world. Typically associated with rural landscapes, ticks appear to adapt well to life in urban recreational areas. Although Dermacentor reticulatus is commonly found across Europe, data on the prevalence of pathogens in this tick species, in an urban environment, are very limited. PCR was used to examine 368 D. reticulatus individuals collected in the Zwierzyniecki Forest Nature Reserve in Bialystok, Poland. In total, 10.3% of ticks were infected, with Babesia spp. (9.2%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (0.8%) and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (0.3%). Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., and Coxiella burnetii were not detected. Sequence analysis for Babesia-positive samples identified 79.4% of them as Babesia canis, 8.8% as Babesia microti, 5.9% as Babesia spp., 2.9% as Babesia venatorum, and 2.9% as Babesia vogeli. Results obtained in this study indicate that D. reticulatus ticks found within the urban premises of the study area are infected with at least three pathogens and therefore are an important factor in public health risk for tick-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Babesia , Borrelia burgdorferi , Borrelia , Dermacentor , Animais , Polônia/epidemiologia
7.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(6): 101825, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536770

RESUMO

In Iran, Borrelia persica and Borrelia microti/microti-like borreliae have been established as causative agents of tickborne relapsing fever (TBRF). However, the epidemiology of two previously described species, Borrelia balthazardi and Borrelia latyschewii (latychevi), has remained elusive for many years. We investigated Borrelia infection in various rodents and small mammals in the TBRF endemic East Azerbaijan Province, northwestern Iran, where B. perisca and B. balthazardi might coexist. Among trapped animals (n=210), a 16S real-time PCR detected Borrelia DNA in 11 Meriones persicus. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using six different loci, including four coding regions (flaB, glpQ, groEL, p66) and two non-coding (rrs, IGS) followed by phylogeny revealed considerable sequence identity between the borreliae detected, B. microti, and East African Borrelia duttonii, and Borrelia recurrentis. Our results indicate that B. microti and microti-like borreliae, including the specimens previously characterized in the south of Iran and the present study, are different ecotypes of B. duttonii, i.e., exhibiting a single species/entity or descendants of a recent common ancestor. Our findings also suggest that the species we had long coined as B. balthazardi and the microti-like borreliae detected herein might be the same.


Assuntos
Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Gerbillinae , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Animais , Borrelia/classificação , Irã (Geográfico) , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia
8.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 70(2): 118-130, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412488

RESUMO

Borrelia miyamotoi is an emerging tick-borne pathogen phylogenetically belonging to spirochaetes causing relapsing fever. It is primarily transmitted by ticks from the Ixodes ricinus complex, similarly to borreliae causing Lyme borreliosis. Small rodents can serve as reservoir hosts. It is widespread in mild climate areas of the northern hemisphere, with constant low prevalence in ticks, in the range of units of percent. To date more than 200 human cases have been described including five cases of meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients. Clinical features of illness are non-specific, characterized by fever, fatigue, chills, headaches, muscles and joint pains. It can be treated with antibiotics. The diagnostic approach includes mainly PCR and serological methods. This review summarizes current knowledge on B. miyamotoi with an emphasis on taxonomy, ecology of vectors and reservoir hosts, geographical distribution, diagnosis and treatment of the disease. The review also highlights the need for an accurate determination of the etiology of the disease and its differentiation from Lyme borreliosis and human granulocytic anaplasmosis.


Assuntos
Borrelia , Ixodes , Doença de Lyme , Febre Recorrente , Animais , Humanos , Febre Recorrente/diagnóstico , Febre Recorrente/tratamento farmacológico
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(8): e0009642, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398885

RESUMO

Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) spirochetes are likely an overlooked cause of disease in Latin America. In Panama, the pathogens were first reported to cause human disease in the early 1900s. Recent collections of Ornithodoros puertoricensis from human dwellings in Panama prompted our interest to determine whether spirochetes still circulate in the country. Ornithodoros puertoricensis ticks were collected at field sites around the City of Panama. In the laboratory, the ticks were determined to be infected with TBRF spirochetes by transmission to mice, and we report the laboratory isolation and genetic characterization of a species of TBRF spirochete from Panama. Since this was the first isolation of a species of TBRF spirochete from Central America, we propose to designate the bacteria as Borrelia puertoricensis sp. nov. This is consistent with TBRF spirochete species nomenclature from North America that are designated after their tick vector. These findings warrant further investigations to assess the threat B. puertoricensis sp. nov. may impose on human health.


Assuntos
Borrelia/genética , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Ornithodoros/microbiologia , Febre Recorrente/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Animais , DNA Bacteriano , Comportamento Alimentar , Ornithodoros/genética , Ornithodoros/fisiologia , Panamá/epidemiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Febre Recorrente/microbiologia , Roedores/parasitologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Infestações por Carrapato/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 348, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common vector-borne disease in Europe. Monitoring changes in the prevalence of different Borrelia species in ticks may be an important indicator of risk assessment and of differences in pathogenicity in humans. The objective of our study was to assess the prevalence, co-infection and distribution of Borrelia and Babesia species in ticks removed from humans in a large sample collected during a study period of 4 years. METHODS: The ticks were collected throughout Poland from March to November over 4-year period from 2016 to 2019. All ticks (n = 1953) were morphologically identified in terms of species and developmental stage. Molecular screening for Borrelia and Babesia by amplification of the flagellin gene (flaB) or 18S rRNA marker was performed. Pathogen identity was confirmed by Sanger sequencing or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. RESULTS: The ticks removed from humans in Poland during this study belonged to two species: Ixodes ricinus (97%) and Dermacentor reticulatus (3%). High Borrelia prevalence (25.3%), including B. miyamotoi (8.4%), was confirmed in Ixodes ricinus ticks removed from humans, as was the change in frequency of occurrence of Borrelia species during the 4-year study. Despite Babesia prevalence being relatively low (1.3%), the majority of tested isolates are considered to be pathogenic to humans. Babesia infection was observed more frequently among Borrelia-positive ticks (2.7%) than among ticks uninfected with Borrelia (0.8%). The most frequent dual co-infections were between Borrelia afzelii and Babesia microti. The presence of Borrelia was also confirmed in D. reticulatus (12.7%); however the role of these ticks in spirochete transmission to susceptible hosts is still unclear. CONCLUSIONS: Although the overall risk of developing LB after a tick bite is low in Europe, knowledge of the prevalence and distribution of Borrelia and Babesia species in ticks might be an important indicator of the risk of both these tick-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Babesia/genética , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Borrelia/genética , Coinfecção , Ixodes/microbiologia , Ixodes/parasitologia , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Animais , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesia/patogenicidade , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Borrelia/patogenicidade , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia
11.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 43: 102134, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lyme disease is endemic to parts of the Americas, Europe and Asia. However, only a handful of sporadic cases have been reported from India. In this study, we systematically evaluated the clinical and epidemiological features of Lyme disease in North India. METHOD: All samples were tested by using the standard two-tiered testing algorithm (STTA). Paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were used for demonstrating Borrelia burgdorferi specific intrathecal IgG antibody synthesis (AI). In addition, a commercial tick-borne bacterial flow chip (TBFC) system and a real-time PCR were also used to detect Borrelia species and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in patients who were positive by STTA. RESULTS: The diagnosis of Lyme disease was confirmed in 18 (7.14%) of the 252 clinically suspected cases by STTA. Neurological involvement was reported in 14 (77.78%) patients, whereas joint and heart involvement was reported in five (27.78%) and three (16.67%) patients, respectively. Lymphocytic pleocytosis (median 37.5 cells/mm3; range 12-175 cells/mm3) in the CSF was seen in 11 of 14 Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) patients. Intrathecal production of Borrelia specific IgG antibodies was demonstrated in 9 (64.28%, n = 14) patients, a highly specific finding for neuroborreliosis. Two patients (11.11%) were also found to be co-infected with human granulocytic anaplasmosis. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show clinical and laboratory evidence of endemic Lyme disease in North India and thus, highlight the importance for travel medicine practitioners and physicians to evaluate for Lyme disease in patients with compatible symptoms and a history of travel to tick risk areas.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Borrelia , Doença de Lyme , Neuroborreliose de Lyme , Carrapatos , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Humanos , Laboratórios , Doença de Lyme/diagnóstico , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/diagnóstico , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/epidemiologia
12.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 153, 2021 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticks transmit pathogens of medical and veterinary importance and are an increasing threat to human and animal health. Assessing disease risk and developing new control strategies requires identifying members of the tick-borne microbiota as well as their temporal dynamics and interactions. METHODS: Using high-throughput sequencing, we studied the Ixodes ricinus microbiota and its temporal dynamics. 371 nymphs were monthly collected during three consecutive years in a peri-urban forest. After a Poisson lognormal model was adjusted to our data set, a principal component analysis, sparse network reconstruction, and differential analysis allowed us to assess seasonal and monthly variability of I. ricinus microbiota and interactions within this community. RESULTS: Around 75% of the detected sequences belonged to five genera known to be maternally inherited bacteria in arthropods and to potentially circulate in ticks: Candidatus Midichloria, Rickettsia, Spiroplasma, Arsenophonus and Wolbachia. The structure of the I. ricinus microbiota varied over time with interannual recurrence and seemed to be mainly driven by OTUs commonly found in the environment. Total network analysis revealed a majority of positive partial correlations. We identified strong relationships between OTUs belonging to Wolbachia and Arsenophonus, evidence for the presence of the parasitoid wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri in ticks. Other associations were observed between the tick symbiont Candidatus Midichloria and pathogens belonging to Rickettsia. Finally, more specific network analyses were performed on TBP-infected samples and suggested that the presence of pathogens belonging to the genera Borrelia, Anaplasma and Rickettsia may disrupt microbial interactions in I. ricinus. CONCLUSIONS: We identified the I. ricinus microbiota and documented marked shifts in tick microbiota dynamics over time. Statistically, we showed strong relationships between the presence of specific pathogens and the structure of the I. ricinus microbiota. We detected close links between some tick symbionts and the potential presence of either pathogenic Rickettsia or a parasitoid in ticks. These new findings pave the way for the development of new strategies for the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Borrelia , Ixodes , Microbiota , Rickettsia , Animais , Humanos , Interações Microbianas , Microbiota/genética , Rickettsia/genética
13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(8): 2017-2024, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286689

RESUMO

Lyme disease, or Lyme borreliosis, is the most common tickborne disease in the United States and Europe. In both locations, Ixodes species ticks transmit the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato bacteria species responsible for causing the infection. The diversity of Borrelia species that cause human infection is greater in Europe; the 2 B. burgdorferi s.l. species collectively responsible for most infections in Europe, B. afzelii and B. garinii, are not found in the United States, where most infections are caused by B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. Strain differences seem to explain some of the variation in the clinical manifestations of Lyme disease, which are both minor and substantive, between the United States and Europe. Future studies should attempt to delineate the specific virulence factors of the different species of B. burgdorferi s.l. responsible for these variations in clinical features.


Assuntos
Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi , Borrelia , Ixodes , Doença de Lyme , Animais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/diagnóstico , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 368, 2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Borrelia miyamotoi is a newly described relapsing fever spirochete transmitted by ixodid tick species. Little is known about the prevalence of B. miyamotoi infections in humans and ticks in Inner Mongolia, China. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of B. miyamotoi in Ixodes persulcatus ticks, and we aimed to isolateB. miyamotoi from I. persulcatus from four regions of Greater Khingan, Inner Mongolia, China. METHODS: From May to June each year during the period 2016-2019, host-seeking adult I. persulcatus ticks were collected from vegetation. Genomic DNA was prepared from half of each tick body for PCR template, and the remaining half was used to cultivate B. miyamotoi in BSK-M medium. We employed quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to detect Borrelia DNA in the ticks and to calculate the prevalence of B. miyamotoi and infections with other borreliae. For characterization of the isolated B. miyamotoi, we performed draft genome sequencing and multilocus sequencing analysis (MLSA). RESULTS: A total of 2656 adult I. persulcatus ticks were collected. The overall prevalence of relapsing fever (RF) borreliae in ticks was 5.0% (134/2656) and that of Lyme disease (LD) borreliae was 43.8% (1164/2656). Co-infection with RF and LD borreliae was observed in 63 ticks (2.4%). Ticks that were positive for RF borreliae by qPCR were subjected to glycerophosphodiester diester phosphodiesterase gene (glpQ) PCR amplification and sequencing, through which we identified the RF borrelia specimens as B. miyamotoi. Furthermore, the B. miyamotoi strain Hetao-1 was isolated from I. persulcatus, and a draft genome sequence was obtained from the isolate. Sequencing determined the strain Hetao-1 genome to be approximately 906.1 kbp in length (28.9% average GC content), and MLSA identified the strain as ST633, which has previously been reported in Japan and Mongolia. CONCLUSION: We detected B. miyamotoi from I. persulcatus ticks collected in Inner Mongolia, and successfully isolated a B. miyamotoi strain. To our knowledge, this is the first study to culture a B. miyamotoi isolate from China. The data on the prevalence of B. miyamotoi and other borreliae in I. persulcatus ticks will be fundamental for future epidemiological studies of B. miyamotoi disease in Inner Mongolia.


Assuntos
Borrelia/genética , Ixodes/microbiologia , Febre Recorrente/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Genômica , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Febre Recorrente/epidemiologia
15.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 105, 2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relapsing fever (RF) borreliae are arthropod-borne spirochetes and some of them cause human diseases, which are characterized by relapsing or recurring episodes of fever. Recently, it has been classified into two groups: soft tick-borne RF (STRF) borreliae and hard tick-borne RF (HTRF) borreliae. STRF borreliae include classical RF agents and HTRF borreliae, the latter of which include B. miyamotoi, a human pathogen recently identified in Eurasia and North America. RESULTS: In this study, we determined the genome sequences of 16 HTRF borreliae strains: 15 B. miyamotoi strains (9 from Hokkaido Island, Japan, 3 from Honshu Island, Japan, and 3 from Mongolia) and a Borrelia sp. tHM16w. Chromosomal gene synteny was highly conserved among the HTRF strains sequenced in this study, even though they were isolated from different geographic regions and different tick species. Phylogenetic analysis based on core gene sequences revealed that HTRF and STRF borreliae are clearly distinguishable, with each forming a monophyletic group in the RF borreliae lineage. Moreover, the evolutionary relationships of RF borreliae are consistent with the biological and ecological features of each RF borreliae sublineage and can explain the unique characteristics of Borrelia anserina. In addition, the pairwise genetic distances between HTRF borreliae strains were well correlated with those of vector species rather than with the geographical distances between strain isolation sites. This result suggests that the genetic diversification of HTRF borreliae is attributed to the speciation of vector ticks and that this relationship might be required for efficient transmission of HTRF borreliae within vector ticks. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study, together with those from previous investigations, support the hypothesis that the common ancestor of borreliae was transmitted by hard-bodied ticks and that only STRF borreliae switched to using soft-bodied ticks as a vector, which was followed by the emergence of Borrelia recurrentis, lice-borne RF borreliae. Our study clarifies the phylogenetic relationships between RF borreliae, and the data obtained will contribute to a better understanding of the evolutionary history of RF borreliae.


Assuntos
Borrelia , Febre Recorrente , Animais , Borrelia/genética , Humanos , Japão , Mongólia , América do Norte , Filogenia
16.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101759, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161869

RESUMO

In Europe, the hard tick Ixodes ricinus is considered the most important vector of human zoonotic diseases. Human pathogenic agents spread by I. ricinus in Sweden include Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, the recently described Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Borrelia miyamotoi, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Babesia spp. (Babesia microti, Babesia venatorum and Babesia divergens). Since these pathogens share the same vector, co-infections with more than one tick-borne pathogen may occur and thus complicate the diagnosis and clinical management of the patient due to possibly altered symptomatology. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., TBEV and B. miyamotoi are well-known to cause infections of the central nervous system (CNS), whereas the abilities of other tick-borne pathogens to invade the CNS are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and clinical impact of tick-borne pathogens other than B. burgdorferi s.l. in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples of patients who were under investigation for Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in a tick-endemic region of South-eastern Sweden. CSF and serum samples from 600 patients, recruited from the Regions of Östergötland County, Jönköping County and Kalmar County in South-eastern Sweden and investigated for LNB during the period of 2009-2013, were retrospectively collected for analysis. The samples were analysed by real-time PCR for the presence of nucleic acid from B. burgdorferi s.l., B. miyamotoi, A. phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., N. mikurensis, TBEV and Babesia spp. Serological analyses were conducted in CSF and serum samples for all patients regarding B. burgdorferi s.l., and for the patients with CSF mononuclear pleocytosis, analyses of antibodies to B. miyamotoi, A. phagocytophilum, spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, TBEV and B. microti in serum were performed. The medical charts of all the patients with CSF mononuclear pleocytosis and patients with positive PCR findings were reviewed. Of the 600 patients, 55 (9%) presented with CSF mononuclear pleocytosis, 13 (2%) of whom had Borrelia-specific antibodies in the CSF. One patient was PCR-positive for N. mikurensis, and another one was PCR-positive for Borrelia spp. in serum. No pathogens were detected by PCR in the CSF samples. Four patients had serum antibodies to B. miyamotoi, four patients to A. phagocytophilum, five patients to SFG rickettsiae, and six patients to TBEV. One patient, with antibodies to SFG rickettsiae, had both clinical and laboratory signs suggestive of a current infection. Nine patients had serum antibodies to more than one pathogen, although none of these was assessed as a current co-infection. We can conclude from this study that tick-borne co-infections are uncommon in patients who are being investigated for suspected LNB in South-eastern Sweden, an area endemic for borreliosis and TBE.


Assuntos
Infecções por Borrelia , Coinfecção , Neuroborreliose de Lyme , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Borrelia/sangue , Infecções por Borrelia/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Borrelia burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Ixodes/microbiologia , Ixodes/virologia , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/sangue , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Neuroborreliose de Lyme/diagnóstico , Patologia Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suécia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/sangue , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/complicações , Zoonoses/diagnóstico
17.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101708, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175736

RESUMO

Cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus microplus and R. annulatus have been eradicated from the United States and inspectors from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP) monitor the quarantine zone along the Texas border to prevent the introduction of livestock carrying cattle fever ticks from Mexico. Stray livestock apprehended by CFTEP in the zone are checked for ticks and tested for infectious disease-causing pathogens but are not evaluated for evidence of infection with tick-borne pathogens. We tested blood samples collected from stray cattle by CFTEP inspectors for evidence of infection with tick-borne pathogens. As a comparison group representing U.S. resident cattle, we tested blood samples that had been sent to the Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (TVMDL) for unrelated testing. Both sets of blood samples were evaluated using the same specific and broad-spectrum PCR assays. For the border cattle the overall prevalence of infection with one or more tick-borne pathogen was 58.5 % (79/135) with many co-infections, including 30 cattle positive for Babesia bovis and/or Babesia bigemina (22.2 %) and 77 cattle positive for Anaplasma marginale (57 %), three of these animals were also positive for Borrelia theileri. No resident cattle represented by the TVMDL samples were infected with either of the Babesia spp., or with Borrelia theileri, but three were positive for Theileria orientalis and 7.3 % (7/96) were positive for A. marginale. These data show that cattle originating in Mexico have a higher prevalence of infection with tick-borne pathogens relative to resident U.S. cattle and specifically, a proportion are infected with bovine Babesia, which is absent from U.S. cattle populations. Consequently, these stray cattle may be a reservoir of tick-borne pathogens and if populations of Boophilus ticks become reestablished in areas where they had previously been eradicated, could pose a significant risk to the U.S. Cattle industry.


Assuntos
Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Babesiose , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma marginale/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Vetores Aracnídeos/microbiologia , Vetores Aracnídeos/parasitologia , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Vetores de Doenças , México , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Rhipicephalus/microbiologia , Rhipicephalus/parasitologia , Texas , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/epidemiologia
18.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(3): 678-682, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956091

RESUMO

Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia miyamotoi are tickborne zoonotic pathogens in Canada. Both bacteria are vectored by ticks, Ixodes scapularis in Atlantic Canada, but require wildlife reservoir species to maintain the bacteria for retransmission to future generations of ticks. Coyotes (Canis latrans) are opportunistic feeders, resulting in frequent contact with other animals and with ticks. Because coyotes are closely related to domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), it is probable that coyote susceptibility to Borrelia infection is similar to that of dogs. We collected livers and kidneys of eastern coyotes from licensed harvesters in Nova Scotia, Canada, and tested them using nested PCR for the presence of B. burgdorferi, B. miyamotoi, and Dirofilaria immitis. Blood obtained from coyote livers was also tested serologically for antibodies to B. burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and D. immitis. Borrelia burgdorferi and D. immitis were detected by both nested PCR and serology tests. Seroreactivity to A. phagocytophilum was also found. Borrelia miyamotoi and E. canis were not detected. Our results show that coyotes in Nova Scotia have been exposed to a number of vectorborne pathogens.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Anaplasmose , Borrelia burgdorferi , Coiotes , Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilariose , Doenças do Cão , Ehrlichiose , Doença de Lyme , Anaplasma , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Borrelia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Ehrlichia canis , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Nova Escócia/epidemiologia
19.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101735, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989985

RESUMO

Many local anaesthetics, including lidocaine, procaine and ropivacaine inhibit bacterial growth. This study investigates potential effects of these local anaesthetics on growth of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (Bbss), Borrelia bavariensis (Bbav) and Borrelia afzelii (Ba). For this purpose, Borrelia spp. organisms were either continuously or temporarily exposed to one of four local anaesthetics preparations: 20 mg/ml procaine hydrochloride (P); 10 mg/ml ropivacaine hydrochloride (R); 20 mg/ml lidocaine hydrochloride (L1, L2). L2 also contained the preservatives methyl-benzoate and propyl-benzoate, whereas P, R and L1 did not. All four local anaesthetic preparations inhibited in vitro growth of Borrelia spp. depending on concentration and exposure time. There are differences in sensitivity among the Borrelia spp. with Bbav being more susceptible to growth inhibition than Bbss and Ba. When comparing the different local anaesthetic preparations with their regard to inhibition of growth of Borrelia spp. organisms, P showed the lowest impact. It cannot be completely excluded that preservatives present in L2, methyl-benzoate and propyl-benzoate, may be a reason for further inhibition of Borrelia spp. organisms. Concentrations of local anaesthetics used in these experiments may also be present in the skin of patients during regular medical procedures. These are preliminary findings and further experiments, preferably in vivo, are necessary. To minimize the risk to produce false negative results with cultures, we recommend using procaine in a preparation without preservatives for local anaesthesia prior to skin sampling.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/farmacologia , Borrelia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Borrelia burgdorferi/efeitos dos fármacos , Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Spirochaetales/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 275, 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, various zoonotic diseases are classified as emerging or reemerging. Because equids have a direct relationship with various vectors, they are possibly more frequently exposed to zoonotic agents than are humans. The undeniable importance of diseases such as human granulocytic anaplasmosis, spotted fever, and leishmaniasis for both public and animal health, as well as the possibility of equids acting as sources, reservoirs, or even sentinels for these pathogens, justifies the detection of their frequency and factors associated with infection in equids from northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 569 equids (528 horses, 33 donkeys, and 8 mules), 516 from a rural area and 53 from an urban area. Pathogen detection was carried out as follows: Borrelia spp. and Rickettsia spp., serological analysis; Leishmania spp., serological analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR); Anaplasma phagocytophilum, PCR. Determination of associated factors was carried out through generalized linear models. RESULTS: The frequencies of positivity for the pathogens observed in equids were as follows: Borrelia spp., 13.9% (79/569); Leishmania spp., 3.5% (20/569); Rickettsia spp. 33.4% (190/569). Regarding factors associated with infection, male sex was associated with protection against Borrelia spp.; donkeys and mules were associated with protection against Rickettsia spp., while a younger age was a risk factor. The infection of A. phagocytophilum was not detected in the sampled population. Co-infection was detected in 5.1% (29/569) of the animals. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the studied pathogenic agents are present in the prospected area, indicating a possible risk for both human and animal health. This demonstrates that equids can be considered important sentinels in the assessment of pathogens with zoonotic potential in the region.


Assuntos
Equidae/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma/patogenicidade , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Animais , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Borrelia/patogenicidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmania/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Masculino , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Rickettsia/patogenicidade , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia
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