Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 89
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Harmful Algae ; 114: 102205, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550288

RESUMO

Climate change-related ocean warming and reduction in Arctic sea ice extent, duration and thickness increase the risk of toxic blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella in the Alaskan Arctic. This algal species produces neurotoxins that impact marine wildlife health and cause the human illness known as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). This study reports Paralytic Shellfish Toxin (PST) concentrations quantified in Arctic food web samples that include phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic clams, benthic worms, and pelagic fish collected throughout summer 2019 during anomalously warm ocean conditions. PSTs (saxitoxin equivalents, STX eq.) were detected in all trophic levels with concentrations above the seafood safety regulatory limit (80 µg STX eq. 100 g-1) in benthic clams collected offshore on the continental shelf in the Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering Seas. Most notably, toxic benthic clams (Macoma calcarea) were found north of Saint Lawrence Island where Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) are known to forage for a variety of benthic species, including Macoma. Additionally, fecal samples collected from 13 walruses harvested for subsistence purposes near Saint Lawrence Island during March to May 2019, all contained detectable levels of STX, with fecal samples from two animals (78 and 72 µg STX eq. 100 g-1) near the seafood safety regulatory limit. In contrast, 64% of fecal samples from zooplankton-feeding bowhead whales (n = 9) harvested between March and September 2019 in coastal waters of the Beaufort Sea near Utqiagvik (formerly Barrow) and Kaktovik were toxin-positive, and those levels were significantly lower than in walruses (max bowhead 8.5 µg STX eq. 100 g-1). This was consistent with the lower concentrations of PSTs found in regional zooplankton prey. Maximum ecologically-relevant daily toxin doses to walruses feeding on clams and bowhead whales feeding on zooplankton were estimated to be 21.5 and 0.7 µg STX eq. kg body weight-1 day-1, respectively, suggesting that walruses had higher PST exposures than bowhead whales. Average and maximum STX doses in walruses were in the range reported previously to cause illness and/or death in humans and humpback whales, while bowhead whale doses were well below those levels. These findings raise concerns regarding potential increases in PST/STX exposure risks and health impacts to Arctic marine mammals as ocean warming and sea ice reduction continue.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Baleia Franca , Dinoflagelados , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Oceanos e Mares , Saxitoxina , Frutos do Mar , Morsas , Zooplâncton
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8553, 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35595792

RESUMO

Bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) face threats from diminishing sea ice and increasing anthropogenic activities in the Arctic. Passive acoustic monitoring is the most effective means for monitoring their distribution and population trends, based on the detection of their calls. Passive acoustic monitoring, however, is influenced by the sound propagation environment and ambient noise levels, which impact call detection probability. Modeling and simulations were used to estimate detection probability for bowhead whale frequency-modulated calls in the 80-180 Hz frequency band with and without sea ice cover and under various noise conditions. Sound transmission loss for bowhead calls is substantially greater during ice-covered conditions than during open-water conditions, making call detection ~ 3 times more likely in open-water. Estimates of daily acoustic detection probability were used to compensate acoustic detections for sound propagation and noise effects in two recording datasets in the northeast Chukchi Sea, on the outer shelf and continental slope, collected between 2012 and 2013. The compensated acoustic density suggests a decrease in whale presence with the retreat of sea ice at these recording sites. These results highlight the importance of accounting for effects of the environment on ambient noise and acoustic propagation when interpreting results of passive acoustic monitoring.


Assuntos
Baleia Franca , Acústica , Animais , Camada de Gelo , Som , Água
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6118, 2022 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35414162

RESUMO

The East Greenland-Svalbard-Barents Sea (EGSB) bowhead whale stock (Balaena mysticetus) was hunted to near extinction and remains Endangered on the International Union of Conservation of Nature Red List. The intense, temporally extensive hunting pressure may have left the population vulnerable to other perturbations, such as environmental change. However, the lack of genomic baseline data renders it difficult to evaluate the impacts of various potential stressors on this stock. Twelve EGSB bowhead whales sampled in 2017/2018 were re-sequenced and mapped to a previously published draft genome. All individuals were unrelated and void of significant signs of inbreeding, with similar observed and expected homo- and heterozygosity levels. Despite the small population size, mean autosome-wide heterozygosity was 0.00102, which is higher than that of most mammals for which comparable estimates are calculated using the same parameters, and three times higher than a conspecific individual from the Eastern-Canada-West-Greenland bowhead whale stock. Demographic history analyses indicated a continual decrease of Ne from ca. 1.5 million to ca. 250,000 years ago, followed by a slight increase until ca. 100,000 years ago, followed by a rapid decrease in Ne between 50,000 and 10,000 years ago. These estimates are lower than previously suggested based on mitochondrial DNA, but suggested demographic patterns over time are similar.


Assuntos
Baleia Franca , Animais , Baleia Franca/genética , Svalbard
4.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 151(4): 2521, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35461500

RESUMO

The Arctic Ice Monitoring (AIM) observatory has been maintained on the Chukchi Plateau at 75.1° N 168.0° W nearly continuously since 2003. The AIM site consists of a submerged mooring that, since October 2008, has been instrumented with a passive acoustic recorder to sample ambient sound, with a focus on marine mammal detections in the High Arctic. Year-long data sets for 2009, 2012, and 2014-2020 were analyzed for the presence of signals from Arctic species including bowhead and beluga whales, bearded seals, and walrus. Calls from subarctic ribbon seals were commonly detected in autumn months, suggesting they have expanded their distribution much further northward. Killer whale calls were detected in recent years providing evidence that they have moved further north into the Pacific Arctic. No other subarctic cetaceans were heard. Year-round passive acoustic sampling of sounds produced by marine mammals over a decadal timescale has enhanced our understanding of how climate-driven changes in biodiversity are affecting even the very High Arctic.


Assuntos
Beluga , Baleia Franca , Focas Verdadeiras , Orca , Animais , Regiões Árticas
5.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 151(2): 1380, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35232073

RESUMO

Climate-driven changes are affecting sea ice conditions off Tasiilaq, Southeast Greenland, with implications for marine mammal distributions. Knowledge about marine mammal presence, biodiversity, and community composition is key to effective conservation and management but is lacking, especially during winter months. Seasonal patterns of acoustic marine mammal presence were investigated relative to sea ice concentration at two recording sites between 2014 and 2018, with one (65.6°N, 37.4°W) or three years (65.5°N, 38.0°W) of passive acoustic recordings. Seven marine mammal species were recorded. Bearded seals were acoustically dominant during winter and spring, whereas sperm, humpback, and fin whales dominated during the sea ice-free summer and autumn. Narwhals, bowhead, and killer whales were recorded only rarely. Song-fragments of humpback whales and acoustic presence of fin whales in winter suggest mating-associated behavior taking place in the area. Ambient noise levels in 1/3-octave level bands (20, 63, 125, 500, 1000, and 4000 Hz), ranged between 75.6 to 105 dB re 1 µPa. This study provides multi-year insights into the coastal marine mammal community composition off Southeast Greenland and suggests that the Tasiilaq area provides suitable habitat for various marine mammal species year-round.


Assuntos
Baleia Franca , Baleia Comum , Orca , Acústica , Animais , Groenlândia , Mamíferos
6.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 108(4): 641-645, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773129

RESUMO

This study established the first baseline of changing elemental concentrations in bowhead whale baleen over time (1958-1999). From previously published stable isotope data, year, season (summer or winter), and location (Beaufort or Bering/Chukchi seas) were attributed to each sample. Thirteen elements (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, Zn) in baleen from nine subsistence-harvested bowhead whales (n = 138) were detected. Al, Cu, and Fe were the highest concentrations while Cd and V were among the lowest. Our data supports absorption as the main route of exposure to environmental elements rather than biomagnification due to bowhead whales' low trophic position. A linear mixed-effects model confirmed most elements' concentrations increased with time, while location and sex were insignificant explanatory factors. These temporal fluctuations were most likely a product of environmental changes due to a warming climate and human activities.


Assuntos
Baleia Franca , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Oceanos e Mares , Estações do Ano
7.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 305(3): 643-667, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117725

RESUMO

In a species of baleen whale, we identify olfactory epithelium that suggests a functional sense of smell and document the ontogeny of the surrounding olfactory anatomy. Whales must surface to breathe, thereby providing an opportunity to detect airborne odorants. Although many toothed whales (odontocetes) lack olfactory anatomy, baleen whales (mysticetes) have retained theirs. Here, we investigate fetal and postnatal specimens of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). Computed tomography (CT) reveals the presence of nasal passages and nasal chambers with simple ethmoturbinates through ontogeny. Additionally, we describe the dorsal nasal meatuses and olfactory bulb chambers. The cribriform plate has foramina that communicate with the nasal chambers. We show this anatomy within the context of the whole prenatal and postnatal skull. We document the tunnel for the ethmoidal nerve (ethmoid foramen) and the rostrolateral recess of the nasal chamber, which appears postnatally. Bilateral symmetry was apparent in the postnatal nasal chambers. No such symmetry was found prenatally, possibly due to tissue deformation. No nasal air sacs were found in fetal development. Olfactory epithelium, identified histologically, covers at least part of the ethmoturbinates. We identify olfactory epithelium using six explicit criteria of mammalian olfactory epithelium. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of olfactory marker protein (OMP), which is only found in mature olfactory sensory neurons. Although it seems that these neurons are scarce in bowhead whales compared to typical terrestrial mammals, our results suggest that bowhead whales have a functional sense of smell, which they may use to find prey.


Assuntos
Baleia Franca , Animais , Osso Etmoide , Cavidade Nasal/diagnóstico por imagem , Mucosa Olfatória , Crânio
8.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260081, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34882682

RESUMO

RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process in which nucleotide changes are introduced into an RNA sequence, many of which can contribute to proteomic sequence variation. The most common type of RNA editing, contributing to nearly 99% of all editing events in RNA, is A-to-I (adenosine-to-inosine) editing mediated by double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR) enzymes. A-to-I editing at 'recoding' sites results in non-synonymous substitutions in protein-coding sequences. Here, we present studies of the conservation of A-to-I editing in selected mRNAs between pigs, bowhead whales, humans and two shark species. All examined mRNAs-NEIL1, COG3, GRIA2, FLNA, FLNB, IGFBP7, AZIN1, BLCAP, GLI1, SON, HTR2C and ADAR2 -showed conservation of A-to-I editing of recoding sites. In addition, novel editing sites were identified in NEIL1 and GLI1 in bowhead whales. The A-to-I editing site of human NEIL1 in position 242 was conserved in the bowhead and porcine homologues. A novel editing site was discovered in Tyr244. Differential editing was detected at the two adenosines in the NEIL1 242 codon in both pig and bowhead NEIL1 mRNAs in various tissues and organs. No conservation of editing of KCNB1 and EEF1A mRNAs was seen in bowhead whales. In silico analyses revealed conservation of five adenosines in ADAR2, some of which are subject to A-to-I editing in bowheads and pigs, and conservation of a regulatory sequence in GRIA2 mRNA that is responsible for recognition of the ADAR editing enzyme.


Assuntos
Baleia Franca/genética , Edição de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Suínos/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Inosina/metabolismo , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos/genética , Canais de Potássio Shab/genética , Proteína GLI1 em Dedos de Zinco/genética
9.
Mar Drugs ; 19(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436262

RESUMO

Domoic acid (DA), the toxin causing amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), is produced globally by some diatoms in the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. DA has been detected in several marine mammal species in the Alaskan Arctic, raising health concerns for marine mammals and subsistence communities dependent upon them. Gastrointestinal matrices are routinely used to detect Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) toxin presence in marine mammals, yet DA stability has only been studied extensively in shellfish-related matrices. To address this knowledge gap, we quantified DA in bowhead whale fecal samples at multiple time points for two groups: (1) 50% methanol extracts from feces, and (2) raw feces stored in several conditions. DA concentrations decreased to 70 ± 7.1% of time zero (T0) in the 50% methanol extracts after 2 weeks, but remained steady until the final time point at 5 weeks (66 ± 5.7% T0). In contrast, DA concentrations were stable or increased in raw fecal material after 8 weeks of freezer storage (-20 °C), at room temperature (RT) in the dark, or refrigerated at 1 °C. DA concentrations in raw feces stored in an incubator (37 °C) or at RT in the light decreased to 77 ± 2.8% and 90 ± 15.0% T0 at 8 weeks, respectively. Evaporation during storage of raw fecal material is a likely cause of the increased DA concentrations observed over time with the highest increase to 126 ± 7.6% T0 after 3.2 years of frozen storage. These results provide valuable information for developing appropriate sample storage procedures for marine mammal fecal samples.


Assuntos
Baleia Franca , Fezes/química , Ácido Caínico/análogos & derivados , Toxinas Marinhas/química , Animais , Ácido Caínico/química
10.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 145: 159-164, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263730

RESUMO

We describe a case series of encapsulated fat necrosis with subcutaneous, abdominal, and thoracic locations in 7 subsistence-harvested bowhead whales Balaena mysticetus. Masses had a variably-dense fibrous capsule surrounding necrotic adipocytes and calcium salts (saponification). One animal also had prior concussive injury, pleural fibrosis, and hepatic lipoma; the other animals had no significant findings. The described condition is uncommon in bowhead whales, with 7/575 (1.2%) observed from 1996 to 2015. The exact mechanisms of development of encapsulated fat necrosis in bowhead whales remain to be determined. Encapsulated fat necrosis has been reported in other baleen whales, humans, and cows. It is usually an incidental finding during post-mortem examination that needs to be differentiated from neoplastic and inflammatory lesions, as the latter may have public health implications. Assessment of further cases in bowhead whales and other baleen whales is warranted to better understand their pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Baleia Franca , Doenças dos Bovinos , Necrose Gordurosa , Lipoma , Alaska , Animais , Bovinos , Cetáceos , Necrose Gordurosa/veterinária , Lipoma/veterinária
11.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254418, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252123

RESUMO

Interannual variability in euphausiid (krill) abundance and population structure and associations of those measures with environmental drivers were investigated in an 11-year study conducted in late August-early September 2005-2015 in offshelf waters (bottom depth > 40 m) in Barrow Canyon and the Beaufort Sea just downstream of Distributed Biological Observatory site 5 (DBO5) near Pt. Barrow, Alaska. Statistically-significant positive correlations were observed among krill population structure (proportion of juveniles and adults), the volume of Late Season Melt Water (LMW), and late-spring Chukchi Sea sea ice extent. High proportions of juvenile and adult krill were seen in years with larger volumes of LMW and greater spring sea ice extents (2006, 2009, 2012-2014) while the converse, high proportions of furcilia, were seen in years with smaller volumes of LMW and lower spring sea ice extent (2005, 2007, 2010, 2011, 2015). These different life stage, sea ice and water mass regimes represent integrated advective responses to mean fall and/or spring Chukchi Sea winds, driven by prevailing atmospheric pressure distributions in the two sets of years. In years with high proportions of juveniles and adults, late-spring and preceding-fall winds were weak and variable while in years with high proportions of furcilia, late-spring and preceding-fall winds were strong, easterly and consistent. The interaction of krill life history with yearly differences in the northward transports of krill and water masses along with sea ice retreat determines the population structure of late-summer krill populations in the DBO5 region near Pt. Barrow. Years with higher proportions of mature krill may provide larger prey to the Pt. Barrow area bowhead whale prey hotspot. The characteristics of prey near Pt. Barrow is dependent on krill abundance and size, large-scale environmental forcing, and interannual variability in recruitment success of krill in the Bering Sea.


Assuntos
Baleia Franca/fisiologia , Alaska , Animais , Euphausiacea/fisiologia , Vento , Zooplâncton/fisiologia
12.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(5): 3611, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241095

RESUMO

Eight years of passive acoustic data (2007-2014) from the Beaufort Sea were used to estimate the mean cue rate (calling rate) of individual bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) during their fall migration along the North Slope of Alaska. Calls detected on directional acoustic recorders (DASARs) were triangulated to provide estimates of locations at times of call production, which were then translated into call densities (calls/h/km2). Various assumptions were used to convert call density into animal cue rates, including the time for whales to cross the arrays of acoustic recorders, the population size, the fraction of the migration corridor missed by the localizing array system, and the fraction of the seasonal migration missed because recorders were retrieved before the end of the migration. Taking these uncertainties into account in various combinations yielded up to 351 cue rate estimates, which summarize to a median of 1.3 calls/whale/h and an interquartile range of 0.5-5.4 calls/whale/h.


Assuntos
Baleia Franca , Acústica , Alaska , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Estações do Ano
13.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253929, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181700

RESUMO

The Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) was established to detect environmental changes in the Pacific Arctic by regular monitoring of biophysical responses in each of 8 DBO regions. Here we examine the occurrence of bowhead and beluga whale vocalizations in the western Beaufort Sea acquired by acoustic instruments deployed from September 2008-July 2014 and September 2016-October 2018 to examine inter-annual variability of these Arctic endemic species in DBO Region 6. Acoustic data were collected on an oceanographic mooring deployed in the Beaufort shelfbreak jet at ~71.4°N, 152.0°W. Spectrograms of acoustic data files were visually examined for the presence or absence of known signals of bowhead and beluga whales. Weekly averages of whale occurrence were compared with outputs of zooplankton, temperature and sea ice from the BIOMAS model to determine if any of these variables influenced whale occurrence. In addition, the dates of acoustic whale passage in the spring and fall were compared to annual sea ice melt-out and freeze-up dates to examine changes in phenology. Neither bowhead nor beluga whale migration times changed significantly in spring, but bowhead whales migrated significantly later in fall from 2008-2018. There were no clear relationships between bowhead whales and the environmental variables, suggesting that the DBO 6 region is a migratory corridor, but not a feeding hotspot, for this species. Surprisingly, beluga whale acoustic presence was related to zooplankton biomass near the mooring, but this is unlikely to be a direct relationship: there are likely interactions of environmental drivers that result in higher occurrence of both modeled zooplankton and belugas in the DBO 6 region. The environmental triggers that drive the migratory phenology of the two Arctic endemic cetacean species likely extend from Bering Sea transport of heat, nutrients and plankton through the Chukchi and into the Beaufort Sea.


Assuntos
Acústica , Beluga/fisiologia , Baleia Franca/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Humanos , Camada de Gelo
14.
J Wildl Dis ; 57(3): 652-656, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961046

RESUMO

Adenoviruses are common pathogens infecting a wide range of vertebrates. Few cetacean adenoviruses have been described in the literature, and their pathogenicity is still unclear. Using PCR-based viral and bacterial pathogen surveillance in Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort seas bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) legally harvested 2012-15 during Alaskan aboriginal subsistence hunts, six of 59 bowhead whales (10%) tested positive for adenovirus DNA in the spleen. We found a high degree of sequence divergence from other mastadenoviruses, suggesting these may represent a novel species, tentatively named bowhead whale adenovirus. The sequences detected are distinct from adenoviruses previously identified in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), forming two distinct clades in the cetacean hosts. The clinical impact is unclear, since no histopathologic evidence of adenovirus-associated disease was found. Furthermore, detection of adenovirus DNA in the spleen, contrary to other cetacean adenoviruses detected in the intestinal tract, may suggest a broader tissue tropism. Our study demonstrates adenovirus infection in bowhead whales and the usefulness of molecular diagnostics to discover and genetically characterize novel viruses in marine mammals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae , Baleia Franca , Adenoviridae/genética , Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Oceanos e Mares , Filogenia
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 168, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420221

RESUMO

Since the first studies on bowhead whale singing behaviour, song variations have been consistently reported. However, there has been little discussion regarding variability in bowhead whale singing display and its ecological significance. Unlike the better studied humpback whales, bowhead whales do not appear to share songs at population level, but several studies have reported song sharing within clusters of animals. Over the winter season 2013-2014, in an unstudied wintering ground off Northeast Greenland, 13 song groups sharing similar hierarchical structure and units were identified. Unit types were assessed through multidimensional maps, showing well separated clusters corresponding to manually labelled units, and revealing the presence of unit subtypes. Units presented contrasting levels of variability over their acoustic parameters, suggesting that bowhead whales keep consistency in some units while using a continuum in values of frequency, duration and modulation parameters for other unit types. Those findings emphasise the need to account for variability in song analysis to better understand the behavioural ecology of this endangered species. Additionally, shifting from song toward units or phrase-based analysis, as it has been suggested for humpback whales, offers the opportunity to identify and track similarities in songs over temporal and geographical scales relevant to population monitoring.


Assuntos
Baleia Franca , Fenômenos Ecológicos e Ambientais , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Estações do Ano
16.
J Comp Neurol ; 529(9): 2376-2390, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377221

RESUMO

The cetacean visual system is a product of selection pressures favoring underwater vision, yet relatively little is known about it across taxa. Previous studies report several mutations in the opsin genetic sequence in cetaceans, suggesting the evolutionary complete or partial loss of retinal cone photoreceptor function in mysticete and odontocete lineages, respectively. Despite this, limited anatomical evidence suggests cone structures are partially maintained but with absent outer and inner segments in the bowhead retina. The functional consequence and anatomical distributions associated with these unique cone morphologies remain unclear. The current study further investigates the morphology and distribution of cone photoreceptors in the bowhead whale and beluga retina and evaluates the potential functional capacity of these cells' alternative to photoreception. Refined histological and advanced microscopic techniques revealed two additional cone morphologies in the bowhead and beluga retina that have not been previously described. Two proteins involved in magnetosensation were present in these cone structures suggesting the possibility for an alternative functional role in responding to changes in geomagnetic fields. These findings highlight a revised understanding of the unique evolution of cone and gross retinal anatomy in cetaceans, and provide prefatory evidence of potential functional reassignment of these cells.


Assuntos
Beluga/metabolismo , Evolução Biológica , Baleia Franca/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/metabolismo , Animais , Beluga/genética , Baleia Franca/genética , Bovinos , Cervos , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20249, 2020 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219277

RESUMO

As zooplanktivorous predators, bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) must routinely locate patches of prey that are energy-rich enough to meet their metabolic needs. However, little is known about how the quality and quantity of prey might influence their feeding behaviours. We addressed this question using a new approach that included: (1) multi-scale biologging and unmanned aerial system observations of bowhead whales in Cumberland Sound, Nunavut (Canada), and (2) an optical plankton counter (OPC) and net collections to identify and enumerate copepod prey species through the water column. The OPC data revealed two prey layers comprised almost exclusively of lipid-rich calanoid copepods. The deep layer contained fewer, but larger, particles (10% greater overall biomass) than the shallow prey layer. Dive data indicated that the whales conducted long deep Square-shaped dives (80% of dives; averaging depth of 260.4 m) and short shallow Square-shaped dives (16%; averaging depth of 22.5 m) to feed. The whales tended to dive proportionally more to the greater biomass of zooplankton that occurred at depth. Combining behavioural recordings with prey sampling showed a more complex feeding ecology than previously understood, and provides a means to evaluate the energetic balance of individuals under current environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Baleia Franca/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Zooplâncton , Animais
18.
Biol Lett ; 16(6): 20200148, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516566

RESUMO

Spitsbergen's bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) were hunted to near extinction in the world's first commercial whaling enterprise; this population clearly remains threatened, but nothing is known about its distribution, making assessment unfeasible. In this study, we document range, movement patterns and habitat preferences of this population, based on tagging done from an icebreaker-based helicopter. Despite their reduced abundance, Spitsbergen's bowhead whales occupy much of their historical range, stretching across the northern Barents Region from East Greenland eastward to Franz Josef Land. Unlike larger bowhead populations to the west, they do not migrate in a classical sense, but rather disperse from wintering grounds in the northernmost parts of their range during spring, returning northward again in autumn, a pattern opposite in terms of directionality compared to other Arctic bowhead whale populations. The extreme affiliation of this population with cold, ice-filled waters is a concern given ongoing climate warming and concomitant rapid sea ice habitat loss.


Assuntos
Baleia Franca , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Groenlândia , Camada de Gelo , Svalbard
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(12): 6590-6598, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152110

RESUMO

The effects of predator intimidation on habitat use and behavior of prey species are rarely quantified for large marine vertebrates over ecologically relevant scales. Using state space movement models followed by a series of step selection functions, we analyzed movement data of concurrently tracked prey, bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus; n = 7), and predator, killer whales (Orcinus orca; n = 3), in a large (63,000 km2), partially ice-covered gulf in the Canadian Arctic. Our analysis revealed pronounced predator-mediated shifts in prey habitat use and behavior over much larger spatiotemporal scales than previously documented in any marine or terrestrial ecosystem. The striking shift from use of open water (predator-free) to dense sea ice and shorelines (predators present) was exhibited gulf-wide by all tracked bowheads during the entire 3-wk period killer whales were present, constituting a nonconsumptive effect (NCE) with unknown energetic or fitness costs. Sea ice is considered quintessential habitat for bowhead whales, and ice-covered areas have frequently been interpreted as preferred bowhead foraging habitat in analyses that have not assessed predator effects. Given the NCEs of apex predators demonstrated here, however, unbiased assessment of habitat use and distribution of bowhead whales and many marine species may not be possible without explicitly incorporating spatiotemporal distribution of predation risk. The apparent use of sea ice as a predator refuge also has implications for how bowhead whales, and likely other ice-associated Arctic marine mammals, will cope with changes in Arctic sea ice dynamics as historically ice-covered areas become increasingly ice-free during summer.


Assuntos
Baleia Franca/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Camada de Gelo , Orca/fisiologia , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Canadá , Biologia Marinha , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional , Comportamento Predatório
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 151: 110857, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056639

RESUMO

Blubber and muscle were collected from male bowhead whales (n = 71) landed near Utqiagvik (Barrow), Alaska, between 2006 and 2015 and analyzed for lipid content and concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in order to determine levels and trends over the collection period. Collection year was a significant predictor of blubber concentrations for most classes of POPs, while for a few classes, animal length (proxy for age) was also a significant predictor. This is the first report on levels of PBDEs in bowhead whales; concentrations of these compounds are low (≤55 ng/g wet weight). Blubber concentrations were lower than those reported in samples collected between 1992 and 2000, and many POP classes in blubber declined significantly between 2006 and 2015. Concentrations of POPs in bowhead whale tissues, which are subsistence foods for Native Alaskan communities, appear to be declining at rates comparable with previously reported temporal trends in Arctic biota.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Baleia Franca/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Alaska , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Masculino
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...