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Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 29: e2022_0351, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407662


ABSTRACT Introduction: Boxing is characterized by a high degree of combination of strength and skill and belongs to the sports group of enduring strength and skill combined with long-term continuous whole-body strength output to achieve good results in competition. Therefore, athletes pay more attention to the skills they use all the time, and it is very important to master the techniques correctly and reasonably distribute physical strength accurately. Objective: Explore the effect of core stability training on the specific strength of wrestlers. Methods: 12 top junior level athletes of a provincial women's wrestling team as research objects, 12 people in total, and randomly divided into control and experimental groups with six people. Results: After the test, the data changes in the experimental group were highly significant compared to before and after the experiment (P<0.01). The data changes between the experimental and control groups were significantly different before and after the experiment (p<0.05), showing that the special strength of core stability training fighters has a small increase. Conclusion: Core stability training is useful for the specific strength of wrestlers. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment outcomes.

RESUMO Introdução: O boxe é caracterizado por um alto grau de combinação de força e habilidade, e pertence ao grupo esportivo de força duradoura e habilidade combinado com a saída contínua de força contínua do corpo inteiro, a longo prazo, para obter bons resultados na competição. Portanto, os atletas prestam mais atenção às habilidades dos atletas no uso de técnicas a todo o instante, e é muito importante dominar corretamente as técnicas e distribuir razoavelmente força física com precisão. Objetivo: Explorar o efeito do treinamento de estabilidade do core sobre a força específica dos lutadores. Métodos: 12 atletas de nível júnior de primeira linha de uma equipe de luta feminina provincial como objetos de pesquisa, 12 pessoas no total, e aleatoriamente dividida em grupo de controle e grupo experimental com 6 pessoas em cada grupo. Resultados: Após o teste, as alterações de dados, quando comparados ao antes e depois do experimento no grupo experimental, foram altamente significativas (P<0.01). As mudanças de dados entre o grupo experimental e o grupo controle foram significativamente diferentes antes e depois do experimento (p<0.05), mostrando que a força especial dos lutadores de treinamento de estabilidade central tem um pequeno aumento. Conclusão: O treinamento de estabilidade do core mostrou-se útil para a força específica dos lutadores. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos - investigação dos resultados do tratamento.

RESUMEN Introducción: El boxeo se caracteriza por un alto grado de combinación de fuerza y destreza, y pertenece al grupo de deportes de fuerza y destreza duraderas combinadas con la producción continua de fuerza de todo el cuerpo a largo plazo para obtener buenos resultados en la competición. Por lo tanto, los atletas prestan más atención a las habilidades de los atletas en el uso de las técnicas todo el tiempo, y es muy importante dominar las técnicas correctamente y distribuir razonablemente la fuerza física con precisión. Objetivo: Explorar el efecto del entrenamiento de la estabilidad del core en la fuerza específica de los luchadores. Métodos: 12 atletas de alto nivel de un equipo provincial de lucha femenina como objetos de investigación, 12 personas en total, y divididas aleatoriamente en grupo de control y grupo experimental con 6 personas en cada grupo. Resultados: Después de la prueba, los cambios en los datos comparados antes y después del experimento en el grupo experimental fueron altamente significativos (P<0,01). Los cambios de datos entre el grupo experimental y el grupo de control fueron significativamente diferentes antes y después del experimento (p<0,05), lo que demuestra que la fuerza especial de los combatientes de entrenamiento de la estabilidad del core tiene un pequeño aumento. Conclusión: Se ha demostrado que el entrenamiento de la estabilidad del núcleo es útil para la fuerza específica de los luchadores. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos - investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.

Humanos , Feminino , Postura , Boxe , Força Muscular , Atletas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudos Longitudinais
J Clin Neurosci ; 107: 64-67, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36512938


INTRODUCTION: Community-based exercise programs for Parkinson's disease (PD) have gained popularity. Our understanding of such programs on non-motor features is limited. We characterized the effect of a 12-week community-based boxing exercise program on motor and non-motor symptoms in people with Parkinson's disease (PwPD). METHODS: In this prospective observational study, PwPD underwent a 12-week community-based boxing program (2 sessions per week, for a total of 24 sessions). The following assessments were performed by a movement disorders neurologist at baseline and after completion of the program: MDS-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (MDS-UPDRS III) in a modified version since assessments were performed virtually due to COVID-19 pandemic, MDS Non-Motor Rating Scale (MDS-NMS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Lilli Apathy Rating Scale (LARS), Parkinson's Disease Questionaire-39 (PDQ-39), and Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living scale (SE-ADL). Pre- and post-assessments were compared using Wilcoxon signed rank test; only participants who completed the program and both assessments were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 14 PwPD agreed to be a part of the study and completed assessments. All participants were ambulatory and functionally independent at baseline. Total non-motor feature severity (MDS-NMS, p = 0.0031), depression (HDRS, p = 0.015), and motor features (MDS-UPDRS PART 3 modified, p = 0.023) all improved significantly after the intervention. Scales on apathy (LARS, p = 0.29), Parkinson's disease-specific health related quality (PDQ-39, p = 0.093), and activities of daily living (SE-ADL, p = 0.32) did not demonstrate significant change. CONCLUSION: PwPD who participated in a community-based, pilot boxing program showed improvements in motor exam and non-motor symptoms.

Boxe , COVID-19 , Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Projetos Piloto , Atividades Cotidianas , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida
J Sci Med Sport ; 25(12): 995-1001, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195527


OBJECTIVES: To synthesise competition and training injury data in amateur boxing. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Pooled estimates of competition injury incidence rates per 1000 athlete-exposures (IIRAE) and per 1000 min of exposure (IIRME), and training injury incidence rates per 1000 h of exposure (IIRHE) were obtained by fitting random-effects models. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, AUSPORT, and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from inception to 27 May 2022. Cohort studies with prospectively collected injury and exposure data from amateur boxing competition or training published in peer-reviewed journals were eligible for inclusion. RESULTS: Seventeen studies were eligible for inclusion. The competition IIRAE and IIRME summary estimates were 54.7 (95 % CI 33.8-88.4) and 6.8 (95 % CI 4.2-10.9), respectively. The training IIRHE summary estimate was 1.3 (95 % CI 0.2-7.0). The most commonly injured body regions in the competition and training settings were the head and neck (median: 72 %; range: 46 % to 100 %) and upper limb (median: 49 %; range: 40 % to 53 %), respectively. The predominant types of injury were contusions (median: 35 %; range: 5 % to 100 %) and lacerations and abrasions (median: 20 %; range: 0 % to 69 %) in the competition setting, and sprains and strains (median: 60 %; range: 50 % to 81 %) in the training setting. CONCLUSIONS: Amateur boxing athletes sustain, on average, 1 injury every 2.5 h of competition and every 772 h of training. There is a need for identifying injury mechanisms and modifiable risk factors that can be targeted by preventive measures to reduce the burden of injury in amateur boxing.

Traumatismos em Atletas , Boxe , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Humanos , Boxe/lesões , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Atletas , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/epidemiologia , Incidência
J Hand Surg Eur Vol ; 47(11): 1162-1167, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112963


We describe our experience of managing extensor hood injuries in boxers (57 fingers). The diagnosis was mostly clinical, with imaging only if the diagnosis was equivocal. The middle (61%) and index (26%) digits were most frequently injured. On exploration, 26% had no hood tear, however all required tenolysis from the adherent capsule. Of 42 hood tears, 15 were central splits between adjacent extensor tendons in the index or little fingers,15 tears were on the ulna side of the extensor tendon and 12 tears were on the radial side. A pseudobursa was encountered in 35%, capsular tears in 28% and chondral injury in one patient. Longitudinal curved metacarpophalangeal joint incisions were used, with hood repair performed in flexion using a locked running suture. Mean postoperative metacarpophalangeal joint flexion was 90°. Ninety-eight per cent returned to the same level of boxing at a mean of 8 months (range 1-24) from surgery. One finger was revised for re-rupture 6 months later. A reproducible technique for treating these injuries is described, with patients able to return to boxing with little risk of complications.Level of evidence: IV.

Boxe , Traumatismos dos Tendões , Humanos , Articulação Metacarpofalângica/cirurgia , Articulação Metacarpofalângica/lesões , Traumatismos dos Tendões/etiologia , Tendões , Boxe/lesões , Ruptura/cirurgia
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 1431615, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942143


The change of boxing competition rules has put forward higher requirements on the speed quality of male boxers. To investigate the effect of interval training on the displacement speed of male outstanding boxers and to provide a theoretical basis for targeted improvement of speed quality of male boxers. A 4-week interval training intervention was conducted on 20 male boxing athletes through literature method, interview method, and experimental method. The subjects in the experimental group had higher test results than the control group test data after the experiment, and the test results of the experimental group reached a highly significant difference before and after the experiment, and the test results of the control group before and after the experiment were improved but not significantly different. The effect of interval training was more effective than traditional physical training in improving the displacement speed of male good boxers, which significantly improved the displacement speed of the subjects.

Boxe , Humanos , Masculino
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 4664938, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942146


Objective: To construct an evaluation system for the sensitivity quality of outstanding Chinese female boxers and to develop comprehensive evaluation criteria for the sensitivity quality of outstanding female boxers. Methods: Using literature method, Telfer method, expert interview method, and experimental test method to analyze the special sensitivity quality structural elements of female boxers. Results: The evaluation indexes of female boxers' sensitivity quality consisted of three structural elements: ability to change movements, ability to change direction, and balance ability; the evaluation index system of female boxers' sensitivity quality, including 3 primary indexes and 11 measurement indexes, in which the weights of the primary indexes of female boxers' special sensitivity quality were 0.44 for the ability to change movements (0.22 for 1 min dodge defense, 0.22 for 1 min combination punching sandbag 0.21, 30 s standing push-up 0.21, and 30 s leg change jumping punch 0.19), the ability to change direction 0.39 (30 s continuous head hold squat 0.16, 1 min 3 m sides slide touch 0.29, 20 s repeated side slide 0.28, 10 m ∗ 4 round trip run 0.24, and 1 min quadrant jump 0.19), and balance ability 0.17 (15 s rotating and then walking forward 5 m 0.51, carrying legs to support balance 0.49), the ability to change movements has the largest proportion in the sensitivity quality of female boxers, followed by the ability to change direction and balance ability. Conclusion: Based on the constructed evaluation index system, 11 individual indexes' evaluation criteria and four levels of comprehensive evaluation criteria for the sensitivity quality of female boxers were established by using the deviation method and percentile method.

Boxe , China , Feminino , Humanos
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 5912231, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35844937


The aim of this study was to design a 12-week intervention experiment with a speed strength training program and conventional training to test and analyze the effects of speed strength training on punching speed, punching power, and punching effectiveness of female boxers and to provide empirical support for the targeted improvement of special striking effectiveness of female boxers. By using the experimental method, a controlled experiment was conducted with 20 athletes from the Chinese women's boxing team as the study subjects, and the targeted experimental intervention was conducted. Through experiment, speed power training had no significant effect on the improvement of basic movement ability of female boxers. In addition, speed power training could effectively improve the speed power level of athletes in the experimental group, and the speed power level of the control group was not significantly improved. Lastly, speed power training improved the punching effect of the experimental group, and the effect of the control group was not significant. Conclusion of this study includes the following: (1) speed strength training improved the speed strength level of the athletes, but it did not have a significant effect on improving basic movement ability. (2) The improvement of speed strength could improve the striking speed of female boxers, and the speed strength training also achieved good results. (3) The improvement of speed strength had a positive effect on the special striking power of female boxers. (4) Speed strength training improved the special striking effect of female boxers athletes' special hitting effect.

Boxe , Treinamento de Força , Atletas , China , Feminino , Humanos , Força Muscular , Treinamento de Força/métodos
J Strength Cond Res ; 36(10): 2957-2969, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35836314


ABSTRACT: Beattie, K and Ruddock, AD. The role of strength on punch impact force in boxing. J Strength Cond Res 36(10): 2957-2969, 2022-The ability to punch with a high impact force is beneficial to boxers as there is an increased likelihood of success. Punch impact force differentiates between performance level, weight class, gender, and punch type in competitive boxers. Although technique is likely to play a major role in punch impact force, the capabilities of the neuromuscular system may also be a limiting factor. This review examines the role of strength on punch impact force in amateur and professional boxers. The maximal strength qualities of the lower body, as well as explosive strength qualities of both the upper and lower body, are largely associated with punch impact force in elite amateur boxers. Specifically, elite amateur boxers who punch with "high" impact forces have greater levels of lower-body maximal strength and explosive strength when compared with elite amateurs who punch with "low" impact forces. However, the maximal strength capabilities of the upper body are not associated with punch impact force and does not differentiate between elite boxers who punch with "high" and "low" impact forces. Therefore, based off the present evidence, this review recommends that for boxers who aim to develop their punch impact force, it may be advantageous to emphasize both maximal and explosive strength development of the legs, with only an explosive strength focus in the upper body. However, it is important to highlight that, to date, there are a lack of experimental studies in both elite amateur and professional boxing. Furthermore, there is a dearth of research in female boxing. Future experimental studies are needed to infer causality regarding the role that strength training has on punch impact force in both elite amateur and professional boxers.

Boxe , Treinamento de Força , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Perna (Membro)
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 60(6): 755-760, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662531


The purpose of this study was to explore the patterns of head and neck injuries secondary to boxing. We conducted a 20-year retrospective cross-sectional study using the National Electronic Injury Submission System (NEISS). We derived the predictor variables from both patient and injury characteristics. The principal outcome variable was the probability of hospital admission from the ED. We used bivariate analysis to determine if an association existed between two variables of interest. We created a multiple logistic regression model to model the probability of admission using all significant univariate predictors. The final sample consisted of 1,919 patients. Children were most likely to injure their heads (p < 0.01). Young adults were also most likely to injure their heads (p < 0.05). Adults were most likely to injure their faces (p < 0.01). Children were most likely to incur facial contusions (p < 0.01) and internal organ injuries (p < 0.01). Young adults were most likely to suffer concussions (p < 0.01). Adults were most likely to suffer lacerations (p < 0.01). Certain age groups were more/less likely to injure a particular anatomical site and more/less likely to incur a particular type of injury. Relative to young adults, seniors had an increased odd of admission. Head injuries had an increased odds of admission relative to mouth injuries. Fractures and internal organ injuries proved to be the most dangerous injuries.

Boxe , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Desastres , Lesões do Pescoço , Boxe/lesões , Criança , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Lesões do Pescoço/epidemiologia , Lesões do Pescoço/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(5)2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35630025


Background and Objectives: The study aimed to investigate the combined acute and long-term effects of exposure to blows and exercise on serum BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and selenium levels. Materials and Methods: Serum BDNF and selenium levels were determined in 40 male elite athletes before and after vigorous exercise (training match) with a probability of exposure to blows and in 10 sedentary men subjected to exercise (Astrand running protocol). Results: Serum BDNF levels were found 11.50 ± 3.50 ng/mL before exercise and 14.02 ± 3.15 ng/mL after exercise in the athlete group (p = 0.02), and 12.18 ± 4.55 ng/ mL and 11.74 ± 2.48 ng/ mL before and after exercise in the sedentary group, respectively (p = 0.873). Serum BDNF (pre-exercise, baseline) levels were slightly lower in the athlete group than those in the sedentary group (11.50 ± 3.50 and 12.18 ± 4.55 ng/mL, respectively, p = 0.796). Pre-exercise serum selenium levels in athletes were significantly higher compared to those of sedentary participants (130.53 ± 36.79 and 95.51 ± 20.57 µg/L, respectively, p = 0.011). There was no difference in selenium levels after exercise (124.01 ± 29.96 µg/L) compared to pre-exercise (130.53 ± 36.79 µg/L) in the athlete group (p = 0.386). Similarly, there was no difference in selenium levels after exercise (113.28 ± 25.51 µg/L) compared to pre-exercise (95.51 ± 20.57 µg/L) in the sedentary group (p = 0.251). Conclusions: BDNF results show that even if athletes are exposed to blows, they may be protected from the long-term effects of blows thanks to the protective effect of their non-sedentary lifestyle. Regular exercise may have a protective effect on maintaining serum selenium levels in athletes even exposed to blows chronically.

Atletas , Boxe , Corrida , Selênio , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Masculino , Selênio/sangue
Medicina (B Aires) ; 82(3): 448-451, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35639069


Small bowel injury in a sports setting is a rare occurrence with a paucity of reported cases. A 30-year old male patient consulted for generalized abdominal pain subsequent to secondary blunt abdominal trauma during kick-boxing practice. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a moderate amount of free fluid in both the parietocolic space and the rectovesical pouch, with perihepatic pneumoperitoneum. Emergency laparoscopy was indicated and a closure of small bowel defect was performed. Diagnosis of small bowel injuries is difficult, resulting in delayed treatment and increased mortality and morbidity.

La lesión intestinal en un entorno deportivo es infrecuente con pocos casos comunicados. Un varón de 30 años consultó por dolor abdominal generalizado posterior a un traumatismo abdominal cerrado secundario a la práctica de kick-boxing. Una tomografía computarizada de abdomen y pelvis reveló líquido libre tanto en el espacio parietocólico como en la bolsa rectovesical, con neumoperitoneo perihepático. Se indicó laparoscopia exploradora con cirugía de rafia intestinal. El diagnóstico de las lesiones del intestino delgado es difícil, lo que provoca un retraso en el tratamiento y un aumento de la mortalidad y la morbilidad.

Traumatismos Abdominais , Boxe , Perfuração Intestinal , Laparoscopia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes , Traumatismos Abdominais/complicações , Traumatismos Abdominais/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Adulto , Humanos , Perfuração Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Perfuração Intestinal/etiologia , Perfuração Intestinal/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Masculino , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/cirurgia
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 48: 101604, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576853


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is no consensus on effective treatment for scapulocostal syndrome (SCS). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of traditional Thai massage (TTM) and Thai boxing exercise (TBE) on pain intensity, pressure pain threshold (PPT), and cervical range of motion (CROM) in patients with SCS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-eight patients with SCS were randomly equally allocated to receive either four-week TTM or TBE. Pain intensity, PPT, and CROM were measured at baseline, posttreatment, and 1-month follow-up. RESULTS: Significant improvements in pain intensity, PPT, and CROM in all directions were evident at posttreatment compared with baseline in the TTM group (p < 0.01); these improvements, except cervical extension, were observed at 1-month follow-up (p < 0.01). Compared to baseline, the TBE showed significant improvements in all outcomes except cervical flexion at posttreatment (p < 0.01); these improvements, except cervical flexion and PPT, were evident at 1-month follow-up (p < 0.001). When comparing the groups, the TTM showed significantly better scores than the TBE in terms of pain intensity, PPT, and cervical flexion and left lateral flexion at posttreatment (p < 0.05). The superior effects of TTM on these outcomes, except cervical flexion, were demonstrated at 1-month follow-up (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Four weeks of TTM and TBE reduced pain intensity and improved pain threshold and cervical movements at posttreatment and 1-month follow-up. TTM provided better reductions in pain intensity, pain threshold, cervical flexion, and left lateral flexion than TBE in patients with SCS.

Boxe , Massagem , Humanos , Cervicalgia/terapia , Medição da Dor , Limiar da Dor , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Tailândia
J Strength Cond Res ; 36(7): 1966-1971, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510889


ABSTRACT: Stone, BL, Ashley, JD, Skinner, RM, Polanco, JP, Walters, MT, Schilling, BK, and Kellawan, JM. Effects of a short-term heat acclimation protocol in elite amateur boxers. J Strength Cond Res 36(7): 1966-1971, 2022-Boxing requires proficient technical and tactical skills coupled with high levels of physiological capacity. Although heat and humidity negatively affect acute exercise performance, short-term exercise training in hot and humid environments can lead to physiological adaptations that enhance exercise performance in both hot and thermoneutral conditions. In highly trained endurance athletes, exercise-induced acclimation can occur in as little as 5 days (known as short-term heat acclimation [STHA]). However, the impact of a 5-day heat acclimation (5-DayHA) in combat athletes, such as elite amateur boxers, is unknown. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether a 5-DayHA improves aerobic performance in a thermoneutral environment and causes positive physiological adaptations in elite boxers. Seven elite amateur boxers underwent a 5-DayHA protocol, consisting of 60-minute exercise sessions in an environmental chamber at 32 °C and 70% relative humidity. Repeat sprint test (RST) evaluated aerobic performance in a thermoneutral environment 24 hours before and after the 5-DayHA. Presession and postsession hydration status (urine specific gravity) and body mass were assessed. After a 5-DayHA period, boxers significantly improved RST performance (13 ± 7 to 19 ± 7 sprints, d = 0.92, p = 0.03) but not pre-exercise hydration status (1.02 ± 0.01 to 1.01 ± 0.01, d = 0.82, p = 0.07). Therefore, these findings suggest 5-DayHA enhances aerobic performance in elite-level amateur boxers and may provide a viable training option for elite combat athletes.

Boxe , Temperatura Alta , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Atletas , Boxe/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Humanos
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409614


It is necessary to evaluate whether Olympic pictograms are designed accurately and are easy to understand, so that they fulfill their intended functions and roles. Olympic pictograms are used to facilitate smooth communication at this large sporting event. However, viewers often find it challenging to understand the actual sport represented by the pictogram. This study evaluates the ranking of comprehensibility of the pictograms for judo, taekwondo, boxing, and wrestling used in six games, from the 27th Sydney Olympics in 2000 to the 32nd Tokyo Olympics in 2021. The evaluation was done using the fuzzy technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method, a multi-criteria decision-making methodology commonly used in economics and other fields. Data collection was conducted from 10 May to 30 June 2021 for 44 general public and seven experts. The results are as follows. First, the pictograms from the 2008 Beijing Olympics ranked first in three sports: taekwondo, boxing, and wrestling, but there were no pictograms that consistently ranked first or sixth in all sports. Second, the sensitivity analysis result shows the possibility that the ranking would be reversed if the weight of the evaluation factors were changed. This study is expected to contribute to developing pictograms that can adequately convey the appropriate information regarding Olympic sports in the future.

Boxe , Artes Marciais , Luta Romana , Confusão , Coleta de Dados , Humanos
Clin J Sport Med ; 32(3): 329-333, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35470341


OBJECTIVE: To examine the long-term effects of amateur boxing in a representative population sample of men. DESIGN: The sample was examined every 5 years for 35 years. Cognition was assessed repeatedly from the third examination. Previous boxing experience and dementia were assessed at the fifth examination, and dementia assessed subsequently through medical records. SETTING AND ASSESSMENT OF RICK FACTORS: The Caerphilly Prospective Study investigates risk factors for a range of chronic diseases of diseases. These include life style and behavior, together with biological factors relevant to vascular disease. PARTICIPANTS: 1123 adult men aged 45 to 59 years at baseline, followed for 35 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cognitive impairment. RESULTS: A report by a subject of having boxed "seriously" when younger was associated with a 2-fold increase in cognitive impairment [odds ratio (OR) = 2.27; 95% confidence intervals = 1.18-4.38]. For amnestic (Alzheimer-like) impairment, this rises to OR = 2.78 (95% confidence limits 1.37-5.65). Having boxed is associated with an "advancement" in the onset of the dementia (4.8 years; 95% confidence limits 0.9-8.8 years). CONCLUSIONS: Amateur boxing is associated with an increased risk and an earlier onset of cognitive impairment and dementia.

Boxe , Transtornos Cognitivos , Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
Br Med Bull ; 141(1): 33-46, 2022 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35107134


BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in combat sports is relatively common, and rotational acceleration (RA) is a strong biomechanical predictor of TBI. This review summarizes RA values generated from head impacts in combat sport and puts them in the context of present evidence regarding TBI thresholds. SOURCES OF DATA: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Scopus were searched from inception to 31st December 2021. Twenty-two studies presenting RA data from head impacts across boxing, taekwondo, judo, wrestling and MMA were included. The AXIS tool was used to assess the quality of studies. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: RA was greater following direct head strikes compared to being thrown or taken down. RA from throws and takedowns was mostly below reported injury thresholds. Injury thresholds must not be used in the absence of clinical assessment when TBI is suspected. Athletes displaying signs or symptoms of TBI must be removed from play and medically evaluated immediately. AREAS OF CONTROVERSY: Methodological heterogeneity made it difficult to develop sport-specific conclusions. The role of headgear in certain striking sports remains contentious. GROWING POINTS: RA can be used to suggest and assess the effect of safety changes in combat sports. Gradual loading of training activities based on RA may be considered when planning sessions. Governing bodies must continue to work to minimize RA generated from head impacts. AREAS TIMELY FOR DEVELOPING RESEARCH: Prospective research collecting real-time RA data is required to further understanding of TBI in combat sports.

Boxe , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Artes Marciais , Aceleração , Boxe/lesões , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Artes Marciais/lesões , Estudos Prospectivos
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0263038, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35073382


Data from the past 30+ years of the male boxing World Heavyweight Championship (n = 182 bouts) was obtained. The USA were the most represented and produced more champions than any other nation, followed by the UK, Ukraine and Russia. Denmark (100%), Ukraine (85.4%) and the UK (67.3%) produced the greatest 'success rates' in World Heavyweight Championship contests. Where possible, comparisons between bout winners and losers were also made. Winners were significantly taller (p < 0.001, d = 0.35) and had a greater reach (p = 0.003, d = 0.23) when compared to losers. Championship bouts were settled by the following methods: a form of knockout (101), points decision (57), retirement (14), draw (3), disqualification (3), technical decision (1), whilst 3 no contests were omitted from the analysis. Total punches thrown and landed, and jabs and power punches thrown and landed were consistently significantly greater (p < 0.005, d = 0.27-0.73) in winners, compared to losers. Winners were more accurate compared to their losing counterparts by ~ 8 percentage points. The data presented in the present study clearly show some anthropometric advantages of championship bout winners, compared to their unsuccessful counterparts, and that winners are more active and accurate when compared to losers. The punch output data, albeit very basic, may be useful in informing tactical strategy and preparation of heavyweight prospects. Likewise, the data in the present study may be an interesting resource for professional boxing enthusiasts. Future research should seek to replicate the analysis in the present study across other weight divisions to explore any potential differences between weight classes. Additionally, extending the analysis to female boxing may provide interesting comparisons.

Desempenho Atlético , Boxe , Comportamento Competitivo , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 23(1): 206-218, ene.-abr. 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-455


El boxeo es un deporte popular que implica golpes repetitivos a la cabeza, los cuales podrían producir alteraciones en el funcionamiento cerebral. Aunque existe evidencia del daño cerebral causado por la práctica del boxeo a nivel profesional, permanece la controversia sobre los posibles riesgos en el boxeo aficionado. El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar si existen diferencias en el funcionamiento ejecutivo en boxeadores amateur universitarios en función de su nivel de experiencia en la práctica deportiva y su interacción con la categoría/peso. Método: Participaron mexicanos amateurs agrupados en novatos y experimentados y por su categoría de peso en ligero y medio. Se utilizó la Batería Neuropsicológica de Funciones Ejecutivas y Lóbulos Frontales BANFE-2 (Flores-Lázaro et al., 2014). Resultados: se realizó un MANOVA, los contrastes multivariados indican que hay diferencias en la interacción de las variables dependientes, de acuerdo con el nivel de experiencia F (4,17) = 3.75, p = .023, ηp2 = .469, 1-β=.56. En particular, las tareas en que se observan diferencias significativas son aquellas que evalúan el control inhibitorio (stroop) y la toma de decisiones de riesgo beneficio (juego de cartas), procesos que se encuentran asociados al funcionamiento de la corteza prefrontal orbito medial. Los hallazgos sugieren que la evaluación del funcionamiento ejecutivo puede ser una herramienta útil para evidenciar cambios funcionales en boxeadores amateur. (AU)

Boxing is a popular sport that involves repetitive blows to the head, which may cause disturbances in brain function. Although there is evidence of brain damage caused byprofessional boxing, controversy remains about the possible risks in amateur boxing. The aim of this study was to analyze whether there are differences in executive functioning in amateur college boxers based on their level of experience in sports practice and their interaction with category/ weight. Method: 24 mexican amateur boxers participated, grouped into novice and experienced and by their weight category (light and médium). The neuropsychological battery of executive functions and frontal lobes BANFE-2 (Flores-Lázaro et al., 2014) was used. Results: a MANOVA was performed, the multivariate contrasts indicate that there are differences in the interaction of the dependent variables, according to the level of experience F(4,17)= 3.75, p= .023, ηp2= .469, 1-β= .56. In particular, the tasks in which significative differences are observed are those that assess inhibitory control (stroop) and risk-benefit decision-making (card game), processes that areassociated with the functioning of the orbito-medial prefrontal cortex. The findings suggest that the evaluation of executive functioning can be a useful tool to demonstrate functional changes in amateur boxers. (AU)

O boxe é um esporte comum que envolve golpes repetitivos na cabeça dos atletas, o que pode causar distúrbios nas funções cerebrais. Embora hajam evidências de danos cerebrais causados pelo boxe profissional, a controvérsia permanece sobre os possíveis riscos no boxe amador. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar se existiam diferenças no funcionamento executivo de atletas de boxe amador universitários com base no nível de experiência, na prática esportiva e na interação com a categoria / peso. Método: participaram 24 boxeadores amadores, agrupados em novatos e experientes e por categoria de peso leve e médio. Foi utilizada a Bateria Neuropsicológica de Funções Executivas e Lobos Frontais BANFE-2 (Flores-Lázaro et al., 2014). Resultados: foi feito uma MANOVA, os contrastes multivariados indicaram que existiram diferenças na interação das variáveis dependentes, de acordo com o nível de experiência F(4,17) = 3.75, p= .023, ηp2= .469, 1-β= .56. Em particular, as tarefas em que se observaram diferenças são aquelas que avaliam o controlo inibitório (stroop) e a tomada de decisão risco-benefício (jogo de cartas), processos que estão associados ao funcionamento do córtex pré-frontal órbito-medial. Os resultados sugerem que a avaliação do funcionamento executivo pode ser uma ferramenta útil para demonstrar mudanças funcionais em pessoas que praticam o boxe amador. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Boxe , Concussão Encefálica , Neuropsicologia , Estudos Transversais , México , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas