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1.
Infectio ; 25(4): 293-295, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286725

RESUMO

Resumen La trombosis venosa cerebral (TVC) es una presentación clínica poco común del tromboembolismo venoso caracterizada por cefalea, crisis convulsivas, déficits neurológicos focales y papiledema. El diagnóstico es confirmado con Tomografía axial computarizada (TAC) de cráneo y Resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) cerebral. La TVC tiene una relación importante con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), ya que los pacientes VIH positivos cursan con hiperviscosidad san guínea, alteraciones de factores anticoagulantes endógenos y riesgo de sobreinfección, entre otros; que predisponen a estados protrombóticos y lesión vascular como lo es la TVC. El tratamiento de la TVC es terapia anticoagulante, por lo general se utiliza heparina no fraccionada o heparina de bajo peso molecular para la fase aguda y anticoagulantes orales como la warfarina para el mantenimiento posterior. Reportamos el primer caso documentado de TVC en un paciente VIH positivo en Colombia.


Abstract Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare clinical presentation of venous thromboembolism characterized by headache, seizures, neurological deficits and papi lledema. The diagnosis is confirmed using computed tomography scan (CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. CVT has an important relationship with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) given that HIV-positive patients may present with blood hyperviscosity, irregular levels of endogenous anticoagulation factors and risk of sepsis among others, that predispose to prothrombotic states and vascular injury such as CVT. The treatment of CVT is anticoagulant therapy, generally unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin for the early phase and oral anticoagulants such as warfarin for the late phase. This case reports the first documented case of CVT in an HIV positive patient in Colombia.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Tromboembolia Venosa , Crânio , Encéfalo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , HIV , Cefaleia , Hepatite B
2.
J Headache Pain ; 22(1): 122, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) consist of abnormal connections between arteries and veins via an interposing nidus. While hemorrhage is the most common presentation, unruptured AVMs can present with headaches, seizures, neurological deficits, or be found incidentally. It remains unclear as to what AVM characteristics contribute to pain generation amongst unruptured AVM patients with headaches. METHODS: To assess this relationship, the current study evaluates angiographic and clinical features amongst patients with unruptured brain AVMs presenting with headache. Loyola University Medical Center medical records were queried for diagnostic codes corresponding to AVMs. In patients with unruptured AVMs, we analyzed the correlation between the presenting symptom of headache and various demographic and angiographic features. RESULTS: Of the 144 AVMs treated at our institution between 1980 and 2017, 76 were unruptured and had sufficient clinical data available. Twenty-three presented with headaches, while 53 patients had other presenting symptoms. Patients presenting with headache were less likely to have venous stenosis compared to those with a non-headache presentation (13 % vs. 36 %, p = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the absence of venous stenosis may contribute to headache symptomatology. This serves as a basis for further study of correlations between AVM angioarchitecture and symptomatology to direct headache management in AVM patients.


Assuntos
Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas , Encéfalo , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/complicações , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões
3.
Georgian Med News ; (318): 67-71, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628381

RESUMO

To monitor the functional state of the brain of children with epilepsy, we developed an original modification of the method of study ingserialmotorreactions (tapping) using touch screen devices, which all owsdistant multiple examination and to obtain aninformativeset of performance indicators and their dynamics. Clinical and anamnestic; clinical and neurological research methods were also used. Examination materials of 21 children with epilepsy (13 boys, 8 girls), aged from 6 to 18 years were analyzed. The presence of significant differences in serial motor responses between patients with recurrent seizures and children with no seizures in all age groups allows us to consider the proposed option of tapping as a reliable source of additional information about the functional state of the brain of children with epilepsy, for data processing of which can be used «Big Data¼ methods.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Encéfalo , Criança , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Convulsões
4.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(9): 9497-9507, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is widely used for heroin use disorder. Although its curative effect is remarkable, there are problems associated with its use. While previous studies have found that methadone use may have certain effects on cerebral white matter, its effect on gray matter (GM) and its related neural networks is unclear. This study aimed to observe the effects of long-term methadone use on cerebral GM and the changes in related neural networks. METHODS: Patients receiving MMT treatment for heroin use disorder (N=50) were recruited. Longitudinal self-control was adopted, and the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to compare the difference in cerebral GM volume before and after 1 year of methadone use, then we select the brain region where the GM volume changed as the region of interest (ROI), and use the DPARSF software for the whole brain function connection, and the differences in brain function connections before and after 1year MMT treatment were compared. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that, after 1 year of MMT, patients showed smaller GM volume in the bilateral insula, occipital lingual gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, caudate nucleus, temporal, and occipital regions, and the resting neural network of the brain also changed. CONCLUSIONS: We speculate that long-term methadone use can lead to damage to GM structure and adaptive changes in the neural network of patients with heroin use disorder, mainly involving emotional perception, spatial localization, working memory, and other related functions.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta , Metadona , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos
5.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(9): 9974-9983, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data focusing on the synergistic effect of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitors and brain radiotherapy for brain metastases (BMs) in lung cancer is scarce. METHODS: A total of 60 lung cancer patients receiving PD-1 inhibitors with or without brain radiotherapy were identified in this retrospective study. The primary endpoints were intracranial progression-free survival (iPFS), extracranial progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) among three groups. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients received PD-1 inhibitors and concurrent brain radiotherapy, 20 patients were treated with PD-1 inhibitors and non-concurrent brain radiotherapy, and the other 19 patients were treated with PD-1 inhibitors alone. Patients in the concurrent group achieved a higher intracranial objective response rate (iORR, 61.1% vs. 29.4% vs. 25.0%) and a higher intracranial disease control rate (iDCR, 83.3% vs. 58.8% vs. 56.3%) compared with those in the non-concurrent group and PD-1 inhibitors alone group. The median iPFS was significantly longer in the concurrent group than the non-concurrent group and the PD-1 inhibitors alone group (9.8, 5.7, and 4.8 months, P=0.039, respectively). The median PFS were 9.2, 5.7 and 4.6 months (P=0.347) in the concurrent group, non-concurrent group and PD-1 inhibitors alone group. And the median OS were not reached, 12.1 and 6.9 months (P=0.206), respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that the lack of concurrent brain radiotherapy was independently associated with a shorter iPFS. CONCLUSIONS: PD-1 inhibitors with concurrent brain radiotherapy achieved a higher iORR, iDCR, and iPFS in lung cancer patients with treated or newly diagnosed BMs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Apoptose , Encéfalo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 495, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melnick-Needles syndrome and periventricular nodular heterotopia are two usually mutually exclusive phenotypes of F-actin-binding cytoskeletal phosphoprotein Filamin-A mutations. Melnick-Needles syndrome is a rare X-linked condition that is lethal in males and shows great phenotypic variability in affected females. It is caused by mutations in Filamin-A gene, which encodes the protein Filamin A. Defects of the human Filamin-A gene also cause X-linked periventricular nodular heterotopia, a malformation of neuronal migration characterized by nodules of neurons in inappropriate location adjacent to the walls of the lateral ventricles. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on two Caucasian adolescent females, sisters, diagnosed with Melnick-Needles syndrome and bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia, who developed bipolar disorder and somatic symptoms disorder at a young age. We also present a review of the literature about mental disorders associated with periventricular nodular heterotopia. Our report shows that patients presenting with atypical and heterogeneous psychiatric disease may have an underrecognized anatomical brain abnormality on genetic basis. CONCLUSIONS: We found records of psychiatric disorders associated with periventricular nodular heterotopia; nevertheless, this is the first report of bipolar disorder occurring in individuals with periventricular nodular heterotopia, and the first report of any psychiatric disorder in individuals affected by Melnick-Needles syndrome. In conclusion, this case report may contribute to characterizing the phenotype of this very rare syndrome.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Encefalopatias , Osteocondrodisplasias , Heterotopia Nodular Periventricular , Adolescente , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Heterotopia Nodular Periventricular/genética
7.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 502, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599145

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to compare brain structure between individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and healthy controls. Previous studies have generated inconsistent findings, possibly due to small sample sizes, or clinical/analytic heterogeneity. To address these concerns, we combined data from 28 research sites worldwide through the ENIGMA-Anxiety Working Group, using a single, pre-registered mega-analysis. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data from children and adults (5-90 years) were processed using FreeSurfer. The main analysis included the regional and vertex-wise cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume as dependent variables, and GAD, age, age-squared, sex, and their interactions as independent variables. Nuisance variables included IQ, years of education, medication use, comorbidities, and global brain measures. The main analysis (1020 individuals with GAD and 2999 healthy controls) included random slopes per site and random intercepts per scanner. A secondary analysis (1112 individuals with GAD and 3282 healthy controls) included fixed slopes and random intercepts per scanner with the same variables. The main analysis showed no effect of GAD on brain structure, nor interactions involving GAD, age, or sex. The secondary analysis showed increased volume in the right ventral diencephalon in male individuals with GAD compared to male healthy controls, whereas female individuals with GAD did not differ from female healthy controls. This mega-analysis combining worldwide data showed that differences in brain structure related to GAD are small, possibly reflecting heterogeneity or those structural alterations are not a major component of its pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Encéfalo , Adulto , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 504, 2021 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601489

RESUMO

Transcriptomic changes in specific brain regions can influence the risk of alcohol use disorder (AUD), but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. We investigated AUD-associated miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks in multiple brain regions by analyzing transcriptomic changes in two sets of postmortem brain tissue samples and ethanol-exposed human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cortical interneurons. miRNA and mRNA transcriptomes were profiled in 192 tissue samples (Set 1) from eight brain regions (amygdala, caudate nucleus, cerebellum, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, putamen, and ventral tegmental area) of 12 AUD and 12 control European Australians. Nineteen differentially expressed miRNAs (fold-change>2.0 & P < 0.05) and 97 differentially expressed mRNAs (fold-change>2.0 & P < 0.001) were identified in one or multiple brain regions of AUD subjects. AUD-associated miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks in each brain region were constructed using differentially expressed and negatively correlated miRNA-mRNA pairs. AUD-relevant pathways (including CREB Signaling, IL-8 Signaling, and Axonal Guidance Signaling) were potentially regulated by AUD-associated brain miRNA-mRNA pairs. Moreover, miRNA and mRNA transcriptomes were mapped in additional 96 tissue samples (Set 2) from six of the above eight brain regions of eight AUD and eight control European Australians. Some of the AUD-associated miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks were confirmed. In addition, miRNA and mRNA transcriptomes were analyzed in hESC-derived cortical interneurons with or without ethanol exposure, and ethanol-influenced miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks were constructed. This study provided evidence that alcohol could induce concerted miRNA and mRNA expression changes in reward-related or alcohol-responsive brain regions. We concluded that altered brain miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks might contribute to AUD development.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , MicroRNAs , Austrália , Encéfalo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Mensageiro
9.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(24): 1915-1920, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619853

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of regional homogeneity (ReHo) of the resting-state magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in first-episode childhood and adolescence-onset schizophrenia (CAOS) and to analyze the relationship between the severity of auditory hallucinations and ReHo. Methods: Seventy-nine cases of first-episode CAOS patients (case group) aged 10 to 16 were collected from October 2017 to December 2019 in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University. There were 28 males and 51 females with a mean age of (14.1±1.3) years. And meantime, 32 healthy children matched with the patients in baseline data were selected as healthy controls (HCs). The patients with CAOS were divided into three groups according to the auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) assessment of positive symptoms scale (SAPS): non-AVH group (0-1 point), 20 cases; mild-to-moderate AVH group (2-3 points), 36 cases; severe AVH group (4-5 points), 23 cases. The severity of psychiatric symptoms was evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). ReHo analysis was performed on the resting state fMRI scan data of all subjects. Covariance analysis (ages was used as a covariate) was performed between the case group and the HCs, and the three case groups were analyzed to find the different brain areas. Finally, covariance analysis (ages as a covariate) was performed on ReHo values between the case group and the HCs, and among the three groups of patients. Correlation analysis was conducted between the ReHo values in different brain regions and PANSS scores, as well as AVH scores. Results: Compared with the HCs, the decreased ReHo of patients were mainly located in the left superior frontal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, left central anterior gyrus, and right central anterior gyrus (all P<0.05). Besides, the ReHo deficits were in the right superior temporal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, precuneus lobe, and left central anterior gyrus among the three groups (all P<0.05). Moreover, the severe-AVH group showed decreased ReHo values in precuneus lobe compared with the non-AVH group (P<0.05), and showed decreased ReHo values in left middle frontal gyrus and left central anterior gyrus compared with the mild-to-moderate AVH group (both P<0.05). Furthermore, the ReHo in the right superior temporal gyrus and the left anterior central gyrus were negatively correlated with the AVH score (rs=-0.34, -0.32, P<0.05); and the positive symptom score was negatively correlated with the ReHo in the right superior temporal lobe (r=-0.23, P<0.05). Conclusion: Firstly, decreased ReHo is found in multiple brain regions in CAOS. Secondly, the occurrence of auditory hallucinations may be related to the abnormal activity of local neurons in the resting state. Consequently, Abnormal brain function may be the underlying neural basis for the first-episode CAOS.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Adolescente , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Criança , Feminino , Alucinações/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 3355030, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621307

RESUMO

With the advent of the era of big data, how to quickly obtain effective information and efficiently disseminate information technology has become the most popular topic. Studies have shown that the ability of the human brain to process data and information is unmatched by machines, and the processing of graphics is tens of thousands of times faster than that of words. Based on the deep belief network (DBN) algorithm, this paper studies the technology of information visualization graphic design teaching application. Firstly, the structure of the deep belief network is analysed to explore its technical application in graphic information reconstruction. It is concluded that the DBN algorithm can be used to deal with the problems of classification, regression, dimension calculation, feature point acquisition, accuracy calculation, and so on in machine learning training. Then, the deformation technology of graphic local design is studied based on the DBN algorithm to construct the visual teaching platform and analyse the technical research results of this algorithm in information graphic design. The results show that the DBN algorithm can quickly solve the problem of processing complex features in graphics, change the local deformation design of the original graphics to form new feature point data and add it to the teaching platform, and improve the ability of model fast learning and training, optimizing the operation efficiency of the teaching platform.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Encéfalo , Humanos
11.
Sr Care Pharm ; 36(10): 489-492, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593090

RESUMO

Objective: To identify the dietary supplements most commonly promoted online for brain health and to compare their major ingredients over 18 months. Mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease are increasing globally with few effective treatments available. Dietary supplements are widely promoted in the media and online for brain health and memory improvement despite minimal evidence of an actual effect. Methods: Incognito mode on Google Chrome was used to conduct four separate searches using the terms: memory supplement, brain health supplement, Alzheimer's supplement, and dementia supplement. The four separate searches for products were conducted through CVS, Walgreens, Walmart, GNC, Amazon, Yahoo, and Google. For each website, the top 10 supplement products and their ingredients were documented in August 2017 and again in January 2019. Results: Of the four terms used, "memory supplement" and "brain health supplement" provided the most results. The most common products were Prevagen®, Procera®, and Neuro Health®. Amazon had the most repeated products in 2017 and 2019, while Google and CVS had the least. Focus Factor® appeared 11 times in 2019 compared with once in 2017. At both time points, the most commonly promoted products were proprietary blends of Ginkgo biloba, vitamins, particularly vitamin B12 and folic acid, huperzine-A, Bacopa monnieri, and phosphatidylserine. Conclusions: Though the 2017 and 2019 datasets showed diverse products, the primary ingredients were similar. These supplements have insufficient evidence of efficacy and are expensive. Health professionals must be knowledgeable about dietary supplements for brain health to appropriately counsel individuals.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Suplementos Nutricionais , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Encéfalo , Humanos
13.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 29: e20201080, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute and chronic stresses affect the salivary glands, representing the source of plasma BDNF during stressful conditions. Pumpkin is a medicinal plant with an evident antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and potential antidepressant effects. OBJECTIVE: To assess the structural and biochemical effects induced by exposure to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) on salivary glands of albino rats, and to evaluate the role of pumpkin extract (Pump) in ameliorating this effect. METHODOLOGY: Four groups (n=10 each) of male albino rats were included in this study: the control, CUMS, Fluoxetine-treated and Pump-treated. The corticosterone, the pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the oxidant/antioxidant profile were all assessed in the serum. The level of BDNF mRNA was measured in the salivary glands using qRT-PCR. Histopathological changes of the salivary glands were also assessed. RESULTS: The depressive-like status was confirmed behaviorally and biochemically. Exposure to CUMS significantly up-regulated (p<0.001) the level of serum corticosterone. CUMS induced degenerative changes in the secretory and ductal elements of the salivary glands evident by increased apoptosis. Both Fluoxetine and Pumpkin significantly up-regulated (p<0.001) BDNF expression in the salivary glands and ameliorated the CUMS-induced histopathological and biochemical alterations in the salivary glands. Pumpkin significantly (p<0.001) increased the serum levels of antioxidant enzymes SOD, GPX and CAT, and reduced the serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6. CONCLUSION: Pumpkin ameliorates the depressive-like status induced in rats following exposure to chronic stress through exerting a promising anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-depressant-like effects. The pumpkin, subsequently, improved stress-induced structural changes in the salivary glands that might be due to up-regulation of BDNF expression in the glands.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Animais , Encéfalo , Ratos , Glândulas Salivares
14.
Chaos ; 31(9): 093117, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598477

RESUMO

The dynamic core hypothesis posits that consciousness is correlated with simultaneously integrated and differentiated assemblies of transiently synchronized brain regions. We represented time-dependent functional interactions using dynamic brain networks and assessed the integrity of the dynamic core by means of the size and flexibility of the largest multilayer module. As a first step, we constrained parameter selection using a newly developed benchmark for module detection in heterogeneous temporal networks. Next, we applied a multilayer modularity maximization algorithm to dynamic brain networks computed from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired during deep sleep and under propofol anesthesia. We found that unconsciousness reconfigured network flexibility and reduced the size of the largest spatiotemporal module, which we identified with the dynamic core. Our results represent a first characterization of modular brain network dynamics during states of unconsciousness measured with fMRI, adding support to the dynamic core hypothesis of human consciousness.


Assuntos
Propofol , Inconsciência , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estado de Consciência , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
15.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(10): 1228-1230, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601847

RESUMO

Hemichorea-hemiballismus, secondary to hyperglycemia, is a rare but easily treatable condition that is usually associated with type II diabetes mellitus. This is a case of a 68- year lady, with long-standing, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, who presented with disabling right-sided hemichorea-hemiballismus. The T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperintensity in the basal ganglia. The abnormal movements subsided within a few days after achieving euglycaemia with insulin therapy. This case highlights the importance of treatment of hyperglycaemia in a diabetic patient presenting with acute or sub-acute abnormal movement disorder. Key Words: Hemichorea, Hemiballismus, Hyperglycemia, T-1 hyperintensity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Discinesias , Hiperglicemia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Discinesias/tratamento farmacológico , Discinesias/etiologia , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
16.
Gen Physiol Biophys ; 40(5): 387-396, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602452

RESUMO

This study compared the hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal cortex during sprint interval training (SIT) and recovery periods in sedentary and athletes. SIT was performed on a cycling ergometer on 12 male athletes and 9 sedentary participants. A functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) device was used to record the hemodynamic changes of the prefrontal cortex throughout the protocol. The oxyhemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) levels in the prefrontal cortex were increased significantly, and the power outputs were decreased in repetitive Wingate anaerobic tests (WAnTs) in Sedentary and Athletes group (p < 0.001). In addition, the Sedentary group had higher Oxy-Hb values (p < 0.001). However, the recovery times decreased significantly after all WAnTs (p < 0.05). Despite the increased fatigue, athletes performed better with less Oxy-Hb than the sedentary participants. Also, the recovery of the Oxy-Hb values in the prefrontal region was faster in athletes. These results may highlight a possible brain adaptation in athletes.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Encéfalo , Atletas , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 81(5): 853-856, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633963

RESUMO

Proposapnosia is a type of visual agnosia characterized by the inability to recognize people's faces. There are basically two variants, apperceptive and associative. The "Tortoni effect" is a phenomenon described by Bekinschtein et al a few years ago in waiters from Buenos Aires, who used this tool to remember the orders of each member of a table. We present a case of prosopagnosia associated with bilateral temporo-occipital injury secondary to head trauma, initially manifested by the lack of face recognition with the use of an associative strategy similar to that described in the "Tortoni effect" as compensation, in a 62-year-old female who suffered a severe head injury. A few months after this event, the patient had difficulty in recognizing familiar people, a fact evidenced by her relatives when at a restaurant table, they changed their seats, remained silent momentarily, and right after the patient kept naming them by their previous location. The magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed blunt sequelae lesions in the bilateral temporo-occipital region. Acquired prosopagnosia due to focal lesions in the temporo-occipital region, generally bilateral and right, and less frequently left, is a rare condition. The strategy used in the "Tortoni effect" was one of the initial manifestations of the condition in our patient. Carrying out an ecological neuropsychological test that considers this strategy could be useful in the screening and early detection of this entity.


Assuntos
Prosopagnosia , Encéfalo , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Prosopagnosia/diagnóstico , Prosopagnosia/etiologia
18.
Science ; 374(6564): 153-154, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618578

RESUMO

[Figure: see text].


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Encéfalo , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/terapia
19.
Folia Neuropathol ; 59(3): 219-231, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628787

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a global challenge to healthcare and society in the early 21st century. We report neuropathological changes in 52 patients aged between 22 years and 88 years (median 58 years) who were infected with the CoV-2 coronavirus. Patients died under various circumstances and had various pre-existing diseases. The inclusion criteria for this study were: positive result for the nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, diagnosis of pneumonia of SARS-CoV-2 or nucleoproteins of SARS-CoV-2 in pulmonary tissue confirmed by immunohistochemical methods (IHC). Samples from all brain structures and lung specimens were taken for histopathological examinations. Brain and pulmonary samples were stained typically with histological and immunohistochemical methods and small tissue fragments were examined with the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The light and electron microscopy examination confirmed the numerous neuropathological changes in the brains of the patients infected with the CoV-2. Many of these changes were caused by pre-existing diseases of patients and/or by necessary treatment. However, vascular lesions and the inflammatory process seem to be characteristic of the CoV-2 infection. In all of the structures of 52 brains of patients, damage of the vessel walls and morphological feature of the damage to the blood-brain barrier were observed. Lymphocytic and microglial infiltrates, both perivascular and diffuse, were also observed. Hence, the brain changes due to COVID-19 infection, could be called COVID-19 cerebral angiopathy with diffuse inflammation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , COVID-19/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Folia Neuropathol ; 59(3): 232-238, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628788

RESUMO

The major route of entry for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) into human host cells is by means of the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) transmembrane receptor. This zinc-containing carboxypeptidase and membrane-integral surface receptor is ubiquitous and widely expressed in multiple cell types. Hence SARS-CoV-2, an unusually large RNA virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has the remarkable capacity to invade many different types of human host cells simultaneously. Although COVID-19 is generally considered to be primarily an acute respiratory disease SARS-CoV-2 also targets specific anatomical regions of the central nervous system (CNS). In the normal CNS the highest ACE2 levels of expression are found within the medullary respiratory centers of the brainstem and this, in part, may explain the susceptibility of numerous COVID-19 patients to severe respiratory distress. About ~35% of all COVID-19 patients experience neurological and neuropsychiatric symptoms, and a pre-existing diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) predicts the highest risk of COVID-19 yet identified, with the highest mortality among elderly AD patients. In the current study of multiple anatomical regions of AD brains compared to age-, post-mortem interval- and gender-matched controls (n = 10 regions, n = 32 brains), ACE2 expression was found to be significantly up-regulated in AD in the occipital lobe, temporal lobe neocortex and hippocampal CA1. The temporal lobe and hippocampus of the brain are also targeted by the inflammatory neuropathology that accompanies AD, suggesting a significant mechanistic overlap between COVID-19 and AD, strongly centered on invasion by the neurotropic SARS-CoV-2 virus via the increased presence of ACE2 receptors in limbic regions of the AD-affected brain.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , COVID-19 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Regulação para Cima
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