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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679524

RESUMO

Sow farrowing is an important part of pig breeding. The accurate and effective early warning of sow behaviors in farrowing helps breeders determine whether it is necessary to intervene with the farrowing process in a timely manner and is thus essential for increasing the survival rate of piglets and the profits of pig farms. For large pig farms, human resources and costs are important considerations in farrowing supervision. The existing method, which uses cloud computing-based deep learning to supervise sow farrowing, has a high equipment cost and requires uploading all data to a cloud data center, requiring a large network bandwidth. Thus, this paper proposes an approach for the early warning and supervision of farrowing behaviors based on the embedded artificial-intelligence computing platform (NVIDIA Jetson Nano). This lightweight deep learning method allows the rapid processing of sow farrowing video data at edge nodes, reducing the bandwidth requirement and ensuring data security in the network transmission. Experiments indicated that after the model was migrated to the Jetson Nano, its precision of sow postures and newborn piglets detection was 93.5%, with a recall rate of 92.2%, and the detection speed was increased by a factor larger than 8. The early warning of 18 approaching farrowing (5 h) sows were tested. The mean error of warning was 1.02 h.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Animais , Suínos , Humanos , Animais Recém-Nascidos
2.
Genet Sel Evol ; 55(1): 7, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36698054

RESUMO

Restricted maximum likelihood estimation of genetic parameters accounting for genomic relationships has been reported to impose computational burdens which typically are many times higher than those of corresponding analyses considering pedigree based relationships only. This can be attributed to the dense nature of genomic relationship matrices and their inverses. We outline a reparameterisation of the multivariate linear mixed model to principal components and its effects on the sparsity pattern of the pertaining coefficient matrix in the mixed model equations. Using two data sets we demonstrate that this can dramatically reduce the computing time per iterate of the widely used 'average information' algorithm for restricted maximum likelihood. This is primarily due to the fact that on the principal component scale, the first derivatives of the coefficient matrix with respect to the parameters modelling genetic covariances between traits are independent of the relationship matrix between individuals, i.e. are not afflicted by a multitude of genomic relationships.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Modelos Genéticos , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Genômica/métodos , Fenótipo , Algoritmos , Linhagem
3.
Can J Vet Res ; 87(1): 3-8, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36606040

RESUMO

The domestic dog has been given considerable attention as a system for investigating the genetics of human diseases. Population diversity and breed structure are unique features that make dogs particularly amenable to genetic studies. Dogs show distinguished features of breed-specific homogeneity, which is associated with striking interbreed heterogeneity. This review discusses the significance of studying the genetic maps, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and usefulness of this species as an animal model. Most canine genetic disorders are similar to those of humans, including inherited, psychiatric, and genetic disorders. In addition to revealing new candidate genes, canine models allow access to experimental resources, such as cells, tissues, and even live animals, for research and intervention purposes.


Le chien domestique a reçu une attention considérable en tant que système d'investigation de la génétique des maladies humaines. La diversité de la population et la structure de la race sont des caractéristiques uniques qui rendent les chiens particulièrement propices aux études génétiques. Les chiens présentent des caractéristiques distinctes d'homogénéité spécifique à la race, qui est associée à une hétérogénéité interraciale frappante. Cette revue traite de l'importance de l'étude des cartes génétiques, des études d'association à l'échelle du génome (GWAS) et de l'utilité de cette espèce en tant que modèle animal. La plupart des troubles génétiques canins sont similaires à ceux des humains, y compris les troubles héréditaires, psychiatriques et génétiques. En plus de révéler de nouveaux gènes candidats, les modèles canins permettent d'accéder à des ressources expérimentales, telles que des cellules, des tissus et même des animaux vivants, à des fins de recherche et d'intervention.(Traduit par Docteur Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Animais , Cães , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Genoma , Genômica , Cruzamento , Doenças do Cão/genética
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 478, 2022 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36539816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of dengue fever caused by viruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are repeated occurrences in West Africa. In recent years, Burkina Faso has experienced major dengue outbreaks, most notably in 2016 and 2017 when 80% of cases were recorded in Ouagadougou City (Central Health Region). In order to better understand the ecology of this vector and to provide information for use in developing control measures, a study on the characteristics of Aedes container breeding sites and the productivity of such sites, as measured by the abundance of immature stages and resultant adult body size, was undertaken in three health districts (Baskuy, Bogodogo and Nongremassom) of Ouagadougou. METHODS: Adult mosquitoes were collected indoors and outdoors in 643 households during the rainy season from August to October 2018. The presence of water containers was systematically recorded and the containers examined for the presence or absence of larvae. Characteristics of the container breeding sites, including size of the container and temperature, pH and conductivity of the water contained within, were recorded as well as the volume of water. Traditional Stegomyia indices were calculated as quantitative indicators of the risk of dengue outbreaks; generalised mixed models were fitted to larval and pupal densities, and the contribution of each covariate to the model was evaluated by the Z-value and associated P-value. RESULTS: A total of 1061 container breeding sites were inspected, of which 760 contained immature stages of Ae. aegypti ('positive' containers). The most frequent container breeding sites found in each health district were tyres and both medium (buckets/cans/pots) and large (bins/barrels/drums) containers; these containers were also the most productive larval habitats and the types that most frequently tested positive. Of the Stegomyia indices, the Breteau, House and Container indices exceeded WHO dengue risk thresholds. Generalised linear mixed models showed that larval and pupal abundances were associated with container type, physicochemical characteristics of the water and collection month, but there were significant differences among container types and among health districts. Aedes aegypti body size was positively associated with type and diameter of the container, as well as with electrical conductivity of the water, and negatively associated with pH and temperature of the water and with the level of exposure of the container to sunlight. CONCLUSION: This study provides data on putative determinants of the productivity of habitats regarding Ae. aegypti immature stages. These data are useful to better understand Ae. aegypti proliferation. The results suggest that identifying and targeting the most productive container breeding sites could contribute to dengue vector control strategies in Burkina Faso.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue , Animais , Adulto , Humanos , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Ecossistema , Pupa , Cruzamento , Larva , Água
5.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1989): 20221748, 2022 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36541175

RESUMO

Identifying the causes and fitness consequences of intraspecific variation in cognitive performance is fundamental to understand how cognition evolves. Selection may act on different cognitive traits separately or jointly as part of the general cognitive performance (GCP) of the individual. To date, few studies have examined simultaneously whether individual cognitive performance covaries across different cognitive tasks, the relative importance of individual and social attributes in determining cognitive variation, and its fitness consequences in the wild. Here, we tested 38 wild southern pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor) on a cognitive test battery targeting associative learning, reversal learning and inhibitory control. We found that a single factor explained 59.5% of the variation in individual cognitive performance across tasks, suggestive of a general cognitive factor. GCP varied by age and sex; declining with age in females but not males. Older females also tended to produce a higher average number of fledglings per year compared to younger females. Analysing over 10 years of breeding data, we found that individuals with lower general cognitive performance produced more fledglings per year. Collectively, our findings support the existence of a trade-off between cognitive performance and reproductive success in a wild bird.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Passeriformes , Humanos , Animais , Feminino , Cruzamento , Reprodução , Cognição
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 22529, 2022 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36581704

RESUMO

The extraordinary genetic and behavioural diversity of dog breeds provides a unique opportunity for investigating the heritability of cognitive traits, such as problem-solving ability, social cognition, inhibitory control, and memory. Previous studies have mainly investigated cognitive differences between breed groups, and information on individual dog breeds is scarce. As a result, findings are often contradictory and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to provide more clarity on between-breed differences of cognitive traits in dogs. We examined the performance of 13 dog breeds (N = 1002 dogs) in a standardized test battery. Significant breed differences were found for understanding of human communicative gestures, following a human's misleading gesture, spatial problem-solving ability in a V-detour task, inhibitory control in a cylinder test, and persistence and human-directed behaviour during an unsolvable task. Breeds also differed significantly in their behaviour towards an unfamiliar person, activity level, and exploration of a novel environment. No significant differences were identified in tasks measuring memory or logical reasoning. Breed differences thus emerged mainly in tasks measuring social cognition, problem-solving, and inhibitory control. Our results suggest that these traits may have come under diversifying artificial selection in different breeds. These results provide a deeper understanding on breed-specific traits in dogs.


Assuntos
Resolução de Problemas , Cognição Social , Cães , Animais , Humanos , Cruzamento , Comunicação , Atenção
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19331, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369339

RESUMO

The white yak, a type of unique and valuable farm animals on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, are mainly distributed in Tianzhu (County of Gansu Province), Menyuan, Huzhu and Ledu (three Counties of Qinghai Province) in China. In the present study, the Y-chromosomal genetic diversity, differentiation and phylogeny of three Chinese white yak breeds/populations (Tianzhu, Huzhu and Menyuan) were comprehensively explored using five Y-SNPs (SRY4, USP9Y, UTY19, AMELY3 and OFD1Y10) and one Y-STR (INRA189) markers. The results showed that six Y-haplotypes (H1Y1, H9Y1, H10Y1, H11Y2, H12Y2 and H13Y2) were identified in 97 male yak from three white yak breeds/populations. Among these haplotypes, H1Y1, H10Y1 and H11Y2 were shared by all of breeds/populations and H12Y2 was shared by Tianzhu and Huzhu populations. However, H9Y1 and H13Y2 haplotypes were only detected in Menyuan and Tianzhu white yak populations, respectively. The Y-haplotype diversity was maximum in Huzhu white yak (0.7500 ± 0.0349), the medium in Tianzhu white yak (0.6881 ± 0.0614) and the lowest in Menyuan white yak (0.5720 ± 0.0657). The total Y-haplotype diversity of three white yak breeds/populations was 0.7567 ± 0.0233, indicating rich paternal genetic diversity in white yak. The FST values showed a moderate differentiation between Tianzhu and Menyuan (FST = 0.0763, P < 0.05) populations, but a weak differentiation between Huzhu and Tianzhu white yak breeds/populations (FST = 0.0186, P > 0.05) and Huzhu and Menyuan (FST = - 0.005, P > 0.05) populations. The clustering analysis revealed a close genetic relationship between Huzhu and Menyuan white yak, both were far from Tianzhu white yak breed. The phylogenetic analyses showed that white yak had two Y-haplogroups/lineages (Y1 and Y2) with two potential paternal origins. The findings of present study provide new insight into the basic information for the formulation of molecular breeding programs of white yak. Moreover, it also contributes to the conservation and utilization of this special animal genetic resource.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Masculino , China , Haplótipos , Cruzamento
8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(6): 377, 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344692

RESUMO

The present study has been designed to devise a pen-side hematological formula for estimation of hemoglobin (Hb) from packed cell volume (PCV) in Cholistani breed of cattle being reared under pastoralism in Cholistan desert, Pakistan. It also aims to validate the soundness of rule of calculating Hb concentration as one-third of PCV and vice versa as being used in human medicine. Cholistani cattle (n = 364) were bled for PCV determination (microhematocrit) method and Hb estimation (hematology analyzer) (HbD) as well as through calculation being one-third of PCV (HbC). The independent-sample t-test was implied for deducing difference between HbD and HbC, and between HbD and corrected Hb (CHb) for all study groups. The CHb was deduced through regression prediction equation attained from linear regression model. Scatter-plots were drawn and linear regression was carried out between various studied hematological attributes. Significantly (P ≤ 0.01) positive correlation coefficient was noticed for all study groups being highest for female adult stock (r = 0.893; adjusted R-square = 0.79) between HbD and PCV and between HbD and HbC. The regression equation for overall results attained, i.e., Hb = 0.13 (PCV) + 6.3 was used to deduce CHb. A non-significant (P ≥ 0.05) difference was noticed between HbD and CHb. In conclusion, a convention of human clinical medicine that Hb concentration is third of PCV and vice versa cannot be implied for Cholistani cattle. A different equation, i.e., Hb (g/dL) = 0.13 (PCV) + 6.3 may provide reliable results for Hb estimation from the PCV in cattle.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Hematócrito , Hemoglobinas , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Hematócrito/veterinária , Hemoglobinas/análise , Paquistão
9.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 736, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent selection is a foundational breeding method for quantitative trait improvement. It typically features rapid breeding cycles that can lead to high rates of genetic gain. Usually, generations are discrete in recurrent selection, which means that breeding candidates are evaluated and considered for selection for only one cycle. Alternately, generations can overlap, with breeding candidates considered for selection as parents for multiple cycles. With recurrent genomic selection but not phenotypic selection, candidates can be re-evaluated by using genomic estimated breeding values without additional phenotyping of the candidates themselves. Therefore, it may be that candidates with true high breeding values discarded in one cycle due to underestimation of breeding value could be identified and selected in subsequent cycles. The consequences of allowing generations to overlap in recurrent selection are unknown. We assessed whether maintaining overlapping and discrete generations led to differences in genetic gain for phenotypic, genomic truncation, and genomic optimum contribution recurrent selection by stochastic simulation. RESULTS: With phenotypic selection, overlapping generations led to decreased genetic gain compared to discrete generations due to increased selection error bias. Selected individuals, which were in the upper tail of the distribution of phenotypic values, tended to also have high absolute error relative to their true breeding value compared to the overall population. Without repeated phenotyping, these individuals erroneously believed to have high value were repeatedly selected across cycles, leading to decreased genetic gain. With genomic truncation selection, overlapping and discrete generations performed similarly as updating breeding values precluded repeatedly selecting individuals with inaccurately high estimates of breeding values in subsequent cycles. Overlapping generations did not outperform discrete generations in the presence of a positive genetic trend with genomic truncation selection, as individuals from previous breeding cycles typically had truly lower breeding values than candidates from the current generation. With genomic optimum contribution selection, overlapping and discrete generations performed similarly, but overlapping generations slightly outperformed discrete generations in the long term if the targeted inbreeding rate was extremely low. CONCLUSION: Maintaining discrete generations in recurrent phenotypic selection leads to increased genetic gain, especially at low heritabilities, by preventing selection error bias. With genomic truncation selection and genomic optimum contribution selection, genetic gain does not differ between discrete and overlapping generations assuming non-genetic effects are not present. Overlapping generations may increase genetic gain in the long term with very low targeted rates of inbreeding in genomic optimum contribution selection.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Seleção Genética , Humanos , Endogamia , Genoma , Genômica/métodos , Modelos Genéticos
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 382, 2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of breeding sites and distribution of species of Simulium damnosum sensu lato are critical in understanding the epidemiology of onchocerciasis and evaluating the impact of elimination interventions. Reports on breeding sites and species distribution of members of S. damnosum s.l. in Cameroon are scarce and the few ones available date back to more than three decades. The aim of this study is to provide information on S. damnosum breeding sites across the rainy (RS) and dry (DS) seasons and the species composition in three different regions in Cameroon: Southwest (SW), Northwest (NW) and North (N). METHODS: A cross-sectional two-season study was carried out in three regions with different ecological characteristics (SW-rainforest; NW-mixed forest-Guinea savanna; N-Sudan savanna). Pre-control onchocerciasis endemicity, relief maps and historical entomological information were used to identify potential rivers for purposive sampling. Sampled larvae were fixed in Carnoy's solution and sorted, and S. damnosum s.l. larvae were stored until identification by cytotaxonomy. Geographical coordinates of potential breeding sites were recorded to produce maps using ArcGIS, while Chi-square tests in SPSS were used to test for any differences between black fly seasonal breeding rates. RESULTS: A total of 237 potential breeding sites were sampled (RS = 81; DS = 156) and 72 were found positive for S. damnosum s.l. The SW had the most positive sites [67 (RS = 24; DS = 43)], with a significant difference in the rate of breeding between the seasons (P < 0.05). Among 68 sites visited in both seasons, 16 (23.5%) were positive in one of the two seasons with more sites positive in DS(11) than RS(05), 14 (20.6%) and 38 (55.9%) respectively positive and negative in both seasons. Simulium damnosum sensu stricto and S. sirbanum were the main species in the N, while S. squamosum and S. mengense were the predominant species in the NW and SW. Simulium soubrense and S. yahense were uniquely recorded in the SW. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive mapping of breeding sites requires rainy and dry seasons sampling. This study demonstrates that a breeding site survey of S. damnosum s.l. is achievable in forest as well as savanna zones. Not all potential breeding sites are actual breeding sites. Observation of S. soubrense in the SW indicates changes in species composition over time and could affect onchocerciasis epidemiology in this area.


Assuntos
Oncocercose , Simuliidae , Animais , Oncocercose/epidemiologia , Oncocercose/veterinária , Estudos Transversais , Floresta Úmida , Camarões/epidemiologia , Sudão , Pradaria , Insetos Vetores , Florestas , Cruzamento
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(6): 348, 2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36260154

RESUMO

The goal of this study is to use indirect ELISA to determine the concentration of major heat shock proteins (Hsps) in Kankrej (Bos indicus) breeding bulls and their relationship with certain male phenotypic traits including sexual behavior, sperm quality, and bull fertility in different seasons. The seasonal fluctuation in the concentration of three major Hsps (60, 70, and 90) was determined using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). According to the findings, Hsps levels are significantly higher during the summer season and are associated with both fresh and post-thawed semen quality traits in Kankrej breeding bulls. The better sexual behavior of bulls and seminal parameters of fresh or thawed semen was observed in the winter season together with the lower concentrations of HSPs. These could suggest negative association between HSPs with bull sexual behavior and seminal parameters. As a result, the concentration of Hsps in breeding bulls may be a useful indicator for determining fertility traits.


Assuntos
Análise do Sêmen , Sêmen , Bovinos , Masculino , Animais , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Estações do Ano , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Cruzamento
12.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275989, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36288337

RESUMO

Livestock European diffusion followed different human migration waves from the Fertile Crescent. In sheep, at least two diffusion waves have shaped the current breeds' biodiversity generating a complex genetic pattern composed by either primitive or fine-wool selected breeds. Among primitive breeds, aside from sharing common ancestral genomic components, they also show several traits such as the policeraty, large horns in the ram, short tail, and a moulting fleece, considered as ancestral. Although most of the primitive breeds characterized by these traits are confined on the very edge of Northern Europe, several residual populations are also scattered in the Mediterranean region. In fact, although in Italy a large number of local breeds are already extinct, others are listed as critically endangered, and among these there is the Quadricorna breed which is a four-horned sheep characterized by several ancestral traits. In this context we genotyped 47 individuals belonging to the Quadricorna sheep breed, a relict and endangered breed, from Central and Southern Italy. In doing so we used the Illumina OvineSNP50K array in order to explore its genetic diversity and to compare it with other 33 primitive traits-related, Mediterranean and Middle-East breeds, with the specific aim to reconstruct its origin. After retaining 35,680 SNPs following data filtering, the overall genomic architecture has been explored by using genetic diversity indices, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and admixture analysis, while the genetic relationships and migration events have been inferred using a neighbor-joining tree based on Reynolds' distances and by the maximum likelihood tree as implemented in treemix. Multiple convergent evidence from all our population genetics analyses, indicated that the two Quadricorna populations differ from all the other Italian breeds, while they resulted to be very close to the Middle Eastern and primitive European breeds. In addition, the genetic diversity indices highlighted values comparable with those of most of the other analyzed breeds, despite the two populations exhibit slightly different genetic indices suggesting different levels of genomic inbreeding and drift (FIS and FROH). The admixture analysis does not suggest any signal of recent gene exchange with other Italian local breeds, highlighting a rather ancestral purity of the two populations, while on the other hand the treemix analysis seems to suggest an ancient admixture with other primitive European breeds. Finally, all these evidences seem to trace back the residual Quadricorna sheep to an early Neolithic spread, probably following a Mediterranean route and that urgent conservation actions are needed in order to keep the breed and all related cultural products alive.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genoma , Ovinos/genética , Masculino , Animais , Humanos , Cruzamento , Endogamia , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1898, 2022 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36224655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In June 2019, surveillance data from the Uganda's District Health Information System revealed an outbreak of malaria in Kole District. Analysis revealed that cases had exceeded the outbreak threshold from January 2019. The Ministry of Health deployed our team to investigate the areas and people affected, identify risk factors for disease transmission, and recommend control and prevention measures. METHODS: We conducted an outbreak investigation involving a matched case-control study. We defined a confirmed case as a positive malaria test in a resident of Aboke, Akalo, Alito, and Bala sub-counties of Kole District January-June 2019. We identified cases by reviewing outpatient health records. Exposures were assessed in a 1:1 matched case-control study (n = 282) in Aboke sub-county. We selected cases systematically from 10 villages using probability proportionate to size and identified age- and village-matched controls. We conducted entomological and environmental assessments to identify mosquito breeding sites. We plotted epidemic curves and overlaid rainfall, and indoor residual spraying (IRS). Case-control exposures were combined into: breeding site near house, proximity to swamp and breeding site, and proximity to swamp; these were compared to no exposure in a logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of 18,737 confirmed case-patients (AR = 68/1,000), Aboke sub-county residents (AR = 180/1,000), children < 5 years (AR = 94/1,000), and females (AR = 90/1,000) were most affected. Longitudinal analysis of surveillance data showed decline in cases after an IRS campaign in 2017 but an increase after IRS cessation in 2018-2019. Overlay of rainfall and case data showed two malaria upsurges during 2019, occurring 35-42 days after rainfall increases. Among 141 case-patients and 141 controls, the combination of having mosquito breeding sites near the house and proximity to swamps increased the odds of malaria 6-fold (OR = 6.6, 95% CI = 2.24-19.7) compared to no exposures. Among 84 abandoned containers found near case-patients' and controls' houses, 14 (17%) had mosquito larvae. Adult Anopheles mosquitoes, larvae, pupae, and pupal exuviae were identified near affected houses. CONCLUSION: Stagnant water formed by increased rainfall likely provided increased breeding sites that drove this outbreak. Cessation of IRS preceded the malaria upsurges. We recommend re-introduction of IRS and removal of mosquito breeding sites in Kole District.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Surtos de Doenças , Malária , Animais , Cruzamento , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Inseticidas , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Controle de Mosquitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Água
14.
Vet Rec ; 191(7): 279, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36205957

Assuntos
Cruzamento , Animais , Noruega
15.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 166, 2022 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36199148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthier ruminant products can be achieved by adequate manipulation of the rumen microbiota to increase the flux of beneficial fatty acids reaching host tissues. Genomic selection to modify the microbiome function provides a permanent and accumulative solution, which may have also favourable consequences in other traits of interest (e.g. methane emissions). Possibly due to a lack of data, this strategy has never been explored. RESULTS: This study provides a comprehensive identification of ruminal microbial mechanisms under host genomic influence that directly or indirectly affect the content of unsaturated fatty acids in beef associated with human dietary health benefits C18:3n-3, C20:5n-3, C22:5n-3, C22:6n-3 or cis-9, trans-11 C18:2 and trans-11 C18:1 in relation to hypercholesterolemic saturated fatty acids C12:0, C14:0 and C16:0, referred to as N3 and CLA indices. We first identified that ~27.6% (1002/3633) of the functional core additive log-ratio transformed microbial gene abundances (alr-MG) in the rumen were at least moderately host-genomically influenced (HGFC). Of these, 372 alr-MG were host-genomically correlated with the N3 index (n=290), CLA index (n=66) or with both (n=16), indicating that the HGFC influence on beef fatty acid composition is much more complex than the direct regulation of microbial lipolysis and biohydrogenation of dietary lipids and that N3 index variation is more strongly subjected to variations in the HGFC than CLA. Of these 372 alr-MG, 110 were correlated with the N3 and/or CLA index in the same direction, suggesting the opportunity for enhancement of both indices simultaneously through a microbiome-driven breeding strategy. These microbial genes were involved in microbial protein synthesis (aroF and serA), carbohydrate metabolism and transport (galT, msmX), lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis (kdsA, lpxD, lpxB), or flagellar synthesis (flgB, fliN) in certain genera within the Proteobacteria phyla (e.g. Serratia, Aeromonas). A microbiome-driven breeding strategy based on these microbial mechanisms as sole information criteria resulted in a positive selection response for both indices (1.36±0.24 and 0.79±0.21 sd of N3 and CLA indices, at 2.06 selection intensity). When evaluating the impact of our microbiome-driven breeding strategy to increase N3 and CLA indices on the environmental trait methane emissions (g/kg of dry matter intake), we obtained a correlated mitigation response of -0.41±0.12 sd. CONCLUSION: This research provides insight on the possibility of using the ruminal functional microbiome as information for host genomic selection, which could simultaneously improve several microbiome-driven traits of interest, in this study exemplified with meat quality traits and methane emissions. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Microbiota , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Metano/metabolismo , Microbiota/genética , Rúmen/metabolismo
16.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(10)2022 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36292707

RESUMO

ß-Thalassemia induces hemolytic anemia caused by mutations in the ß-chain gene locus. As humans progress from embryo to adulthood, hemoglobin recombines twice. To test whether similar hemoglobin reassembly occurs in pigs, bioinformatics tools were used to predict the pig hemoglobin-encoding gene. We then systematically analyzed the expression patterns of the HBB gene family in three developmental stages (weaning, sexual maturity and physical maturity) of six different pig breeds (Landrace, Yorkshire, Wuzhishan, Songliao black, Meishan and Tibetan). The results showed that the new hemoglobin coding gene 'HBB-like' was found in pigs, while the HBG gene did not exist in pigs, indicating that human-like reassembly might not exist in pigs. The HBB and HBB-like genes shared highly similar amino acid sequences and gene sequences. The genes on the ß-chain were highly similar between humans and pigs and the amino acid sequences of human and pig HBB genes at position 26 and positions 41-42 were identical. qPCR results showed that there were significant differences in the spatiotemporal expression patterns of the four genes (HBA, HBB, HBB-like and HBE) across breeds. Our results provide a foundation for follow-up studies assessing the relationship between the gene-encoding hemoglobin and ß-thalassemia disease, as well as the construction of a gene-edited ß-thalassemia miniature pig model to assess ß-thalassemia treatments.


Assuntos
Globinas beta , Talassemia beta , Humanos , Suínos/genética , Animais , Adulto , Globinas beta/genética , Talassemia beta/genética , Talassemia beta/terapia , Mutação , Hemoglobinas/genética , Cruzamento
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18261, 2022 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309596

RESUMO

Globally, habitat loss has been deemed a major threat to wetland bird populations. However, the underlying mechanism of population declines and variations in the birds' vulnerability throughout their annual cycle is challenging to determine, yet critical for development of targeted conservation strategies. Over seven years, landscape water availability explained occupancy of breeding territories best when breeding performance, migratory performance, and annual survival of the White-naped Crane (Grus vipio) population in eastern Mongolia were studied. Also, the hatching success of eggs was positively correlated with water availability in addition to plant productivity. High ambient temperatures and large numbers of herder families (and hence more livestock) negatively affected hatching success. High water availability at Luan, a major stopover site increased migration speed during the cranes' northbound migration to their breeding grounds. In contrast, when water conditions were favorable, the birds stayed longer at the stopover site during southbound migration. Increased human density reduced the use of the stopover site during northbound migration. Finally, cranes arrived early at the breeding grounds when ambient temperature was high in northeast Mongolia. Combining these findings with historical trends in key environmental factors on their breeding grounds explains the general decline observed in this population of cranes in recent decades. Extrapolating our findings with future climate predictions, the outlook seems poor unless urgent action is taken. Knowledge of the mechanisms underlying White-naped Crane population decline in eastern Mongolia identified in this paper should improve the effectiveness of these actions.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Aves , Animais , Humanos , Ecossistema , Cruzamento , Água , Migração Animal
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232281

RESUMO

Under the situation of an increasing resource and environment shortage, the green transformation of dairy farming subject production driven by environmental regulation is the concentrated embodiment of a "promising government" to solve the problem of breeding environmental pollution. Due to the shortcomings of environmental regulation itself and the undefined connotation of the green transformation of dairy farming subject production, the interactive relationship between the two remains unclear at present. Based on defining the concept of green transformation of dairy farming subject production, this paper aims to analyze the interactive mechanism between the environmental regulation and green transformation of dairy farming main production, build a dynamic game model between the environmental regulators and dairy farming subject, and introduce the constraints and benefits of a reputation mechanism on the behavior in the model to explore whether environmental regulation can drive the green transformation of dairy farming subject production. The results showed that the green transformation of dairy farming subject production followed the "subject substitution view" and emphasized "source reduction, process control and terminal treatment". Strictly designed environmental regulations could effectively drive the green transformation of dairy farming subject production, but it was inevitable that the environmental regulators were vulnerable to the rent-seeking behavior of dairy farming subjects, which was "regulation capture". The introduction of the reputation mechanism has greatly improved the rent-seeking behavior of dairy farming subjects and the probability that environmental regulators have "regulation capture", indirectly forcing dairy farming subjects to participate in the green transformation of production. The greater the punishment for dairy farming subjects who do not participate in the green transformation of production was, the more they can be forced to participate in the green transformation of production. At the same time, it also reduces the risk of damage to the credibility of the government. Based on the studies above, this paper also further discussed the shortcomings of environmental regulation itself, including the "re exit and light implementation" of the environmental regulation policy, "decentralization and light inspection" of the environmental regulation subject, "result and light process" of the environmental regulation mode, and "formal regulation and light informal regulation" of the environmental regulation form, which provides a scientific reference for the formulation of the environmental regulation policy of livestock and poultry breeding in the future. Compared with previous studies, this paper is innovative in two aspects: first, it defines the conceptual connotation of a green transformation of dairy farming subject production, and second, it systematically discusses the interaction mechanism between the environmental regulation and green transformation of dairy farming subject production. This paper provides a scientific reference for the development of future environmental regulation policies for livestock and poultry farming.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Gado , Animais , Cruzamento , Poluição Ambiental , Fazendas , Humanos , Aves Domésticas
19.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(12): 12259-12267, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36194377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shearwaters (order Procellariiformes) are an excellent study system to investigate the genetic consequences of the co-called "seabird paradox", as they are able to disperse long distances but many species exhibit natal and breeding philopatry. However, few microsatellite markers are currently available for these taxa, hampering genetic inferences. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, 25 novel microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for each of two distantly related shearwater species: the wedge-tailed shearwater (Ardenna pacifica) and the tropical shearwater (Puffinus bailloni). Polymorphism tests were performed for a total of 91 A. pacifica individuals sampled at Reunion and Round Island, and 48 P. bailloni individuals from Reunion and Europa Island, in the western Indian Ocean. The analyses revealed 23 polymorphic loci for A. pacifica, with the number of alleles per locus (Na) ranging from 2 to 8 (mean = 3.957 ± 0.364). Nineteen polymorphic loci were found for P. bailloni, with Na varying from two to five (mean = 3.053 ± 0.247). The observed heterozygosity (Ho) was relatively low for the two species, with Ho ranging from 0.022 to 0.725 (mean = 0.326 ± 0.044) for A. pacifica and from 0.021 to 0.688 (mean = 0.271 ± 0.051) for P. bailloni, but comparable to the estimates available for other Puffinus species. CONCLUSIONS: The new microsatellite loci provide a valuable tool for further population genetic studies, and will allow for design of effective conservation and management plans for A. pacifica, P. bailloni and other closely-related species.


Assuntos
Aves , Repetições de Microssatélites , Animais , Cruzamento , Oceano Índico , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
20.
Vet Med Sci ; 8(5): 2147-2156, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Generally, copy number variation (CNV) is a large-scale structural variation between 50 bp and 1 kb of the genome. It can affect gene expression and is an important reason for genetic diversity and phenotypic trait diversity. Studies have shown that the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A2 (EIF4A2) gene plays an essential role in muscle development in both humans and pigs. However, the influence of bovine EIF4A2's copy number change on phenotypic traits has not been reported. OBJECTIVES: To detect the tissue expression profile of the EIF4A2 gene in adult cattle and individuals' CNV type of variation. Then, we explored the correlation between EIF4A2-CNV and growth traits in Chinese cattle breeds. METHODS: Real-time fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-qPCR) was used to determine the expression profile of the EIF4A2 gene. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to detect the CNV type of bovine populations. Then, SPSS 26.0 was used for association analysis. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 513 individuals in four cattle breeds (Qinchuan cattle [QC], Yunling cattle [YL], Pinan cattle [PN] and Jiaxian cattle [JX]) were detected for EIF4A2 gene's CNV. The results showed that EIF4A2-CNV has an essential impact on hip width (HW) and rump length (RL) in QC, heart girth (HG), chest depth (CD) and RL in YL and HW in PN. However, it had no significant effect on JX. CONCLUSIONS: The above results suggest that EIF4A2 gene's CNV can be used as a molecular marker for cattle breeding, which is helpful to accelerate the breeding of superior beef cattle breeds.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Animais , Bovinos/genética , China , Humanos , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/genética , Fenótipo , Suínos
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