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1.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 24(1): 41-51, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748692

RESUMO

Many saline-alkali soils around the world are polluted by the heavy metal Cd, restricting the development of agriculture and ecology in those regions. The halophyte Salicornia europaea L. is capable of growing healthily in Cd-contaminated saline-alkali soil, suggesting that the species is tolerant to stress caused by both salt and heavy metals. In this study, the mechanism of Cd tolerance in this species was explored under 200 mM NaCl. Flame spectrophotometric assays for ions content and spectrophotometric for organic soluble substances, antioxidant enzyme activity, phytochelatins (PCs) content and phytochelatin synthase (PCS) activity, the photosynthetic parameters by portable photosynthesis measurement system, genes expression by qRT-PCR analysis were carried out. Cd treatment significantly decreased the dry weight, photosynthetic rate, K+ , Zn2+ , and Fe2+/3+ content, while significantly increasing Na+ and Cd+ , soluble organic matter, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Compared with Cd treatment at 0 mM NaCl, Cd treatment at 200 mM NaCl significantly increased dry weight and photosynthetic rate while significantly decreasing ROS content through increased antioxidant enzyme activity. When exposed to Cd stress, treatment with 200 mM NaCl significantly increased PCs content and PCS activity and up-regulated the expression of the phytochelatin synthase genes CDA1 and PCS1 were, thereby increasing resistance to Cd. NaCl treatment increases the tolerance of S. europaea to the heavy metal Cd by growing rapidly, reducing the quantity of Cd2+ from entering the plant shoots, increasing the levels of PCs that chelate Cd2+ , thereby reducing its toxicity.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Chenopodiaceae , Cádmio/toxicidade , Fitoquelatinas , Raízes de Plantas , Brotos de Planta , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(2): 724-731, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toasted vine shoots have recently been proposed as enological additives with the aim of improving the sensorial profile of wines. However, so far, there is no simple method for classifying vine shoots for this innovative enological practice. In this study, therefore, an enological aptitude classification for toasted vine shoots has been proposed for the first time. Moreover, given the need for quick techniques to be used in wineries to determine the main phenolic compounds of vine shoots, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been calibrated and validated. RESULTS: By means of a detailed statistical analysis, an enological classification of toasted vine shoots has been proposed based on their total polyphenol index and (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, ellagic acid, and trans-resveratrol. Moreover, the NIR methodology that was developed showed good validation statistics and acceptable accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: This work proposes the first enological toasted vine-shoot classification and it provides a tool for rapid screening, mainly of phenolic compounds, in toasted vine shoots. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/análise , Brotos de Planta/química , Vitis/química , Vinho/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Fenóis/análise
3.
Gene ; 809: 146030, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673213

RESUMO

The shoot apex is a region where new cells are produced and elongate. The developmental state of the wheat shoot apex under low temperature affects its cold resistance. In this study, the morphology of shoot apex before overwintering was characterized for 24 wheat line with different winter and spring characteristics. Our research showed that the shoot apex of autumn-sown spring wheat lines reached the temperature sensitive double-ridge stage before overwintering, whereas shoot apex of winter wheat lines are found in temperature-insensitive vegetative or elongation stages. In order to explore how gene expression is associated with shoot apex differentiation in winter and spring wheat, we used strand-specific RNA sequencing to profile the gene expression patterns at four time-points between 14 after germination and 45 days after germination in the winter wheat cultivar Dongnongdongmai No. 1 (DM1) and in the spring wheat cultivar China Spring (CS). We identified 11,848 differentially expressed genes between the two cultivars. Most up-regulated genes in CS were involved in energy metabolism and transport during the seedling stage, whereas up-regulated genes in DM1 were involved in protein and DNA synthesis. MADS-box genes affect plant growth and development. In this study, MADS-boxes with differential expression between CS and DM1 were screened and evolutionary tree analysis was conducted. During all sampling periods, CS highly expressed MADS-box genes that induce flowering promotion genes such as VRN1, VRT and AG, while lowly expressed MADS-box genes that induce flowering-inhibiting homologous genes such as SVP. TaVRN1 composition in DM1 and CS was vrn-A1, vrn-B1, and Vrn-D1b. Analysis of the sequence of TaVRN1 (TraesCS5A01G391700) from DM1 and CS revealed 5 SNP differences in the promoter regions and 3 SNP deletions in the intron regions. The expression levels of cold resistant genes in DM1 were significantly higher than those in CS at seedling stage (neither DM1 nor CS experienced cold in this study), including CBF, cold induced protein,acid desaturase and proline rich proteins. Additionally, the expression levels of auxin-related genes were significantly higher in CS than those in DM1 at 45 days after germination. Our study identified candidate genes associated with the process of differentiation of the shoot apex in winter and spring wheat at the seedling stage and also raised an internal stress tolerance model for winter wheat to endogenously anticipate the coming stressful conditions in winter.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 602, 2021 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The plant hormone auxin is a major coordinator of plant growth and development in response to diverse environmental signals, including nutritional conditions. Sole ammonium (NH4+) nutrition is one of the unique growth-suppressing conditions for plants. Therefore, the quest to understand NH4+-mediated developmental defects led us to analyze auxin metabolism. RESULTS: Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the most predominant natural auxin, accumulates in the leaves and roots of mature Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown on NH4+, but not in the root tips. We found changes at the expressional level in reactions leading to IAA biosynthesis and deactivation in different tissues. Finally, NH4+ nutrition would facilitate the formation of inactive oxidized IAA as the final product. CONCLUSIONS: NH4+-mediated accelerated auxin turnover rates implicate transient and local IAA peaks. A noticeable auxin pattern in tissues correlates with the developmental adaptations of the short and highly branched root system of NH4+-grown plants. Therefore, the spatiotemporal distribution of auxin might be a root-shaping signal specific to adjust to NH4+-stress conditions.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Metabolismo , Oxirredução , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Estresse Fisiológico , Distribuição Tecidual
5.
Plant Sci ; 313: 111054, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763852

RESUMO

Consumption of rice grains contaminated with high concentrations of cadmium (Cd) can cause serious long-term health problems. Moreover, even low Cd concentrations present in the soil can result in the abatement of plant performance, leading to lower grain yield. Studies examining the molecular basis of plant defense against Cd-induced oxidative stress could pave the way in creating superior rice varieties that display an optimal antioxidative defense system to cope with Cd toxicity. In this study, we showed that after one day of Cd exposure, hydroponically grown rice plants exhibited adverse shoot biomass and leaf growth effects. Cadmium accumulates especially in the roots and the leaf meristematic region, leading to a disturbance of manganese homeostasis in both the roots and leaves. The leaf growth zone showed an increased amount of lipid peroxidation indicating that Cd exposure disturbed the oxidative balance. We propose that an increased expression of genes related to the glutathione metabolism such as glutathione synthetase 2, glutathione reductase and phytochelatin synthase 2, rather than genes encoding for antioxidant enzymes, is important in combating early Cd toxicity within the leaves of rice plants. Furthermore, the upregulation of two RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG genes together with a Cd concentration-dependent increase of abscisic acid might cause stomatal closure or cell wall modification, potentially leading to the observed leaf growth reduction. Whereas abscisic acid was also elevated at long term exposure, a decrease of the growth hormone auxin might further contribute to growth inhibition and concomitantly, an increase in salicylic acid might stimulate the activity of antioxidative enzymes after a longer period of Cd exposure. In conclusion, a clear interplay between phytohormones and the oxidative challenge affect plant growth and acclimation during exposure to Cd stress.


Assuntos
Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/genética , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transporte Biológico/genética , Produção Agrícola/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glutationa Redutase/genética , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/genética , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
6.
Plant Sci ; 313: 111070, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763863

RESUMO

R-loops, consisting of a DNA:RNA hybrid and a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), form naturally as functional chromosome structures and are crucial in many vital biological processes. However, disrupted R-loop homeostasis will threat to the integrity and stability of genome. As the endonuclease, RNase H1 can efficiently recognize and remove excess R-loops to protect organisms from DNA damage induced by R-loop over-accumulation. Here, we investigated the function of RNase H1 in Physcomitrium (Physcomitrella) patens to illustrate its important role in the evolution of plants. We found that PpRNH1A dysfunction seriously affected shoot growth and branch formation in P. patens, revealing a noticeable functional difference between PpRNH1A and AtRNH1A of Arabidopsis. Furthermore, auxin signaling was significantly affected at the transcriptional level in PpRNH1A mutant plants, as a result of the accumulation of R-loops at several auxin-related genes. This study provides evidence that PpRNH1A regulates the development of P. patens by controlling R-loop formation at specific loci to modulate the transcription of auxin-related genes. It also highlights the interspecific functional differences between early land plants and vascular plants, despite crucial and conserved role of RNase H1 played in maintaining R-loop homeostasis.


Assuntos
Bryopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bryopsida/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/genética , Ribonuclease H/genética , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia
7.
Plant Sci ; 312: 111031, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620435

RESUMO

Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a central enzyme in nitrogen metabolism, assimilating ammonia into glutamine or deaminating glutamate into α-oxoglutarate. Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plants assimilate ammonium efficiently, but the role of CsGDH in ammonium assimilation remains unclear. We confirmed that tea has three GDH isogenes: CsGDH1-3. Bioinformatic analysis showed that CsGDH1 encodes the ß-GDH subunit, CsGDH2/3 encode the α-GDH subunit, and their proteins all feature an NADH-specific motif. CsGDH1 is mainly expressed in mature leaves and roots, CsGDH3 is mainly expressed in new shoots and roots, and CsGDH2 has the highest expression level in flowers compared to the other five tissues. Expression patterns of CsGDHs and glutamine synthetase isogenes (CsGSs) under different ammonium concentrations suggested that CsGDHs cooperate with CsGSs to assimilate ammonium, especially under high ammonium conditions. Inhibition of GS and its isogenes resulted in significant induction of CsGDH3 in roots and CsGDH2 in leaves, indicating their potential roles in ammonium assimilation. Moreover, CsGDHs transcripts were highly abundant in chlorotic tea leaves, in constrast to those of CsGSs, suggesting that CsGDHs play a vital role in ammonium assimilation in chlorotic tea mutant. Altogether, our circumstantial evidence that CsGDHs cooperate with CsGSs in ammonium assimilation provides a basis for unveiling their functions in tea plants.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/genética , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Glutamato Desidrogenase/genética , Glutamato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase/genética , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo
8.
Plant Sci ; 312: 111035, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620439

RESUMO

After germination, the maize shoot proceeds through a series of developmental stages before flowering. The first transition occurs during the vegetative phase where the shoot matures from the juvenile to the adult phase, called vegetative phase change (VPC). In maize, both phases exhibit easily-scored morphological characteristics, facilitating the elucidation of molecular mechanisms directing the characteristic gene expression patterns and resulting physiological features of each phase. miR156 expression is high during the juvenile phase, suppressing expression of squamosa promoter binding proteins/SBP-like transcription factors and miR172. The decline in miR156 and subsequent increase in miR172 expression marks the transition into the adult phase, where miR172 represses transcripts that confer juvenile traits. Leaf-derived signals attenuate miR156 expression and thus the duration of the juvenile phase. As found in other species, VPC in maize utilizes signals that consist of hormones, stress, and sugar to direct epigenetic modifiers. In this review we identify the intersection of leaf-derived signaling with components that contribute to the epigenetic changes which may, in turn, manage the distinct global gene expression patterns of each phase. In maize, published research regarding chromatin remodeling during VPC is minimal. Therefore, we identified epigenetic regulators in the maize genome and, using published gene expression data and research from other plant species, identify VPC candidates.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258253, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634063

RESUMO

Current knowledge on responses of aquatic clonal plants to resource availability is largely based on studies manipulating limited resource levels, which may have failed to capture the "big picture" for aquatic clonal plants in response to resource availability. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew the floating clonal plant Spirodela polyrhiza under ten nutrient levels (i.e., 1/64×, 1/32×, 1/16×, 1/8×, 1/4×, 1/2×, 1×, 2×, 4× and 8×full-strength Hoagland solution) and examined their responses in terms of clonal growth, morphology and biomass allocations. The responses of total biomass and number of ramets to nutrient availability were unimodal. A similar pattern was found for frond mass, frond length and frond width, even though area per frond and specific frond area fluctuated greatly in response to nutrient availability. In contrast, the responses of root mass and root length to nutrient availability were U-shaped. Moreover, S. polyrhiza invested more to roots under lower nutrient concentrations. These results suggest that nutrient availability may have distinct influences on roots and fronds of the aquatic clonal plant S. polyrhiza, resulting in a great influence on the whole S. polyrhiza population.


Assuntos
Araceae/fisiologia , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Araceae/anatomia & histologia , Araceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Araceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Células Clonais , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia
10.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641357

RESUMO

We report the development of in vitro propagation protocols through an adventitious shoot induction pathway for a rare and medicinal Scutellaria havanensis. In vitro propagation studies using nodal explants showed MS medium supplemented with 10 µM 6-Benzylaminopurine induced the highest number of adventitious shoots in a time-dependent manner. A ten-day incubation was optimum for shoot bud induction as longer exposures resulted in hyperhydricity of the explants and shoots induced. We also report preliminary evidence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105-mediated gene transfer transiently expressing the green fluorescent protein in this species. Transformation studies exhibited amenability of various explant tissues, internode being the most receptive. As the plant has medicinal value, research was carried out to evaluate its potential antioxidant capacity and the efficacy of methanolic leaf extracts in curbing the viability of human colorectal cancer cell line HCT116. Comparative total polyphenol and flavonoid content measurement of fresh and air-dried leaf extract revealed that the fresh leaf extracts contain higher total polyphenol and flavonoid content. The HCT 116 cell viability was assessed by colorimetric assay using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, showed a steady growth inhibition after 24 h of incubation. Scanning electron microscopy of leaf surface revealed a high density of glandular and non-glandular trichomes. This research provides a basis for the conservation of this rare plant and future phytochemical screening and clinical research.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Brotos de Planta/química , Scutellaria/química , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Células HCT116 , Humanos
11.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641376

RESUMO

Different parts of Araucaria bidiwillii (bunya pin) trees, such as nuts, seeds, bark, and shoots, are widely used in cooking, tea, and traditional medicines around the world. The shoots essential oil (EO) has not yet been studied. Herein, the chemical profile of A. bidiwillii shoots EO (ABSEO) was created by GC-MS analysis. Additionally, the in vivo oral and topical anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced models, as well as antipyretic potentiality of ABSEO and its nanoemulsion were evaluated. Forty-three terpenoid components were identified and categorized as mono- (42.94%), sesqui- (31.66%), and diterpenes (23.74%). The main compounds of the ABSEO were beyerene (20.81%), α-pinene (16.21%), D-limonene (14.22%), germacrene D (6.69%), ß-humulene (4.14%), and sabinene (4.12%). The ABSEO and its nanoemulsion exhibited significant inflammation suppression in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model, in both oral (50 and 100 mg/kg) and topical (5% in soyabean oil) routes, compared to the control and reference drugs groups. All the results demonstrated the significant inflammation reduction via the inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß and IL8), nitrosative (NO), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) supported by the histopathological studies and immunohistochemical assessment of MMP-9 and NF-κß levels in paw tissues. Moreover, the oral administration of ABSEO and its nanoemulsion (50 and 100 mg/kg) exhibited antipyretic activity in rats, demonstrated by the inhibition of hyperthermia induced by intramuscular injection of brewer's yeast. These findings advised that the use of ABSEO and its nanoemulsion against numerous inflammatory and hyperthermia ailments that could be attributed to its active constituents.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antipiréticos/farmacologia , Araucaria/química , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Carragenina/efeitos adversos , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/patologia , Emulsões , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Brotos de Planta/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 477, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both underground rhizomes/buds and above-ground Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla) shoots/culms/branches are connected together into a close inter-connecting system in which nutrients are transported and shared among each organ. However, the starch storage and utilization mechanisms during bamboo shoot growth remain unclear. This study aimed to reveal in which organs starch was stored, how carbohydrates were transformed among each organ, and how the expression of key genes was regulated during bamboo shoot growth and developmental stages which should lay a foundation for developing new theoretical techniques for bamboo cultivation. RESULTS: Based on changes of the NSC content, starch metabolism-related enzyme activity and gene expression from S0 to S3, we observed that starch grains were mainly elliptical in shape and proliferated through budding and constriction. Content of both soluble sugar and starch in bamboo shoot peaked at S0, in which the former decreased gradually, and the latter initially decreased and then increased as shoots grew. Starch synthesis-related enzymes (AGPase, GBSS and SBE) and starch hydrolase (α-amylase and ß-amylase) activities exhibited the same dynamic change patterns as those of the starch content. From S0 to S3, the activity of starch synthesis-related enzyme and starch amylase in bamboo rhizome was significantly higher than that in bamboo shoot, while the NSC content in rhizomes was obviously lower than that in bamboo shoots. It was revealed by the comparative transcriptome analysis that the expression of starch synthesis-related enzyme-encoding genes were increased at S0, but reduced thereafter, with almost the same dynamic change tendency as the starch content and metabolism-related enzymes, especially during S0 and S1. It was revealed by the gene interaction analysis that AGPase and SBE were core genes for the starch and sucrose metabolism pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Bamboo shoots were the main organ in which starch was stored, while bamboo rhizome should be mainly functioned as a carbohydrate transportation channel and the second carbohydrate sink. Starch metabolism-related genes were expressed at the transcriptional level during underground growth, but at the post-transcriptional level during above-ground growth. It may be possible to enhance edible bamboo shoot quality for an alternative starch source through genetic engineering.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poaceae/genética , Amido/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/genética , Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/metabolismo , Amilases/genética , Amilases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/ultraestrutura , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/fisiologia , Poaceae/ultraestrutura , Rizoma/genética , Rizoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rizoma/fisiologia , Rizoma/ultraestrutura
13.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246904, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706025

RESUMO

Hyperhydricity is a serious physiological disorder and affects In vitro propagation of many plants and as well of Salvia santolinifolia. The donor material to initiate the in vitro culture was the callus taken from the in vitro shoots produced on Murashig and Skoogs (MS) medium at 4.0 mg/l BA. This callus formed numerous hyperhydric shoots on culturing upon the medium of the same composition. The aim was to systematically evaluate the effect of cytokinins (Benzyladnine (BA) and N6-(-2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP), culture vessels magnitude, medium solidification, source of nitrogen and calcium chloride for the alleviation of hyperhydricity. In the tissue cultures of S. santolinifolia BA and 2iP induced severe hyperhydricity, when other factors i.e. culture vessels magnitude and a suitable concentration of agar, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), potassium nitrate (KNO3) & calcium chloride (CaCl2.2H2O) were not optimized. After 30 days' culture, we observed 83.82% hyperhydric shoots at increased level (1.5 mg/l 2iP) and 81.59% at decreased levels (1.0 mg/l 2iP). On the other hand, hyperhydricity percentage at decreased (0.4%) and at increased (0.8%) levels of agar were 72.37% and 39.08%, respectively. MS medium modification with NH4NO3 (412 mg/l), KNO3 (475 mg/l) and CaCl2.2H2O (880 mg/l) was found the best medium to reduced hyperhydricity (23.6%).


Assuntos
Salvia , Meios de Cultura , Brotos de Planta
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 502, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proline can promote growth of plants by increasing photosynthetic activity under both non-stress and abiotic stress conditions. However, its role in non-stressed conditions is least studied. An experiment was conducted to assess as to whether increase in growth of wheat due to seed priming with proline under non-stress condition was associated with proline-induced changes in photosystem II (PSII) activity. Seeds of four wheat varieties (S-24, Sehar-06, Galaxy-13, and Pasban-90) were primed with different concentrations of proline (0, 5, 15 and 25 mM) for 12 h and allowed to grow under normal conditions. Biomass accumulation and photosynthetic performance, being two most sensitive features/indicators of plant growth, were selected to monitor proline modulated changes. RESULTS: Seed priming with proline increased the fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots, and plant height of all four wheat varieties. Maximum increase in growth attributes was observed in all four wheat varieties at 15 mM proline. Maximum growth improvement due to proline was found in var. Galaxy-13, whereas the reverse was true for S-24. Moreover, proline treatment changed the Fo, Fm, Fv/Fo, PIABS, PITot in wheat varieties indicating changes in PSII activity. Proline induced changes in energy fluxes for absorption, trapping, electron transport and heat dissipation per reaction center indicated that var. Galaxy-13 had better ability to process absorbed light energy through photosynthetic machinery. Moreover, lesser PSII efficiency in var. S-24 was due to lower energy flux for electron transport and greater energy flux for heat dissipation. This was further supported by the fact that var. S-24 had disturbance at acceptor side of PSI as reflected by reduction in ΔVIP, probability and energy flux for electron transport at the PSI end electron acceptors. CONCLUSION: Seed priming with proline improved the growth of wheat varieties, which depends on type of variety and concentration of proline applied. Seed priming with proline significantly changed the PSII activity in wheat varieties, however, its translation in growth improvement depends on potential of processing of absorbed light energy by electron acceptors of electron transport chain, particularly those present at PSI end.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese , Prolina/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Paquistão , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684759

RESUMO

Traditionally, the supplement of organic manure in tea plantations has been a common approach to improving soil fertility and promoting terroir compounds, as manifested by the coordinated increase in yield and quality for the resulting teas. However, information regarding the effect of organic manure in the metabolome of tea plants is still inadequate. The metabolite profiles of tea shoots applied with cow manure, urea or no fertilizer were studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 73 metabolites were detected, and the modulated metabolites included mainly amino acids, organic acids and fatty acids. In particular, glutamine, quinic acid and proline accumulated more in tea shoots in soils treated with cow manure, but octadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid and eicosanoic acid were drastically reduced. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that organic acids and amino acids in tea shoots were the two major metabolite groups among the three treatments. The analysis of metabolic pathways demonstrated that the cow manure treatment significantly changed the enrichment of pathways related to amino acids, sugars and fatty acids. Sensory evaluation showed that the quality of green teas was higher when the plants used to make the tea were grown in soil treated with cow manure rather than urea during spring and late summer. The results indicated that the application of cow manure in soils changed the metabolic characteristics of tea shoots and improved the qualities of the resulting teas.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Esterco/análise , Animais , Camellia sinensis/química , Bovinos , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metaboloma , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo , Chá/química
16.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257053, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587163

RESUMO

Due to increasing population growth and declining arable land on Earth, astroagriculture will be vital to terraform Martian regolith for settlement. Nodulating plants and their N-fixing symbionts may play a role in increasing Martian soil fertility. On Earth, clover (Melilotus officinalis) forms a symbiotic relationship with the N-fixing bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti; clover has been previously grown in simulated regolith yet without bacterial inoculation. In this study, we inoculated clover with S. meliloti grown in potting soil and regolith to test the hypothesis that plants grown in regolith can form the same symbiotic associations as in soils and to determine if greater plant biomass occurs in the presence of S. meliloti regardless of growth media. We also examined soil NH4 concentrations to evaluate soil augmentation properties of nodulating plants and symbionts. Greater biomass occurred in inoculated compared to uninoculated groups; the inoculated average biomass in potting mix and regolith (2.23 and 0.29 g, respectively) was greater than the uninoculated group (0.11 and 0.01 g, respectively). However, no significant differences existed in NH4 composition between potting mix and regolith simulant. Linear regression analysis results showed that: i) symbiotic plant-bacteria relationships differed between regolith and potting mix, with plant biomass positively correlated to regolith-bacteria interactions; and, ii) NH4 production was limited to plant uptake yet the relationships in regolith and potting mix were similar. It is promising that plant-legume symbiosis is a possibility for Martian soil colonization.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/microbiologia , Marte , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Sinorhizobium/fisiologia , Solo , Simbiose/fisiologia , Compostos de Amônio/análise , Biomassa , Fabaceae/anatomia & histologia , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Lineares , Nodulação/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Solo/química
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575868

RESUMO

Temperature is an important factor that largely affects the patterns of shoot branching in plants. However, the effect and mechanism of temperature on axillary bud development in chrysanthemum remains poorly defined. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of high temperature on the axillary bud growth and the mechanism of axillary bud formation in chrysanthemum. Decapitation experiments combined with the transcriptome analysis were designed. Results showed that the axillary bud length was significantly inhibited by high temperature. Decapitation of primary shoot (primary decapitation) resulted in slower growth of axillary buds (secondary buds) under 35 °C. However, secondary decapitation resulted in complete arrest of tertiary buds at high temperature. These results demonstrated that high temperature not only inhibited axillary bud formation but also retarded bud outgrowth in chrysanthemum. Comparative transcriptome suggested differentially expressed gene sets and identified important modules associated with bud formation. This research helped to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of high temperature on axillary bud growth, especially bud formation in chrysanthemum. Meanwhile, in-depth studies of this imperative temperature signaling can offer the likelihood of vital future applications in chrysanthemum breeding and branching control.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum/embriologia , Chrysanthemum/genética , Chrysanthemum/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética , Citocininas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Homeostase , Temperatura Alta , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Brotos de Planta/genética , RNA-Seq , Sacarose/química , Transcriptoma
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576275

RESUMO

Plants have remarkable regenerative capacity, which allows them to survive tissue damage after exposure to biotic and abiotic stresses. Some of the key transcription factors and hormone crosstalk mechanisms involved in wound-induced organ regeneration have been extensively studied in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, little is known about the role of metabolism in wound-induced organ formation. Here, we performed detailed transcriptome analysis and used a targeted metabolomics approach to study de novo organ formation in tomato hypocotyl explants and found tissue-specific metabolic differences and divergent developmental pathways. Our results indicate that successful regeneration in the apical region of the hypocotyl depends on a specific metabolic switch involving the upregulation of photorespiratory pathway components and the differential regulation of photosynthesis-related gene expression and gluconeogenesis pathway activation. These findings provide a useful resource for further investigation of the molecular mechanisms involved in wound-induced organ formation in crop species such as tomato.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hipocótilo/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Metabolômica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Gluconeogênese , Glicólise , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Fotossíntese , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Cicatrização
20.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577004

RESUMO

The present work was aimed at studying the potential of elicitation on the accumulation of phenolic compounds in in vitro shoot cultures of Eryngium alpinum L., a protected plant from the Apiaceae family. The study examined the influence of (+)-usnic acid on the biomass growth as well as on the biosynthesis of the desired flavonoids and phenolic acids in the cultured microshoots. The phenolic compound content was determined by HPLC-DAD. The flavonoid of the highest concentration was isoquercetin, and the phenolic acids of the highest amount were rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, both in the non-elicited and elicited biomass. Isoquercetin accumulation was efficiently increased by a longer elicitation with a lower concentration of lichenic compound (107.17 ± 4.67 mg/100 g DW) or a shorter elicitation with a higher concentration of acid (127.54 ± 11.34 and 108.37 ± 12.1 mg/100 g DW). Rosmarinic acid production generally remained high in all elicited and non-elicited microshoots. The highest content of this acid was recorded at 24 h of elicitation with 3.125 µM usnic acid (512.69 ± 4.89 mg/100 g DW). The process of elicitation with (+)-usnic acid, a well-known lichenic compound with allelopathic nature, may therefore be an effective technique of enhancing phenolic compound accumulation in alpine eryngo microshoot biomass.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Eryngium/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/química , Ácido 3,4-Di-Hidroxifenilacético/análise , Ácido 3,4-Di-Hidroxifenilacético/metabolismo , Biomassa , Ácidos Cafeicos/análise , Ácidos Cafeicos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cinamatos/análise , Cinamatos/metabolismo , Depsídeos/análise , Depsídeos/metabolismo , Eryngium/efeitos dos fármacos , Eryngium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eryngium/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/análise , Quercetina/metabolismo
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