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3.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276275, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36256668

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Care workers' views of clients' death have not been explored in Japan because of a cultural tendency to avoid talking openly about death. However, given the arising problems in end-of-life care settings, such as abuse and burnout, understanding care workers' views regarding death is essential for designing effective interventions. We had two main research questions: Do care workers in Japan have their own ideas about death after working in the landscape of dying and death? Do these ideas influence care workers' professional lives? METHODS: We recruited interviewees based on a quantitative survey of care workers at 10 geriatric institutions in Tokyo. Among the 323 respondents, 23 survey respondents were willing to participate in an interview. After the scheduling process, nine individuals were able to participate in an in-depth interview. To overwhelm cultural avoidance regarding death that prevents care workers from talking openly about death, Buddhist priests conducted interviews in the current study. Physicians and researchers assisted the interviews. Because this was exploratory studies in which little is known about the topic in question, we adapted a qualitative descriptive approach. FINDINGS: Thematic analysis revealed that: 1) care workers had clear views about conditions of clients' good death after working in the field of dying and death; 2) care workers were motivated by past experiences of being close to dying themselves; and 3) care workers regarded their care for the dying as an experience that enriched their lives. In addition, the results revealed that the concept of spiritual care in Japan is still its infancy among care workers because of its vague definition. CONCLUSIONS: Care workers were willing to work for dying people with their view of death, and regarded their jobs as important opportunities for personal growth through caring for the dying.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Assistência Terminal , Humanos , Idoso , Clero , Pessoal de Saúde , Budismo , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0262155, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36264935

RESUMO

Kumbum Monastery is the centre of Tibetan Buddhism and religious culture in Qinghai. Its palace buildings are the typical examples of Tibetan Buddhist monastery buildings and living fossils of Tibetan social history. This study selected 12 palace buildings of Kumbum Monastery as the study objects, used typological approaches and numerical method to analyse their spatial features, classified these features into four types (the ring road surrounding Dugang-style palace space, single-sided eaves of the Duguang-style palace space, three-stage palace space with cloisters connecting to Dugang, and other variants) according to their spatial structures, and discussed the temporal evolution of the spatial features from spatial and temporal perspectives to obtain the development process for the palace buildings of Kumbum Monastery. The analysis showed that: 1) Because the Han people migrated to Qinghai, the architectural space of the monastery followed the practices of Tibet in the same period and began to adopt the practices of the Han people under the effect of religious indoctrination and sociopolitical influence of the Ming dynasty. 2) Due to the influence of religious development facilitated by the political environment in the Qing dynasty, all the palace buildings of Kumbum Monastery adopted the practice of monasteries in Lhasa. After being implicated by the political rebellion, the monastery initiated to add the spatial layout elements of the buildings in Qinghai. Therefore, the monastery was obtaining the cues from the Han culture. 3) The dominance of religious significance over the spatial designing of the palace buildings of Kumbum Monastery gradually shifted to the political dominance. This paper revealed the spatial and temporal features and evolution of the palace building space, explored the generation process of the palace buildings space of Tibetan Buddhist monasteries in Qinghai, and provided a reference for the static conservation and dynamic development of Tibetan Buddhist monastery buildings in Qinghai.


Assuntos
Budismo , Humanos , Tibet
6.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 181: 112-124, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057406

RESUMO

Thousand-year-old Buddhist traditions have developed a wide range of methods for the subjective exploration of consciousness through meditation. Combining their subjective research with the possibilities of modern neuroscience can help us better understand the physiological mechanisms of consciousness. Therefore, we have been guided by specifically Buddhist explanations when studying the physiological mechanisms of altered states of consciousness during Buddhist meditations. In Buddhism, meditations are generally divided into two large categories: (1) one-pointed concentration and (2) analytical meditation. Maintaining both one-pointed concentration and analytical meditation on 'bodhicitta' ("the thought of awakening") and 'emptiness' is a necessary condition for transitioning into tantric practices. Tantric practices involve sophisticated visualizations of Buddhist deities, the 'energy structure' of the human body, and the visualization of the stage-by-stage process of dying accompanied with the dissolution of body elements. According to Buddhism, these meditations are characterized by the gradual withdrawal from "gross levels" of consciousness associated with the five senses. From a psychophysiological perspective, this withdrawal of sensory consciousness can be considered as the decrease of sensory stimuli recognition and attentional disengagement from the external world. We concentrated on how considered meditations affect sensory and cognitive processing of external stimuli. Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in the passive oddball paradigm were studied both during meditations and in a controlled state of relaxed wakefulness. It was shown with a group of 115 Buddhist monks that during meditation, mismatch negativity amplitudes, amplitudes of N1 and P2 components of ERPs to deviant stimuli, and the amplitudes of the P3a component to novel stimuli all decrease. These outcomes suggest that the considered Buddhist meditations, compared to the control state of relaxed wakefulness, are accompanied by a decrease in physiological processes responsible for maintaining attention on the outside world and recognizing changes in the stream of sensory stimuli.


Assuntos
Meditação , Monges , Atenção/fisiologia , Budismo/psicologia , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Meditação/métodos
7.
Soins ; 67(865): 47-49, 2022 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35995502

RESUMO

The spiritual path proposed by Buddhism is based on foundations to be integrated and put into practice. This path and the meditation that integrates it opens up capacities for the caregiver and beneficial effects from a therapeutic point of view for the patient.


Assuntos
Budismo , Meditação , Humanos , Espiritualidade
8.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 52(3): 173-176, 2022 May 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35775272

RESUMO

A great number of 'fracture images' in murals remain in some temples in Shanxi province, describing Buddhist rituals for sacrificial activities in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Some 'fracture images', such as 'splint fixation method' and 'suspension fixation method', were found in Puguang Temple, Yunlin Temple and Yong'an Temple. These murals with 'fracture images' demonstrated characteristics of secularisation and realistic style, as vivid portrayals of surgical medicine in the Ming Dynasty. For instance, one of the pictures in Puguang Temple clearly described the shape of orthopedic splints at that time. The depictions in 'fracture images' in temple murals were basically consistent with the records in ancient literature based on the investigation on fracture treatment in the history of traditional Chinese medicine. They provided visual materials for further study of orthopedic history.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Ortopedia , Budismo , China
9.
Dementia (London) ; 21(5): 1856-1868, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452323

RESUMO

AIM: Faith-based organizations are a potential global resource; however, details of their activities have not been fully explored in the academic literature. In Japan, little is known about delivering support for dementia caregivers in a faith-based setting. In this study, we spoke with priests who started carers' cafés to support people who have dementia and people who care for them. These "carers' cafés" are set up in temples and this movement is slowly expanding. The aim of this study was to (1) provide a detailed description of a carers' café and (2) report the reflections of the Buddhist priests who have been involved in the project from the beginning. METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews with five Buddhist priests who pioneered the carers' café movement, and conducted a thematic analysis of the transcripts using a qualitative descriptive approach. RESULTS: Six prominent themes were identified: "A carers' café aligns with Buddhist doctrine," "...reveals the strengths of Buddhism and its temples," "...facilitates priests' personal growth," and "...introduces viewpoints from outside of Buddhism." CONCLUSIONS: Carers' cafés set up in temples have a positive impact on the Buddhist priests who are involved and on the visitors. One possible reason for this is that the relationship between the temple and the local residents has a long history and thus provides a sense of security for those who are suffering from the realities related to dementia. To create a more inclusive society, it is necessary for secular entities to support this new movement.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Demência , Budismo , Clero , Humanos , Japão
10.
J Transcult Nurs ; 33(4): 491-498, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383511

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Death acceptance (DA) is perceived in culturally specific ways. The purposes of this study were to describe DA among Thai Buddhists with cancer and to compare DA differences in demographic data. METHODOLOGY: This research was a secondary data analysis. The participants were 363 Thai Buddhists with cancer, recruited using multistage sampling method. Data were collected using the Buddhist Death Acceptance Scale, reliability coefficient. .82. Data were analyzed using T-Tests and Two-Way ANOVA. RESULTS: The participants had high levels of DA. Age and stage of cancer had main effects on DA. DISCUSSION: This study highlighted the significant demographic differences with regard to DA levels among Thai Buddhists with cancer. Interventions include determining the patient's DA level, or offering patients and their families advance care plans. Nurses can then explore DA with patients, particularly those with life-limiting illnesses to ease their patients' lives and foster a good death.


Assuntos
Budismo , Neoplasias , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tailândia
11.
Res Nurs Health ; 45(2): 249-260, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35124814

RESUMO

The prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing worldwide. Buddhist monks in Thailand play a critical role in health as community leaders accounting for 0.3% of the population. However, some monks require treatment and hospitalization to alleviate the burden of NCDs due to religious beliefs and practices during ordainment. Risk factors for NCDs among Buddhist monks, and the relationship to social determinants of health (SDH) remain unclear. This integrative review examined the prevalence of NCDs and explored the relationship between SDH and health outcomes among Buddhist monks. Cohort, descriptive, and correlational studies published in both English and Thai languages were identified from the PubMed, Science Direct, CINAHL, and Thai journal databases. Keywords included "Thai Buddhist monks," "non-communicable diseases," and "prevalence". Twenty-two studies were selected. Obesity and hypertension were the most prevalent NCDs. Religious beliefs and practices influence SDH domains and play an important role in the lifestyle and health behaviors among Buddhist monks. Further understanding of the impact of the religious lifestyle is needed, particularly given the role and influence of monks in society.


Assuntos
Monges , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Budismo , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Relig Health ; 61(2): 1671-1683, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35122555

RESUMO

The present studies investigated how particular religious beliefs shape compliance with preventive measures in adherents of Gelug and Nyingma schools of Tibetan Buddhism. In Study 1, Gelug and Nyingma monks were asked to report their compliance with various infection prevention measures surrounding COVID-19. Results showed that the former group showed higher compliance with public health guidelines than the latter. Extending beyond self-report measures, Study 2 added a behavioral outcome measure and observed the same effect. Together, our results provide the first empirical evidence that various Tibetan Buddhist traditions are related to different degrees of compliance with precautionary measures against COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Monges , Budismo , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Tibet
13.
J Relig Health ; 61(4): 3192-3218, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025007

RESUMO

The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a remarkable medical science breakthrough that enables the understanding of genetics and the intervention of human health. An individual's health is influenced by physical, emotional, social, intellectual, and religious factors. Among these, religious beliefs shape our thinking on cloning, stem cells, and gene editing, affecting healthcare decisions and the motivation for seeking treatment. Is the human genome sacred? Does editing it violate the idea that we're made in God's image or allow us to "play God"? Understanding the perspectives behind the fundamental religious doctrines of Islam, Christian, Hindu, and Buddhist on gene editing/therapy in somatic and germline cells would ensure a right balance between geneticists and theologians in providing the best healthcare while catering to individual beliefs.


Assuntos
Cristianismo , Hinduísmo , Budismo , Cristianismo/psicologia , Hinduísmo/psicologia , Humanos , Islamismo/psicologia , Motivação
14.
Cereb Cortex ; 32(18): 3865-3877, 2022 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34974617

RESUMO

Meditation has been a spiritual and healing practice in the East for thousands of years. However, the neurophysiologic mechanisms underlying its traditional form remain unclear. In this study, we recruited a large sample of monks (n = 73) who practice Tibetan Buddhist meditation and compared with meditation-naive local controls (n = 30). Their electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiogram signals were simultaneously recorded and blood samples were collected to investigate the integrative effects of Tibetan Buddhist on brain, heart, and proteomics. We found that the EEG activities in monks shifted to a higher frequency from resting to meditation. Meditation starts with decrease of the (pre)frontal delta activity and increase of the (pre)frontal high beta and gamma activity; while at the deep meditative state, the posterior high-frequency activity was also increased, and could be specified as a biomarker for the deep meditation. The state increase of posterior high-frequency EEG activity was significantly correlated with the trait effects on heart rate and nueropilin-1 in monks, with the source of brain-heart correlation mainly locating in the attention and emotion networks. Our study revealed that the effects of Tibetan Buddhist meditation on brain, heart, and proteomics were highly correlated, demonstrating meditation as an integrative body-mind training.


Assuntos
Meditação , Budismo/psicologia , Eletroencefalografia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Meditação/psicologia , Proteômica , Tibet
15.
J Relig Health ; 61(4): 2770-2787, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837142

RESUMO

The upper echelons theory states that organizational engagements may replicate the experiences, personalities and values of dominant players within a firm. Based on this theory, this study examines the effect of religion (Buddhism and Taoism) on employment protection in an emerging market (China). Using data collected from Chinese private firms in 2010, the empirical results show that employment protection is positively associated with religion, indicating that religion plays a positive role in improving employment protection. Moreover, the relationship between religion and employment protection is more prominent in regions with stronger formal institutions. According to the restricted data resources and the few studies in the context of China, this study presents a new proof of the relationship between religion and employment protection.


Assuntos
Emprego , Religião , Asiáticos , Budismo , China , Humanos
17.
J Relig Health ; 61(2): 1405-1417, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802096

RESUMO

Although Theravada Buddhism and Roman Catholicism agree on the moral justification for palliative sedation, they differ on the premises underlying the justification. While Catholicism justifies palliative sedation on the ground of the Principle of Double Effect, Buddhism does so on the basis of the Third Noble Truth. Despite their theological differences, Buddhism and Catholicism both value the moral significance of the physician's intent to reduce suffering and both respect the sanctity of life. This blurs the demarcation line between Buddhism and Catholicism regarding the moral justification of palliative sedation.


Assuntos
Budismo , Catolicismo , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Cuidados Paliativos , Teologia
18.
Fam Process ; 61(1): 326-341, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33937988

RESUMO

Couple relationship standards (beliefs about what makes for a satisfying couple relationship) have not included standards held about religion, which is surprising given how important religion is in many parts of the world. In the current study, we developed the Importance of Religion in Couple Relationships Scale (IRCRS) with the aim of having a scale suitable for use across different cultural and religious groups. The IRCRS was administered to three samples: 354 Pakistani residents (178 females, 176 males) who identified as Muslim; 274 Thai residents (157 females, 117 males) who identified as Buddhist; and 165 Westerners (resident in Australia or the United States, 60 males, 105 females) who identified as either not religious (n = 74) or Christian (n = 91). We developed a 13-item measure with a two level structure yielding an overall importance of religion score. The items in the IRCRS had acceptable cross-cultural structural invariance in a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis of the Pakistani Muslims, Thai Buddhists, and Westerners. Pakistani Muslims endorsed IRCRS standards most strongly, Western Christians next most strongly, Thai Buddhists next, and Westerners with no religion least strongly. There were no gender differences, and only very small differences by relationship status. The IRCRS can be used in future research to investigate the association of religious relationship standards with couple relationship satisfaction and might be a useful clinical tool to assess the importance of religion to couples.


Los estándares de las relaciones de pareja (las creencias acerca de lo que conduce a una relación de pareja satisfactoria) no han incluido los estándares relacionados con la religión, lo cual es sorprendente teniendo en cuenta cuán importante es la religión en muchas partes del mundo. En el presente estudio desarrollamos la Escala de la Importancia de la Religión en las Relaciones de Pareja (IRCRS, por sus siglas en inglés) con el objetivo de tener una escala apta para el uso en diferentes grupos religiosos y culturales. Se administró la IRCRS a tres muestras: 354 residentes pakistaníes (178 mujeres, 176 hombres) que se identificaron como musulmanes; 274 residentes tailandeses (157 mujeres, 117 hombres) que se identificaron como budistas; y 165 occidentales (residentes en Australia o en EE. UU., 60 hombres, 105 mujeres) que se identificaron como irreligiosos (n = 74) o como cristianos (n = 91). Desarrollamos una escala de 13 ítems con una estructura de dos niveles que da un puntaje de la importancia general de la religión. Los ítems de la IRCRS tuvieron una invarianza estructural intercultural aceptable en un análisis factorial confirmatorio multigrupo de los musulmanes pakistaníes, los budistas tailandeses y los occidentales. Los musulmanes pakistaníes confirmaron los estándares de la IRCRS más marcadamente, luego le siguieron los cristianos occidentales, los budistas tailandeses y finalmente los occidentales irreligiosos. No hubo diferencias de género y solo muy pequeñas diferencias según el estado civil. La IRCRS puede utilizarse en investigaciones futuras para averiguar la asociación de los estándares religiosos de las relaciones con la satisfacción con la relación de pareja, y podría ser una herramienta clínica útil para evaluar la importancia de la religión para las parejas.


Assuntos
Budismo , Islamismo , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal
19.
J Relig Health ; 61(4): 2753-2769, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460022

RESUMO

Many loving-kindness and compassion meditation methods used in psychological research are derived from Theravada and Tibetan Buddhism. Zhiyi (), a representative figure of Chinese Buddhism, proposed a different meditation method, namely, imagination-based loving-kindness and compassion meditation. The current article introduces the imagination-based loving-kindness and compassion meditation proposed by Zhiyi and compares it with meditation methods from Theravada and Tibetan Buddhism. Zhiyi's method limits the content of imagination during meditation, which can be an essential supplement to the free association method derived from Theravada Buddhism. Zhiyi's method of helping others entirely through imagination differs significantly from the tonglen method derived from Tibetan Buddhism and may be more suitable for participants without religious beliefs. Based on Zhiyi's source text and previous psychological studies, a mental-health training program for imagination-based loving-kindness and compassion meditation is proposed. The limitations of Zhiyi's method and the future directions for empirical research on Zhiyi's method are also discussed. The differences between Zhiyi's method and other methods in terms of effects and applicable populations need to be examined in future studies.


Assuntos
Meditação , Budismo/psicologia , China , Empatia , Humanos , Imaginação , Amor , Meditação/psicologia
20.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260475, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818344

RESUMO

Practicing compassion has shown to reduce distress and increase emotional well-being in clinical and non-clinical populations. The existing research is primarily focused on Western populations although the concepts of compassion are heavily influenced by Asian Buddhist views. There is a dearth of compassion research conducted particularly in the Asian context. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the views and lived experiences of compassion in Sri Lankan students, to understand whether compassion is a socially embraced construct in Sri Lanka, considering that Sri Lanka is a Buddhist influenced society. Participants' views and lived experiences of compassion towards themselves and to/from others were also investigated, with a specific focus on their perceived inhibitors and facilitators of compassion. Aims were set to identify whether Western compassion-based practices could be successfully applied to Asian societies such as Sri Lanka. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis approach was used to obtain and analyse qualitative data from a convenience sample of 10 Sri Lankan students, recruited from a Psychology course. The phenomenological analysis of the semi-structured face-to-face interviews elicited three predominant themes: What compassion means to me, what I make of it, and compassion through facilitators and inhibitors. The findings suggested that participants shared a similar understanding of the concept of compassion as reflected in the Western definitions. Experiences and views of compassion were shaped by several factors including religion, culture, society, and upbringing. In general, this study revealed that participants were well aware of the concept of compassion as well as its impact on their psychological well-being. Despite this, inhibitors existed in experiencing compassion. The religious and collectivistic-cultural influences need to be further explored and taken into account when implementing Western compassion-based practices to non-Western contexts such as Sri Lanka.


Assuntos
Budismo , Empatia , Adulto , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sri Lanka , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
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