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1.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 413-425, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634363

RESUMO

Beebread from serpentine localities in Albania and Bulgaria were characterized based on their pollen and chemical element content (macroelements K, Ca, Mg, P and microelements Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Zn) aiming to (1) evaluate the effect of serpentine soil on the quality of beebread; (2) compare elemental concentrations in samples from serpentine areas in Albania and Bulgaria; and (3) compare the differences in pollen spectra. Chemical element content was determined using microwave digestion of beebread samples followed by ICP-OES measurements. The analytical procedure developed was validated by added/found method. Analytical figures of merit of analytical method proposed were presented. The melissopalynological analysis was applied for pollen characterization. The results demonstrate clear difference in the pollen spectra between the two sets of samples, confirming differences in local serpentine flora in both countries, but specific pollen type is difficult to be suggested. The pollen content is related to the flowering period, climatic conditions, and bees forage preferences. The samples vary in their elemental concentrations depending on the pollen type and year of collection. The highest average concentrations found for K, Ca, Mg, and P are close to values reported in the literature. However, elevated concentrations observed for Ni, Cr, Mn, and Fe in beebread, especially from Albania, are in line with the serpentine characteristics of studied areas. The concentrations of Cd and Pb for all beebread samples are below permissible limits. The results should be taken into consideration in future specific food safety regulations at national and international level.


Assuntos
Pólen , Oligoelementos , Albânia , Animais , Abelhas , Bulgária , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Pólen/química , Solo , Oligoelementos/análise
2.
Food Chem ; 367: 130759, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375888

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to perform phytochemical analysis of tea from Sambucus ebulus fruits concerning hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonol glucosides, stilbenes and proanthocyanidin mono-, di- and trimers content. In total, 33 compounds were identified and quantified using UPLC-DAD-ESI/MS/MS system and the results are presented in mg/g dry weight (DW). Among analyzed hydroxycinnamic acids, 5-Caffeoylquinic acid (114.17 mg/g) was most abundant, followed by 3-p-Coumaroylquinic acid (50.33 mg/g) and 3-p-Feruloylquinic acid, p-Coumaric acid glucoside and 4-p-Coumaroylquinic acid (31.36 mg/g, 29.78 mg/g and 27.70 mg/g, respectively). Flavonol glucosides were represented predominantly by Quercetin-3-O-galactoside, Quercetin-3-O-rhamnosyl-galactoside Quercetin-3-O-glucoside and Quercetin-3-O-rhamnosyl-glucoside (3.68 mg/g, 3.22 mg/g, 2.87 mg/g and 2.56 mg/g, respectively). trans-Resveratrol-3-O-glucoside, epicatechin (40.62 mg/g) and proanthocyanidin di- and -trimers (19.90 mg/g - 31.42 mg/g) also were present in the tea. ABTS cation decolorization assay revealed 1.248 mM UAE activity and the percent of DPPH radical scavenging was 14.25%, corresponding to 39.07 µM Trolox equivalents.


Assuntos
Sambucus , Antioxidantes/análise , Bulgária , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Frutas/química , Alimento Funcional , Extratos Vegetais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Chá
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(1): 42, 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939168

RESUMO

Energy Union aims to provide clean, secure, and affordable energy for many customers leading societies towards sustainable energy development. Several criteria were introduced in this vein to evaluate the twenty-third EU countries' progress towards energy union goals. The present study proposed and applied a SWARA-TOPSIS framework based on Pythagorean fuzzy sets to rank the EU members considering their sustainable energy development progress. Ten experts working in various fields were selected to support the identified criteria, and a sensitivity analysis based on twenty scenarios was performed to evaluate the proposed model's sensitivity to weight changes. The obtained results indicated that "energy affordability" is the most influential criterion for evaluating countries, and the proposed model is sensitive to weight changes. Luxembourg is also the first-ranked country, followed by Denmark and Sweden, while Bulgaria achieved the worst rank among the EU considering its progress towards the energy union goals. The analysis of the results indicates room for improvement in implementation with the European Union goals by the EU members and the need to consider energy justice and affordability in the policy development, especially in the new members of the EU.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Bulgária , União Europeia , Energia Renovável
4.
Psychiatr Hung ; 36(4): 546-556, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939572

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: People with schizophrenia often need long-term support in their everyday life. Thus, caregivers are vital factors to support their recovery and long-term functioning. In turn, however, the caregiver role is highly burdensome and may lead to severe distress and burnout, imposing further hardness on patients and their family. The aim of this paper was to map the caregivers' situation and their possible needs in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Russia. METHODS: 225 caregivers of schizophrenic patients completed a questionnaire in Bulgaria (n=50), the Czech Republic (n=50), Hungary (n=50) and Russia (n=75) about their sociodemographic status, financial, emotional and subjective challenges that arise from the caregiver duty. RESULTS: Caregivers are mainly married (56%), women (72%) entering their 50's, working full time (48%). The average time they spend taking care of someone with schizophrenia is 26 hours weekly. This duty often limits their indepen - dence (59%), recreational activities (56%), financial security (47%) and social life (47%). Thirty-nine percentage reported health-related issues, while sadness and anxiety were also commonly experienced. Caregivers felt left alone with their struggles (56%), longing for both disease-related information and self-help support. As a result, 21% felt fully or mostly dissatisfied with their life. CONCLUSION: Taking care of someone with schizophrenia represents a high burden, affecting one's social and economic status, as well as mental and physical health. Caregivers often feel alone with their struggles and would welcome tailored support to help them cope with the multidimensional burden they carry.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Bulgária , Cuidadores , República Tcheca , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria , Esquizofrenia/terapia
5.
Vet Ital ; 57(2)2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34971505

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to investigate pigs in Northern Bulgaria for serological evidence of hepatitis E virus (HEV). Sera from 225 individuals from three industrial farms were tested for anti­HEV IgG antibodies. The overall HEV seroprevalence was 36% (81/225); weaners 6.8% (5/74); fattening pigs 38.7% (29/75) and in sows 61.8% (47/76). Compared to weaners, HEV positivity was higher in fattening pigs and sows: OR = 8.70 (95% CI: 3.14­24.12) and OR = 22.37 (95% CI: 8.07­61.96), respectively. These data confirm that HEV is endemic in pigs throughout Bulgaria, and can be a Public Health problem due to the transmission of HЕV to humans through the consumption of pork meat and pork products.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E , Hepatite E , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Bulgária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
6.
Curr Oncol ; 28(5): 3932-3944, 2021 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677253

RESUMO

(1) Background: We aimed to analyze currently available studies with intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) as a choice of treatment where the Xoft Axxent® electronic brachytherapy (eBx) system was used as a single-dose irradiation and an exclusive radiotherapy approach at the time of surgery in patients with early breast cancer (EBC). We also compared the results of the systematic review to the Bulgarian experience. (2) Methods and Materials: We performed a systematic review of the studies published before February 2021, which investigate the application of a single-fraction 20 Gy radiation treatment, delivered at the time of lumpectomy in EBC patients with the Xoft Axxent® eBx System. A systematic search in PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect was performed. The results are reported following the PRISMA guidelines. The criteria on patients' selection for IORT (the additional need for EBRT), cosmetic outcomes, and recurrence rate from the eligible studies are compared to the treatment results in Bulgarian patients. (3) Results: We searched through 1032 results to find 17 eligible studies. There are no published outcomes from randomized trials. When reported, the cosmetic outcomes in most of the studies are defined as excellent. The observed recurrence rate is low (1-5.8%). Still, the number of patients additionally referred to postoperative external breast radiotherapy (EBRT) is up to 31%. Amongst the 20 patients treated in Bulgaria, the cosmetic outcomes are also evaluated as excellent, five of which (25%) are referred for EBRT. Within median follow-up of 39 months, there was one local and one distal recurrence. (4) Conclusions: Current evidence demonstrates the Xoft Axxent® eBx system as a safe and feasible technique for IORT delivery in EBC patients. There are no randomized controlled trials conducted at this time point to prove its long-term effectiveness. Better patient selection and a reimbursement strategy have to be proposed to extend the application of this technique in Bulgaria.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia , Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Bulgária , Eletrônica , Feminino , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia
7.
Ann Parasitol ; 67(2): 347-349, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598408

RESUMO

Children are more susceptible to intestinal parasitic diseases than adults due to their lack of hygiene habits and close social interactions with their peers. We present a case of a 5-year-old boy with diarrhea and abdominal pain. The stool sample and perianal swab were examined in LINA laboratory, Burgas, Bulgaria. We detected four parasites Giardia (Lamblia) intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Entamoeba coli. Microbiological stool examination shows negative results for Candida spp., Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. Patient's peripheral blood tests were normal. The calprotectin in faeces was tested establishing slightly increased values. The presence of four parasites in one patient in Bulgaria (in the 21st century) is a rare case. Lambliosis and hymenolepiosis are more likely to be found in this patient's region. Following the presence of Entamoeba coli and the transmission mechanism of the other three parasites it can be concluded that the child's hygiene is poor. This patient reveals typical clinical picture with mild symptoms and normal paraclinical results. The presence of parasites in a definitive host is not necessarily related with the development of pathological departures. The fight with parasitic diseases can be successful with a broad integral approach - recognizing and diagnosing the parasites promptly and using radical and suitable treatment.


Assuntos
Entamoeba , Parasitos , Adulto , Animais , Bulgária/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639325

RESUMO

The unique, closed ecosystem of the Black Sea is of significant global importance. The levels and health risk of some trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn) in wild and farmed mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected from the Bulgarian part of the Black Sea were determined and using different approaches such as Estimated Daily Intake (EDI), Target Hazard Quotient (THQ), Hazard Index (HI), Target risk (TR), human health risk levels were assessed. The mean maximum concentrations of the elements Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn in all mussel samples were below the maximum permissible limits (MPLs) except that which exceeded the limit of 2.00 mg/kg ww. Eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) were the major polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acids profile studied mussels showed that the farmed mussels had higher PUFA/SFA ratios, DHA and EPA + DHA content and lower SFA, AI and TI values. The target risk (TR) values for Pb, Cr, Ni and As were calculated, evaluated and showed acceptable or negligible levels. Target hazard quotients (THQs) and hazard index (HI) from elemental intake were below 1 indicated no hazard from consumption. The benefit-risk ratio indicated that wild and cultured M. galloprovincialis are safe for human consumption.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Metais Pesados , Mytilus , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bulgária , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 729847, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497796

RESUMO

Introduction: The significant therapeutic potential of the advanced therapies (ATs) has predetermined the increased interests in their development mainly in the context of rare diseases most of which are genetically determined. However, there are still many challenges in front of the health insurance funds related to the cost-effectiveness and budget impact issues of these therapies. Our aim was to review and analyze the potential of low- and middle-income countries for health technology assessment (HTA) of advanced therapies focusing on Bulgaria, Romania and Poland as reference countries. A literature review of the existing good practices related to HTA of advanced therapies across the world and comparison with the national reality were performed. A list of challenges and issues from the point of view of the payer institution of all analyzed countries was performed. Pilot recommendations on how to overcome the barriers were created based on the existing practices and the potential of the national system. Discussion: 15 out of 80 articles identified in PubMed were found as applicable to the study scope as most of them were published in the period 2019-2021. Undoubtedly, the main challenges correspond to the high treatment costs, the uncertainty in clinical effectiveness, and poor HTA methodological approaches applicable for ATs worldwide. The issues identified for low and middle-income countries are similar having as well the lack of enough qualified health economists for the purposes of assessment and appraisal of HTA dossiers of the advanced therapies, lack of adequate existing separate financial programs for those therapies, and not preparedness of the health system and the society as a whole for such therapies. Conclusions: Despite the difficulties and challenges, the advanced therapies can be defined as a futuristic therapy for which great discoveries are yet to come. Therefore, each country should consider the implementation of reliable and nationally oriented programs for HTA and adequate financial coverage of these therapies.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Bulgária , Polônia , Romênia
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 801: 149745, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467916

RESUMO

The growing social awareness of environmental protection entails that the assumptions of the sustainable development idea are being implemented in various economic sectors at an increasingly fast pace. One of them is the power industry, the sustainable development of which is now becoming a priority in economic policy for many countries. The paper refers to this issue by developing methodology for both studying and assessing the level of sustainable energy development in the Central and Eastern European Countries. The study involved 21 indicators characterizing the sustainable energy development of these countries in the areas of energy, environmental, economic, and social security for 2008 and 2018. When considering the complexity of the subject matter and the wide scope of the research, four methods of multi-criteria data analysis (TOPSIS, VIKOR, MOORA and COPRAS) were used. For each of them, based on the adopted criteria, synthetic indicators were determined, which allowed for the assessment of the level of sustainable energy development in the CEE countries. Weights for the adopted indicators were identified based on the Shanon's Entropy method. Afterwards, an unambiguous assessment of the level of sustainable energy development of the CEE countries was performed. The results showed that in 2008 and 2018, the best ranking position was held by Latvia and Croatia, and the worst ranking position was held by Poland and Bulgaria. The method of multidimensional scaling made it possible to determine the positions of studied countries on scatter plots in two-dimensional space, which showed differences between individual CEE countries. All in all, the applied methods allowed for a considerably broad assessment of the level of sustainable energy development of the CEE countries.


Assuntos
Energia Renovável , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Bulgária , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Polônia
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 693409, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336773

RESUMO

Background: Adherence to therapy is one of the most important elements during the therapeutic process ensuring the predefined therapeutic outcomes. The aim is to analyze the need and importance of treatment adherence guideline for acromegaly patients and the possibilities for its development and implementation in Bulgaria. Methods: A set of methods was applied: (1) a literature review in the electronic database for identification of articles and guidelines related to adherence and acromegaly; (2) analysis of Bulgarian legislative documents; (3) a pilot study for assessment of the level of treatment adherence among hospitalized Bulgarian acromegaly patients in 2018; (4) a plan for development and implementation of specific guideline was created entitled BULMEDACRO - BULgarian guideline for MEdication aDherence assessment and improvement in ACROmegaly. Results: No specific guidelines for evaluation, monitoring, reporting and/or improving adherence in acromegaly patients has been found in the literature. Requirements for regular assessment of the level of adherence, application of appropriate methods for improvement and monitoring are not sufficiently formulated and mandatory. The pilot study confirmed that therapy adherence among Bulgarian patients with acromegaly is relatively high as almost 90% of patients report that they strictly comply with their prescribed treatment regimen. It is necessary, however, a specific guideline focused on the methods for assessment and improvement of adherence, in order to ensure monitoring and follow-up of acromegaly patients. Conclusions: Patients with acromegaly should be the focus of specially designed national programs, initiatives and/or guidelines for regular evaluation and improvement of the adherence level. Despite the difficulties and the lack of an adequate legal basis, successive steps initiated by different stakeholder are needed.


Assuntos
Acromegalia , Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Bulgária/epidemiologia , Protocolos Clínicos , Humanos , Cooperação do Paciente , Projetos Piloto
12.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 74: 102002, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the fourth leading oncological cause of death in women. Variable trends in cervical cancer mortality have been observed across Europe, despite the widespread adoption of screening programs. This variability has previously been attributed to heterogeneity in the quality of screening programs. METHODS: Age-standardized cervical cancer death rates for European countries between 1985 and 2014 were analyzed using Joinpoint regression. Countries were dichotomized based on year of implementation and population invitational coverage of national population-based cervical cancer screening programs. National cervical cancer mortality trends during the study period were compared based on this classification. RESULTS: Decreasing trends in mortality were observed in all European countries with the specific exceptions of Bulgaria, Greece and Latvia. The highest rates of cervical cancer mortality throughout the study period were in Romania (16.0-14.9/100,000) and the lowest rates in Italy (1.4-1.2/100,000). The greatest percentage decline in mortality was observed in the United Kingdom and the greatest absolute reduction in mortality was seen in Hungary. European countries which implemented a national population-based cervical cancer screening program prior to 2009 demonstrated greater improvements in cervical cancer mortality outcomes compared to those that did not (p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: Cervical cancer mortality is improving in most European countries; however, substantial variation remains. Trends in mortality were associated with the time of implementation of national population-based cervical screening programs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Bulgária , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Mortalidade
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 345, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to global warming, the search for new sources for heat tolerance and the identification of genes involved in this process has become an important challenge as of today. The main objective of the current research was to verify whether the heat tolerance determined in controlled greenhouse experiments could be a good predictor of the agronomic performance in field cultivation under climatic high temperature stress. RESULTS: Tomato accessions were grown in greenhouse under three temperature regimes: control (T1), moderate (T2) and extreme heat stress (T3). Reproductive traits (flower and fruit number and fruit set) were used to define heat tolerance. In a first screening, heat tolerance was evaluated in 219 tomato accessions. A total of 51 accessions were identified as being potentially heat tolerant. Among those, 28 accessions, together with 10 accessions from Italy (7) and Bulgaria (3), selected for their heat tolerance in the field in parallel experiments, were re-evaluated at three temperature treatments. Sixteen tomato accessions showed a significant heat tolerance at T3, including five wild species, two traditional cultivars and four commercial varieties, one accession from Bulgaria and four from Italy. The 15 most promising accessions for heat tolerance were assayed in field trials in Italy and Bulgaria, confirming the good performance of most of them at high temperatures. Finally, a differential gene expression analysis in pre-anthesis (ovary) and post-anthesis (developing fruit) under heat stress among pairs of contrasting genotypes (tolerant and sensitive from traditional and modern groups) showed that the major differential responses were produced in post-anthesis fruit. The response of the sensitive genotypes included the induction of HSP genes, whereas the tolerant genotype response included the induction of genes involved in the regulation of hormones or enzymes such as abscisic acid and transferases. CONCLUSIONS: The high temperature tolerance of fifteen tomato accessions observed in controlled greenhouse experiments were confirmed in agronomic field experiments providing new sources of heat tolerance that could be incorporated into breeding programs. A DEG analysis showed the complex response of tomato to heat and deciphered the different mechanisms activated in sensitive and tolerant tomato accessions under heat stress.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Termotolerância/genética , Bulgária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Itália , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Espanha
14.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203980

RESUMO

Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb and J. sabina L. contain essential oil (EO), while J. sabina also contains podophyllotoxin, which is used as a precursor for anti-cancer drugs. Two studies were conducted. The first assessed the variability in the EO profile and podophyllotoxin concentration of the two junipers, depending on the location and tree gender. The main EO constituents of J. excelsa were α-cedrol, α-limonene and α-pinene, while the constituents in J. sabina were sabinene, terpinen-4-ol, myrtenyl acetate and α-cadinol. The podophyllotoxin yield of 18 J. sabina accessions was 0.07-0.32% (w/w), but this was not found in any of the J. excelsa accessions. The second study assessed the effect of hydrodistillation (Clevenger apparatus) and steam distillation (in a semi-commercial apparatus) on the EO profile and bioactivity. The extraction type did not significantly alter the EO composition. The EO profiles of the two junipers and their accessions were different and may be of interest to the industry utilizing juniper leaf EO. Breeding and selection programs could be developed with the two junipers (protected species) in order to identify chemotypes with (1) a high EO content and desirable composition, and (2) a high concentration of podophyllotoxin in J. sabina. Such chemotypes could be established as agricultural crops for the commercial production of podophyllotoxin and EO.


Assuntos
Juniperus/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Podofilotoxina/química , Bulgária , Destilação/métodos , Juniperus/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Podofilotoxina/análise , Eslováquia
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 675277, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277542

RESUMO

Health care systems worldwide are experiencing tremendous financial pressure because of the introduction of new targeted health technologies and medicines. This study aims to analyze and compare public and household healthcare expenditures in Bulgaria during the period 2015-2019, as well as present the major cost-containment measures implied by the government and their probable influence on the overall health care cost. Regulatory analysis of the endorsed cost-containment measures, budget analysis of public and household health care expenditures, and their extrapolations were performed. The regulatory analysis reveals that a large number of measures are introduced and valid until January 2021, considering pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and negotiations between the National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) and Marketing authorization holders (MAHs). NHIF costs due to pharmaceuticals, food supplements, and medical devices are rising from 2015 to 2019. The overall health expenditures average per household and the average per person also grow in this period. The cost extrapolation reveals that an increase in 3-year periods is expected. Despite the implementation of variety of cost-containment measures in Bulgaria, such as HTA, ERP, discounts, and annual negotiations, The National Health Insurance Fund's (NHIF) spending on pharmaceuticals continues to rise in recent years, and further increases are expected in the next 3 years. The average expenditure per household and per person also increased, which confirms the global trend of rising medicine and outpatient services value.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Bulgária , Controle de Custos , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 655859, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291024

RESUMO

Background: The paper aims to analyze the impact of key labor market indicators on the self-assessed health of the population of older workers (aged 55-64). Methods: Authors build the econometric models where the dependent variable is the self-perceived health status (for women and men separately). Explanatory variables are selected key indicators of the labor market, covering unemployment, including long-term, inactivity, or under-employment. The average household income is used to control the effect of wealth. Additionally, the models incorporate the variable describing the proximity of retirement. The research sample consists of nine countries of Central and Eastern Europe: Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Bulgaria, and Romania. Results and Conclusions: The study confirms that in the group of elderly workers, the perceived state of health is influenced by long-term unemployment, inactivity, and, in the case of women, time-related underemployment.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Idoso , Bulgária , República Tcheca , Estônia , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria , Letônia , Lituânia , Masculino , Polônia , Romênia , Eslováquia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280992

RESUMO

During the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, physical activity (PA) behaviors were altered worldwide due to public health measures such as "lockdown." This study described PA among adults residing in 11 countries during COVID-19 lockdown and examined factors associated with PA engagement. We conducted a cross-sectional anonymous survey among adults (≥18 years old) in 11 countries (Brazil, Bulgaria, China, India, Ireland, Malaysia, North Macedonia, Singapore, Spain, Turkey, United States). Of 11,775 participants, 63.7% were female and 52.8% were 18-34 years old. More than 40% of participants were insufficiently active (43.9%) and reported a decrease in their PA during lockdown (44.8%). Statistically significant differences were observed in (1) proportions of participants being insufficiently active, (2) level of PA, and (3) decrease in PA across the 11 countries. More stringent governmental policy responses were associated with greater likelihood of being insufficiently active during lockdown (adjusted odds ratio = 1.22, 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1.45). Higher depression or anxiety scores were associated with greater likelihood of decreased level of PA during lockdown.We found substantial reductions in PA levels during COVID-19 lockdown across countries. Country-specific PA promotion interventions are needed during this and similar global emergencies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Bulgária , China , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Irlanda , Malásia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , República da Macedônia do Norte , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapura , Espanha , Turquia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Intervirology ; 64(4): 194-202, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304230

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We investigated the prevalence of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) among patients with acute respiratory infections in Bulgaria, and performed genetic characterization of the F gene of these strains. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs collected from patients of a range of ages were tested by using real-time PCR for 12 respiratory viruses. The F gene was sequenced, and phylogenetic and amino acid analyses of the F gene/protein were performed. RESULTS: A total of 1,842 patients were examined during a 3-year period; 1,229 patients (66.7%) were positive for at least one respiratory virus. hMPV was identified in 83 (4.5%) patient samples. Eleven (13%) of hMPV-positive patients were coinfected with another respiratory virus. The hMPV incidence rate in the 2016/2017, 2017/2018, and 2018/2019 winter seasons was 5.4, 5.4, and 3.1%, respectively. hMPV was mainly detected in specimens collected between January and May (89.2% of cases). The incidence of hMPV infection was highest (5.1%) among the youngest age-group (0-4 years), where hMPV was a causative agent in 8.1 and 4.8% of bronchiolitis and pneumonia cases, respectively. Among the patients aged ≥5 years, hMPV was detected in 2.2 and 3.2% of cases of pneumonia and central nervous system infections, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the F gene showed that the sequenced hMPV strains belonged to the A2b, B1, and B2 genotypes. Numerous amino acid substitutions were identified compared with the NL00/1 prototype strain. CONCLUSION: This study revealed the significant role of hMPV as a causative agent of serious respiratory illnesses in early childhood, and also demonstrated year-to-year changes in hMPV prevalence and genetic diversity in circulating strains.


Assuntos
Metapneumovirus , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae , Infecções Respiratórias , Bulgária/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Metapneumovirus/genética , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia
19.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299456

RESUMO

The inhibition of certain digestive enzymes by target food matrices represents a new approach in the treatment of socially significant diseases. Proving the ability of fruits to inhibit such enzymes can support the inclusion of specific varieties in the daily diets of patients with diabetes, obesity, Alzheimer's disease, etc., providing them with much more than just valuable micro- and macromolecules. The current study aimed atidentifying and comparing the GC-MS metabolic profiles of eight peach varieties ("Filina", "Ufo 4, "Gergana", "Laskava", "July Lady", "Flat Queen", "Evmolpiya", and "Morsiani 90") grown in Bulgaria (local and introduced) and to evaluate the inhibitory potential of their extracts towards α-glucosidase, α-amylase, lipase, and acetylcholinesterase. In order to confirm samples' differences or similarities, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were also applied to the identified metabolites. The results provide important insights into the metabolomic profiles of the eight peach varieties and represent a first attempt to characterize the peels of the peach varieties with respect to α-glucosidase-, α-amylase-, lipase-, and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory activities. All of the studied peach extracts displayed inhibitory activity towards α-glucosidase (IC50: 125-757 mg/mL) and acetylcholinesterase (IC50: 60-739 mg/mL), but none of them affected α-amylase activity. Five of the eight varieties showed inhibitory activity towards porcine pancreatic lipase (IC50: 24-167 mg/mL). The obtained results validate the usefulness of peaches and nectarines as valuable sources of natural agents beneficial for human health, although further detailed investigation should be performed in order to thoroughly identify the enzyme inhibitors responsible for each activity.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prunus persica/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Amilases/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bulgária , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Lipase/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipase/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Prunus persica/química , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
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