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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 436: 129209, 2022 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739731

RESUMO

Black carbon (BC) is a retarder in carbon cycle, and the proportion of char and soot in BC restricts the significance of BC as a sink in carbon cycle. Tracing the sources of char and soot is helpful for in-depth understanding the anthropogenic-driven burial and pattern of BC, and is crucial for regulating emissions of BC and impact of BC on carbon cycle/climate change. This study investigated source-driven BC via the concentration and δ13C of BC (char and soot) in a Plateau lake sediment. The burial rate of BC (mean: 6.42 ± 5.09 g m-2 yr-1) showed an increasing trend (3.7 times after 1977 compared with before), and the growth rate of char (4.1 times) was faster than soot (2.5 times). The source trace results, showing faster growth of coal combustion ratio in char (increased 21% after 1980 compared with before) than soot (13%), proved that coal combustion promoted faster growth of char in BC. Redundancy analysis confirmed that more low-temperature utilization of coal urged a stronger driving force for char than soot, which caused BC to have lower aromatic content and higher reactivity in organic carbon pool from the past to present, further impact the effects of BC on carbon cycle.


Assuntos
Lagos , Fuligem , Sepultamento , Carbono/análise , China , Carvão Mineral/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fuligem/análise
2.
Science ; 376(6599): 1254-1255, 2022 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709264
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10619, 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739214

RESUMO

In Archaeology much emphasis is dedicated to bone preservation, but less attention is paid to the burial soil (i.e., Necrosol), despite its crucial role in governing the geochemical environment. The interaction between human remains and sediments starts after inhumation, leading to bidirectional physico-chemical changes. To approach these complex, bidirectional processes, we sampled at high resolution (n = 46) two post-Roman wooden coffin burials (one single and another double), and the coeval paleosol (n = 20; nearby pedo-sedimentary sequence). The samples were analysed for physical (grain size, colour) and chemical (pH; LOI; elemental composition: FTIR-ATR, XRF, C, N) properties. Principal component analysis enabled to identify five main pedogenetical processes: decalcification, melanization, acidification, neoformation of secondary minerals (i.e., clays) and enrichment in phosphorus. Melanization, acidification and phosphorous enrichment seem to be convergent processes in Necrosols-irrespective of the parent material. Decalcification may be restricted to carbonate containing soil/sediments. Despite not mentioned in previous research, clay formation might also be an overall process. Compared to the local, coeval paleosol, pedogenesis in the studied burial soils was low (double burial) to moderate (single burial). Our results also emphasize the need to study the finer soil fractions, as they provide clues both on soil formation and bone diagenesis.


Assuntos
Sepultamento , Areia , Arqueologia , Argila , Humanos , Minerais/química , Fósforo , Solo
4.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 554, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672445

RESUMO

The Middle East plays a central role in human history harbouring a vast diversity of ethnic, cultural and religious groups. However, much remains to be understood about past and present genomic diversity in this region. Here we present a multidisciplinary bioarchaeological analysis of two individuals dated to the late 7th and early 8th centuries, the Umayyad Era, from Tell Qarassa, an open-air site in modern-day Syria. Radiocarbon dates and burial type are consistent with one of the earliest Islamic Arab burials in the Levant. Interestingly, we found genomic similarity to a genotyped group of modern-day Bedouins and Saudi rather than to most neighbouring Levantine groups. This study represents the genomic analysis of a secondary use site with characteristics consistent with an early Islamic burial in the Levant. We discuss our findings and possible historic scenarios in the light of forces such as genetic drift and their possible interaction with religious and cultural processes (including diet and subsistence practices).


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Sepultamento , Sepultamento/história , Genômica , Humanos
5.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0265170, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35704593

RESUMO

During the third millennium BC, Mesopotamia (the land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, in modern Iraq-Syria), was dominated by the world's earliest cities and states, which were ruled by powerful elites. Ur, in present-day southern Iraq, was one of the largest and most important of these cities, and irrigation-based agriculture and large herds of domesticated animals were the twin mainstays of the economy and diet. Texts suggest that the societies of the Mesopotamian city-states were extremely hierarchical and underpinned by institutionalised and heavily-managed farming systems. Prevailing narratives suggest that the animal management strategies within these farming systems in the third millennium BC were homogenous. There have been few systematic science-based studies of human and animal diets, mobility, or other forms of human-animal interaction in Mesopotamia, but such approaches can inform understanding of past economies, including animal management, social hierarchies, diet and migration. Oxygen, carbon and strontium isotopic analysis of animal tooth enamel from both royal and private/non-royal burial contexts at Early Dynastic Ur (2900-2350 BC) indicate that a variety of herd management strategies and habitats were exploited. These data also suggest that there is no correlation between animal-management practices and the cattle found in royal or private/non-royal burial contexts. The results demonstrate considerable divergence between agro-pastoral models promoted by the state and the realities of day-to-day management practices. The data from Ur suggest that the animals exploited different plant and water sources, and that animals reared in similar ways ended up in different depositional contexts.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Isótopos de Estrôncio , Animais , Sepultamento , Bovinos , Esmalte Dentário , Dieta
6.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0266788, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648733

RESUMO

The Cueva de Ardales is a hugely important Palaeolithic site in the south of the Iberian Peninsula owing to its rich inventory of rock art. From 2011-2018, excavations were carried out in the cave for the first time ever by a Spanish-German research team. The excavation focused on the entrance area of the cave, where the largest assemblage of non-figurative red paintings in the cave is found. A series of 50 AMS dates from the excavations prove a long, albeit discontinuous, occupation history spanning from the Middle Palaeolithic to the Neolithic. The dating of the Middle Palaeolithic layers agrees with the U/Th dating of some red non-figurative paintings in the entrance area. In addition, a large assemblage of ochre lumps was discovered in the Middle Palaeolithic layers. Human visits of the cave in the Gravettian and Solutrean can be recognized, but evidence from the Aurignacian and Magdalenian cannot be confirmed with certainty. The quantity and nature of materials found during the excavations indicate that Cueva de Ardales was not a campsite, but was mainly visited to carry out non-domestic tasks, such as the production of rock art or the burial of the dead.


Assuntos
Pinturas , Sepultamento , Humanos , Ocupações , Espanha
7.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267532, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584081

RESUMO

The archaeological site of Salorno-Dos de la Forca (Bozen, Alto Adige) provides one of the rarest and most significant documentations of cremated human remains preserved from an ancient cremation platform (ustrinum). The pyre area, located along the upper Adige valley, is dated to the Late Bronze Age (ca. 1150-950 BCE) and has yielded an unprecedented quantity of cremated human remains (about 63.5 kg), along with burnt animal bone fragments, shards of pottery, and other grave goods made in bronze and animal bone/antler. This study focuses on the bioanthropological analysis of the human remains and discusses the formation of the unusual burnt deposits at Salorno through comparisons with modern practices and protohistoric and contemporaneous archaeological deposits. The patterning of bone fragmentation and commingling was investigated using spatial data recorded during excavation which, along with the bioanthropological and archaeological data, are used to model and test two hypotheses: Salorno-Dos de la Forca would be the result of A) repeated primary cremations left in situ; or B) of residual material remaining after select elements were removed for internment in urns or burials to unknown depositional sites. By modelling bone weight and demographic data borrowed from regional affine contexts, the authors suggest that this cremation site may have been used over several generations by a small community-perhaps a local elite. With a quantity of human remains that exceeds that of any other coeval contexts interpreted as ustrina, Salorno may be the product of a complex series of rituals in which the human cremains did not receive individual burial, but were left in situ, in a collective/communal place of primary combustion, defining an area of repeated funeral ceremonies involving offerings and libations across a few generations. This would represent a new typological and functional category that adds to the variability of mortuary customs at the end of the Bronze Age in the Alpine are, at a time in which "globalising" social trends may have stimulated the definition of more private identities.


Assuntos
Cremação , Restos Mortais , Sepultamento , Rituais Fúnebres , Humanos , Itália
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 179: 113708, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533618

RESUMO

The contents of chemothermal oxidation (CTO)-derived black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) and their stable isotopes (δ13CBC and δ13COC), including major elemental oxides, and grain sizes were measured to constrain the sources, burial flux, and mass inventory of BC in surface sediments of the Daya Bay. Surface sediments were mainly clayey silt (>90%) and contained 0.28-1.18% OC and 0.05-0.18% BC. Fossil fuel emission and physical erosion contributed to the sedimentary BC sources. High BC/OC ratio (6-30%), burial flux (154.88-922.67 µg cm-2 y-1), and mass inventory (22-34 Gg y-1) of BC in the upper 5 cm of surface sediments indicated that the Daya Bay is a significant sink of BC. The high accumulation of BC in sediments is attributed to a strong affinity to fine-grained sediments due to the enrichment of muddy biodeposits excrements from the cultured species in the bay.


Assuntos
Baías , Sedimentos Geológicos , Sepultamento , Carbono/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fuligem/análise
9.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 59: 102718, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550934

RESUMO

The German capital Berlin originates from the two medieval settlements Berlin and Cölln on either side of the river Spree. Whereas Berlin is world famous, there is very little awareness of former Cölln. From 2007-2009, during excavations of the earliest cemetery of this forgotten medieval town; 3,126 graves were discovered containing the remains of 3,717 individuals. Amongst those graves was an unusual triple burial. This grave was exceptional due to the relative postures of the skeletons and their extensive facial injuries. Here we present genetic and isotope data for this grave. Genetic results confirmed all of them as biological male individuals and ruled out their biological kinship. Combining genetic ancestry information with strontium isotope data we furthermore determined that two of the men most likely originated from the Berlin-Brandenburg region, whereas a more distant origin of the third individual can be debated.


Assuntos
Sepultamento , Cemitérios , Berlim , Sepultamento/história , Cemitérios/história , História Medieval , Humanos , Isótopos , Masculino
10.
Forensic Sci Int ; 335: 111289, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397358

RESUMO

In this study, we present an experiment design and assess the capability of multiple geophysical techniques to image buried human remains in mass and individual graves using human cadavers willingly donated for scientific research. The study is part of a novel, interdisciplinary mass grave experiment established in May 2021 which consists of a mass grave with 6 human remains, 3 individual graves and 2 empty control graves dug to the same size as the mass grave and individual graves. Prior to establishing the graves, we conducted background measurements of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), electromagnetics (EM), and ground penetrating radar (GPR) while soil profiles were analyzed in situ after excavating the graves. All graves were also instrumented with soil sensors for monitoring temporal changes in soil moisture, temperature, and electrical conductivity in situ. Measurements of ERT, EM and GPR were repeated 3, 37, 71 and 185 days after burial with further repeated measurements planned for another twelve months. ERT results show an initial increase in resistivity in all graves including the control graves at 3 days after burial and a continuous decrease thereafter in the mass and individual graves with the strongest decrease in the mass grave. Conductivity distribution from the EM shows a similar trend to the ERT with an initial decrease in the first 3 days after burial. Distortion in linear reflectors, presence of small hyperbolas and isolated strong amplitude reflectors in the GPR profiles across the graves is associated with known locations of the graves. These initial results validate the capability of geoelectrical methods in detecting anomalies associated with disturbed ground and human decay while GPR though show some success is limited by the geology of the site.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais , Sepultamento , Fenômenos Geológicos , Humanos , Radar , Solo
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(18): e2120786119, 2022 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446690

RESUMO

The Middle Neolithic in western Europe is characterized by monumental funerary structures, known as megaliths, along the Atlantic façade. The first manifestations of this phenomenon occurred in modern-day France with the long mounds of the Cerny culture. Here, we present genome-wide data from the fifth-millennium BCE site of Fleury-sur-Orne in Normandy (France), famous for its impressively long monuments built for selected individuals. The site encompasses 32 monuments of variable sizes, containing the burials of 19 individuals from the Neolithic period. To address who was buried at the site, we generated genome-wide data for 14 individuals, of whom 13 are males, completing previously published data [M. Rivollat et al., Sci. Adv. 6, eaaz5344 (2020)]. Population genetic and Y chromosome analyses show that the Fleury-sur-Orne group fits within western European Neolithic genetic diversity and that the arrival of a new group is detected after 4,000 calibrated BCE. The results of analyzing uniparentally inherited markers and an overall low number of long runs of homozygosity suggest a patrilineal group practicing female exogamy. We find two pairs of individuals to be father and son, buried together in the same monument/grave. No other biological relationship can link monuments together, suggesting that each monument was dedicated to a genetically independent lineage. The combined data and documented father­son line of descent suggest a male-mediated transmission of sociopolitical authority. However, a single female buried with an arrowhead, otherwise considered a symbol of power of the male elite of the Cerny culture, questions a strictly biological sex bias in the burial rites of this otherwise "masculine" monumental cemetery.


Assuntos
Cemitérios , DNA Antigo , Arqueologia , Sepultamento/história , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Genômica , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 835: 155473, 2022 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35469872

RESUMO

The recent COVID-19 disease has highlighted the need for further research around the risk to human health and the environment because of mass burial of COVID-19 victims. Despite SARS-CoV-2 being an enveloped virus, which is highly susceptible to environmental conditions (temperature, solar/UV exposure). This review provides insight into the potential of SARS-CoV-2 to contaminate groundwater through burial sites, the impact of various types of burial practices on SARS-CoV-2 survival, and current knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to ensure that humans and ecosystems are adequately protected from SARS-CoV-2. Data available shows temperature is still likely to be the driving factor when it comes to survival and infectivity of SARS-CoV-2. Research conducted at cemetery sites globally using various bacteriophages (MS2, PRD1, faecal coliforms) and viruses (TGEV, MHV) as surrogates for pathogenic enteric viruses to study the fate and transport of these viruses showed considerable contamination of groundwater, particularly where there is a shallow vadose zone and heterogeneous structures are known to exist with very low residence times. In addition, changes in solution chemistry (e.g., decrease in ionic strength or increase in pH) during rainfall events produces large pulses of released colloids that can result in attached viruses becoming remobilised, with implications for groundwater contamination. Viruses cannot spread unaided through the vadose zone. Since groundwater is too deep to be in contact with the interred body and migration rates are very slow, except where preferential flow paths are known to exist, the groundwater table will not be significantly impacted by contamination from SARS-CoV-2. When burial takes place using scientifically defensible methods the possibility of infection will be highly improbable. Furthermore, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has helped us to prepare for other eventualities such as natural disasters where mass fatalities and subsequently burials may take place in a relatively short space of time.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Água Subterrânea , Vírus , Sepultamento , Ecossistema , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Water Res ; 216: 118329, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344910

RESUMO

Huge synthetic chemicals and hydrocarbons have been released to inland waters and oceans, composing anthropogenic dissolved organic carbon (ADOC). They complement a large budget for CO2. Burial by inland and coastal marine sediments is crucial to reduce this budget. How ecological regime shifts influence the burial ability of ADOC by inland waters and coastal oceans, and what are the differences between them remain largely unknown. We collected sediment cores from an inland lake (Lake Qianhu) and the largest coastal lagoon (Lagoon Pinqing) in China, and chose 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to address these issues. Burial ability of PAHs by sediments decreased by 55.1% - 98.5% in Lagoon Pinqing in the period from 1963 to 2018, and by 91.5% - 99.5% in Lake Qianhu in the period from 1970 to 2018. Burial ability and its decrease rate for most PAHs in Lagoon Pinqing were larger than those in Lake Qianhu in the same period. PAHs with higher hydrophobicity were more ready to be buried by both lake sediments and lagoon sediments. Burial ability of most PAHs in Lagoon Pinqing was negative correlated with total phosphorus concentration. In contrast, burial ability of most PAHs in Lake Qianhu was negative correlated with total nitrogen concentration. Regime shifted from phytoplankton to submerged macrophytes dominance in the year of 1976, and from submerged macrophytes to phytoplankton dominance in the year of 1999 in Lagoon Pinqing, driven by nitrogen. Regime shifted from vascular plants to phytoplankton dominance in Lake Qianhu in the year of 1991, driven by phosphorus. Different aromaticity and sources of organic matter related to regime shifts were responsible for the discrepancy of burial ability for PAHs by sediments of these two waters. Our study suggests that burial ability of ADOC by inland and coastal marine sediments will be reduced if eutrophication results in ecological regime shifts, which may undermine the efforts to mitigate global warming.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Sepultamento , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Lagos , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes , Fósforo , Fitoplâncton , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 827: 154320, 2022 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35259370

RESUMO

The regulating ecosystem services, such as water purification, that tidal flats provide by nitrogen (N) burial are being increasingly recognized; yet, quantitative estimates remain limited. Here, we first present nationwide evaluation of total N stocks and burial rates in the Korean tidal flats, based on a 3 year long monitoring assessment combined with remote sensing approach. A total of 20 intertidal flats representing 7 provinces of South Korea were extensively surveyed in 2018-20. The sediment textural type (sand, mixed, and mud) classified from remotely sensed imagery was significantly correlated to that identified from field data (p < 0.01), warranting a nationwide estimate of total N stocks. The estimated total N stocks and burial rates in the tidal flats of Korea were 1.5 Tg N and 8,192 Mg N yr-1, respectively. Total N stocks significantly varied by region, province, morphology, salinity, and land use type adjacent to the corresponding tidal flats. In general, the N stocks of tidal flats were influenced by the degree of terrestrial N inputs to the ocean. The N stocks were significantly correlated with several physical parameters, such as precipitation (p < 0.05) and tide (p < 0.01). Among the sediment properties, the mud content was found to be the key factor determining the total N stocks across the 20 intertidal flats (p < 0.01). Finally, by applying the environmental value for N removal (USD km-2 yr-1) to the tidal flat area (km2), the economic value of the total N removal was estimated as ~233 Million USD yr-1 in Korea and ~15 Billion USD yr-1 globally. Overall, the present work confirms the valuable ecosystem service of tidal flat's cost-efficient N removal capacity, highlighting marine ecosystem service.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Nitrogênio , Sepultamento , Sedimentos Geológicos , República da Coreia , Areia
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4055, 2022 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35260577

RESUMO

The cultural use of pigments in human societies is associated with ritual activities and the creation of social memory. Neolithic Çatalhöyük (Turkey, 7100-5950 cal BC) provides a unique case study for the exploration of links between pigments in burials, demographic data and colourants in contemporary architectural contexts. This study presents the first combined analysis of funerary and architectural evidence of pigment use in Neolithic Anatolia and discusses the possible social processes underlying the observed statistical patterns. Results reveal that pigments were either applied directly to the deceased or included in the grave as a burial association. The most commonly used pigment was red ochre. Cinnabar was mainly applied to males and blue/green pigment was associated with females. A correlation was found between the number of buried individuals and the number of painted layers in the buildings. Mortuary practices seem to have followed specific selection processes independent of sex and age-at-death of the deceased. This study offers new insights about the social factors involved in pigment use in this community, and contributes to the interpretation of funerary practices in Neolithic Anatolia. Specifically, it suggests that visual expression, ritual performance and symbolic associations were elements of shared long-term socio-cultural practices.


Assuntos
Sepultamento , Práticas Mortuárias , Arqueologia , Comportamento Ritualístico , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino , Pintura , Turquia
17.
Forensic Sci Int ; 333: 111208, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35151181

RESUMO

The bodies of murder or accident victims may be concealed below ground to cover up the crime by the perpetrator. During decomposition, nutrient-rich substances that may affect the surrounding environment enter the soil. The logical effect of local changes in soil biogeochemistry should be an impact on the vegetation occurring in a cadaver decomposition island (CDI). Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium compounds, which are common plant fertilizers, have received most of the attention in studies using animal remains, but many other elements such as trace metals enter the environment during decomposition of carcass. Furthermore, the decomposition of carcasses can locally affect environmental parameters such as humidity, soil pH, and oxygenation. This study examined whether animal tissues buried in soil could affect vegetation. The experiment was conducted in an open space in southern Poland, using limbs from Sus scrofa domestica. Four test plots were set up: I - clean soil (control plot), II - control plot + urine (potential nitrogen source), III - animal tissues buried at 20 cm depth and IV - animal tissues buried at 10 cm depth. Seedlings of Begonia semperflorens were planted in all four plots. After the end of one full growing season, plant measurements were obtained, and soil and plant material samples were taken. The presence of limbs, regardless of depth, had a very positive effect on plant development. Chemical analyses were performed to determine which compounds could have affected the vegetation. In addition to the standard analyses for nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium, levels of copper, iron, manganese, zinc and magnesium were also determined. The elemental content in the soil and plant material from different plots varied. Interestingly, despite the more intense vegetation, lower levels of elements were found in the soil and leaves of plants from the experimental than from the control plots. In many cases, there were clear differences in the contents of elements between the experimental plots. This could indicate, for example, different phases of animal tissue decomposition, which could have been caused by the different depths at which the remains were buried. As concentrations of elements in soil and plants can change significantly over time, material will need to be collected at regular intervals in any future studies. However, it is still unknown what exactly is responsible for the enhanced plant growth within a CDI and whether there are markers that could be helpful in identifying the burial sites of carcasses on the basis of comprehensive vegetation analysis.


Assuntos
Sepultamento , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Animais , Cadáver , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo
18.
J Forensic Sci ; 67(2): 786-794, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713906

RESUMO

A geophysical investigation for buried human remains after 8 years of burial involving the use of Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) was carried out at Owo, Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria. This study was aimed at identifying the burial location of a corpse buried in a coffin about 8 years ago for exhumation and reburial in another location consequent upon litigations and controversies surrounding the land of the burial. The results obtained were used to generate 2D model and different resistivity maps which were able to identify suspected zone. Excavation of the suspected zone was carried out for the exhumed and relocation of the buried human remains. Electrical Resistivity has therefore been found useful in search for detecting human remains buried in a coffin with the key indicator being lower electrical resistivity relative to the surrounding area.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais , Sepultamento , Cadáver , Exumação , Humanos , Nigéria
19.
Death Stud ; 46(3): 695-707, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412885

RESUMO

This article describes features of bad deaths and their associated mortuary rituals among the Akan of Ghana. Data were obtained through semi-structured interviews with 30 Akan cultural experts. In Akan culture, bad deaths are associated with brief, perfunctory mortuary rituals. There is no washing, keeping of wake over the body, nor any presentation of grave goods, and no bidding of farewell to the decedent. Every effort is made to expunge the decedent from the memories of the lineage. Contravening prescribed customary rites for bad deaths is believed to cause disasters for the lineage, including recurrent bad deaths.


Assuntos
Sepultamento , Práticas Mortuárias , Comportamento Ritualístico , Rituais Fúnebres , Gana , Humanos
20.
J Forensic Sci ; 67(2): 605-618, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651318

RESUMO

Burial of a cadaver results in a slower decomposition rate, due to more stable below-ground temperatures and restricted access to necrophagous insects. In such circumstances, analysis of the soil mesofauna, with emphasis on mites (Acari) may be more valuable in time-of-death estimations. The production of volatile organic compounds of cadaveric decay results in changes, especially in the soil pH, which in turn would affect the abundance and diversity of the associated mites. In general, the effects of decomposition and the consequently altered pH levels on the abundance of mites in shallow graves, as well as the effects of fluctuating above-ground environmental parameters (temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation) remain unknown. Here, we found that the decay of three pig cadavers buried in shallow graves (<30 cm below) caused a significant increase in the soil pH throughout decomposition, from neutral to alkaline. Cadaver decay attracted an abundance of mites: with 300 mites collected from the three pig cadavers compared to 129 from the control soil samples at the same depth. Mites rapidly became more abundant in cadaver-associated soils than in control soils after the fresh stage. Increasing soil pH had a positive impact on the abundance of mites in graves and there was a significant interaction between cadaver body temperature and soil pH. Above-ground fluctuations in temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation were found to have no significant direct effect on mite abundance in grave or control soils.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Solo , Animais , Sepultamento , Cadáver , Humanos , Insetos , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Solo/química , Suínos
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