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1.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 299(3): 908-14, 2001 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11714875

RESUMO

Agonist-independent activity of G-protein-coupled receptor, also referred to as constitutive activity, is a well-documented phenomenon and has been reported recently for both the histamine H(1) and H(2) receptors. Using SK-N-MC cell lines stably expressing the human and rat H(3) receptors at physiological receptor densities (500-600 fmol/mg of protein), we show that both the rat and human H(3) receptors show a high degree of constitutive activity. The forskolin-mediated cAMP production in SK-N-MC cells is inhibited strongly upon expression of the G(i)-coupled H(3) receptor. The cAMP production can be further inhibited upon agonist stimulation of the H(3) receptor and can be enhanced by a variety of H(3) antagonists acting as inverse agonists at the H(3) receptor. Thioperamide, clobenpropit, and iodophenpropit raise the cAMP levels in SK-N-MC cells with potencies that match their receptor binding affinities. Surprisingly, impentamine and burimamide act as effective H(3) agonists. Modification of the amine group of impentamine dramatically affected the pharmacological activity of the ligand. Receptor affinity was reduced slightly for most impentamine analogs, but the functional activity of the ligands varied from agonist to neutral antagonist and inverse agonist, indicating that subtle changes in the chemical structures of impentamine analogs have major impact on the (de)activation steps of the H(3) receptor. In conclusion, upon stable expression of the rat and human H(3) receptor in SK-N-MC cells constitutive receptor activity is detected. In this experimental system, H(3) receptors ligands, previously identified as H(3) antagonists, cover the whole spectrum of pharmacological activities, ranging from full inverse agonists to agonists.


Assuntos
Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/farmacologia , Receptores Histamínicos H3/biossíntese , Tioureia/análogos & derivados , Animais , Burimamida/farmacologia , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Histamínicos H3/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Histamínicos H3/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Tioureia/farmacologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
2.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 909: 25-40, 2000.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10911922

RESUMO

Burimamide, a histamine (HA) derivative with both H2- and H3-blocking properties, induces antinociception when injected into the rodent CNS. Several related compounds share this property, and structure-activity studies have shown that this new class of analgesics is distinct from known HA antagonists. The prototype, named improgan, shows a preclinical profile of a highly effective analgesic, with activity against thermal, mechanical and inflammatory nociception after doses that do not alter motor balance or locomotor activity. Improgen analgesia is not blocked by opioid antagonists and is observed in opioid receptor knock-out mice. Unlike morphine, improgan does not induce tolerance after daily dosing. Extensive in vitro pharmacology studies have excluded known histaminergic, opioid, serotonergic, GABAergic and adrenergic receptor mechanisms, as well as 50 other sites of action. The improgan-like analgesic activity of some HA congeners suggests an analgesic action on a novel HA receptor, but further studies are required to substantiate this. Studies in progress are characterizing the sites and mechanisms of action of improgan, and developing brain-penetrating derivatives that could be useful for clinical pain.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Narcóticos/farmacologia , Burimamida/farmacologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores H2 da Histamina/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Receptores Histamínicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 65(1): 61-6, 2000 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10638637

RESUMO

Improgan, a compound related to H2 and H3 antagonists, induces antinociception in rodents after intraventricular administration. Characteristics of improgan and its congeners include: (a) morphine-like antinociception on thermal and mechanical tests in two species; (b) no impairment of motor coordination or locomotor activity; (c) evidence for a novel, nonopioid mechanism that is independent of known histamine receptors; (d) lack of tolerance with daily dosing; and (e) unique structure-activity relationships (SARs). Presently, the antinociceptive activity of several new derivatives of improgan was investigated in rats. Among compounds similar to burimamide, VUF4577 (possessing a two-carbon side chain) and VUF4582 (an N-phenyl derivative of VUF4577) induced complete, dose- and time-dependent antinociception on the hot-plate and tail-flick tests with no behavioral side effects. These compounds (with ED50 values of 71-117 nmol) were approximately twice as potent as burimamide itself (a four-carbon derivative). Two other derivatives in which the thiourea group (C=S, known to cause human toxicity) was replaced by either nitroethene (C=CH-NO2, VUF5405) or urea (C=O, VUF5407) also showed effective, potent antinociception on both assays. The latter compound is the most potent improgan-like drug discovered to date (ED50 = 71 nmol). Furthermore, positional isomers of antinociceptive compounds either lacked activity (VUF5394) or induced toxicity (VUF5393), revealing a high degree of pharmacological specificity. Although the mechanism of improgan antinociception remains unknown, the present results show promise for the further development of safe, effective, and potent pain-relieving compounds.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Narcóticos/farmacologia , Burimamida/farmacologia , Cimetidina/análogos & derivados , Antagonistas dos Receptores H2 da Histamina/farmacologia , Receptores Histamínicos H3/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cimetidina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
4.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 377(2-3): 233-9, 1999 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10456436

RESUMO

Characterization of the histamine H3 receptor in rodent species has been extensive but limited characterization has been done with primate or human tissue. We have characterized the binding of [3H]Nalpha-methylhistamine to cynomolgus monkey and human brain membranes to determine whether there are any significant differences among species' pharmacology. In monkey, [3H]Nalpha-methylhistamine bound, in a guanine nucleotide-sensitive fashion, to an apparently homogeneous class of sites at equilibrium (K(D) = 1.4 nM, Bmax = 34 fmol/mg protein). The profile of binding was broadly similar to that of rodents, with a couple of significant differences. Most notably, the potency of the histamine H3-receptor-specific antagonist thioperamide (Ki = 240 nM) was substantially less than reported for rodents and under assay conditions that yield a two-site curve fit in rodents only a single class of thioperamide binding sites was detected in monkey. Burimamide, however, yielded a two-site curve fit (KiH = 6.7 nM, KiL = 1100 nM) independent of the presence of sodium in the assay, as it does in rodents. Characterization of the human brain histamine H3 receptor showed that it was similar to the monkey and not rodent receptor. Our findings indicate that differences between primate and rodent histamine H3 receptors of potentially serious importance for the discovery of antagonists active in humans do exist.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Metilistaminas/metabolismo , Piperidinas/metabolismo , Animais , Burimamida/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos de Guanina/farmacologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Macaca fascicularis , Receptores Histamínicos/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
J Neurochem ; 71(2): 799-807, 1998 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9681472

RESUMO

Stable expression of the human H2 receptor in Chinese hamster ovary cells resulted in an increase in basal cyclic AMP (cAMP) production, which was inhibited by the inverse agonists cimetidine, famotidine, and ranitidine with potencies similar to those found for the rat H2 receptor. Burimamide, a neutral antagonist at the rat H2 receptor, behaved as a weak partial agonist at the human H2 receptor. Burimamide competitively antagonized both the histamine-induced increase in cAMP and the cimetidine-induced reduction of the basal cAMP level with apparent K(B) values that were similar to its H2 receptor affinity. Investigation of the modulation of receptor expression after long-term drug treatment revealed that at low concentrations histamine induced a significant reduction in H2 receptor expression, whereas at high concentrations receptor expression was slightly increased. The partial agonist burimamide induced, like inverse agonists, an up-regulation of the human H2 receptor after prolonged treatment. These findings suggest a structural instability of the constitutively active human H2 receptor in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. Occupation of the H2 receptor by any ligand reduces the instability, thus resulting in higher cellular expression levels.


Assuntos
Antagonistas dos Receptores H2 da Histamina/farmacologia , Receptores Histamínicos H2/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética , Animais , Ligação Competitiva/fisiologia , Burimamida/farmacologia , Células CHO/fisiologia , Cimetidina/farmacologia , Cricetinae , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Famotidina/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ranitidina/farmacologia
6.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 283(3): 1534-43, 1997 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9400031

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that cimetidine, burimamide and improgan (also known as SKF92374, a cimetidine congener lacking H2 antagonist activity) induce antinociception after intracerebroventricular administration in rodents. Because these substances closely resemble the structure of histamine (a known mediator of some endogenous analgesic responses), yet no role for known histamine receptors has been found in the analgesic actions of these agents, the structure-activity relationships for the antinociceptive effects of 21 compounds chemically related to H2 and H3 antagonists were investigated in this study. Antinociceptive activity was assessed on the hot-plate and tail-flick tests after intracerebroventricular administration in rats. Eleven compounds induced time-dependent (10-min peak) and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity with no observable behavioral impairment. ED50 values, estimated by nonlinear regression, were highly correlated across nociceptive assays (r2 = 0.98, n = 11). Antinociceptive potencies varied more than 6-fold (80-464 nmol), but were not correlated with activity on H1, H2 or H3 receptors. Although highly potent H3 antagonists such as thioperamide lacked antinociceptive activity, homologs of burimamide and thioperamide containing N-aromatic substituents retained H3 antagonist activity and also showed potent, effective analgesia. A literature review of the pharmacology of these agents did not find a basis for their antinociceptive effects. Taken with previous findings, the present results suggest: 1) these compounds act on the brain to activate powerful analgesic responses that are independent of known histamine receptors, 2) the structure-activity profile of these agents is novel and 3) brain-penetrating derivatives of these compounds could be clinically useful analgesics.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Narcóticos/farmacologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/farmacologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores H2 da Histamina/farmacologia , Receptores Histamínicos H3/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Burimamida/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tioureia/análogos & derivados , Tioureia/farmacologia
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 93(13): 6802-7, 1996 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8692899

RESUMO

Histamine H2 receptors transfected in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are time- and dose-dependently upregulated upon exposure to the H2 antagonists cimetidine and ranitidine. This effect appears to be H2 receptor-mediated as no change in receptor density was observed after H1 or H3 antagonist treatment or after incubation with the structural analogue of cimetidine, VUF 8299, which has no H2 antagonistic effects. By using transfected CHO cells expressing different densities of wild-type H2 receptors or an uncoupled H2Leu124Ala receptor, the histamine H2 receptor was found to display considerable agonist-independent H2 receptor activity. Cimetidine and ranitidine, which both induce H2 receptor upregulation, actually functioned as inverse agonists in those cell lines displaying spontaneous agonist-independent H2 receptor activity. Burimamide, on the other hand, was shown to act as a neutral antagonist and did as expected not induce H2 receptor upregulation after long-term exposure. The displayed inverse agonism of H2 antagonists appears to be a mechanistic basis for the observed H2 antagonist-induced H2 receptor upregulation in transfected CHO cells. These observations shed new light on the pharmacological classification of the H2 antagonists and may offer a plausible explanation for the observed development of tolerance after prolonged clinical use.


Assuntos
Agonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/farmacologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores H2 da Histamina/farmacologia , Receptores Histamínicos H2/fisiologia , Regulação para Cima , Animais , Burimamida/farmacologia , Células CHO , Cimetidina/farmacologia , Colforsina/farmacologia , Cricetinae , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Ranitidina/farmacologia , Receptores Histamínicos H2/genética , Transfecção
8.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 53(3): 567-74, 1996 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8866956

RESUMO

The aim of the present study is to the elucidate the confusion that exists in the literature concerning which receptor subtype is involved in mediating histamine antinociception. To this purpose impromidine 3HCl and burimamide were used. Because both substances have been described to block histamine H3-receptor, and, at higher doses, also to act on the postsynaptic site as agonist and antagonist, respectively, they were administered in a wide range of ICV doses, to distinguish the effects due to action on different receptors. Experiments were performed in mice and rats by means of tests inducing three different kinds of noxious stimuli: mechanical (paw pressure), chemical (abdominal constriction), and thermal (hot plate). Both substances showed, at the lowest doses tested, antinociception, which was antagonized by the selective H3-receptor agonist, (R)-alpha-methylhistamine 2HCl (RAMH) (10 mg/kg SC in mice or 0.5 microgram per rat ICV). At higher doses impromidine was antinociceptive while burimamide was hypernociceptive, in accordance with their opposite action on the H2-receptor. It is suggested that the histaminergic system modulates nociception via activation of the H2-receptor.


Assuntos
Dor/metabolismo , Receptores Histamínicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Histamínicos/metabolismo , Animais , Burimamida/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Histamina/metabolismo , Impromidina/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Medição da Dor , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tempo de Reação/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
J Med Chem ; 38(12): 2244-50, 1995 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7783156

RESUMO

Burimamide was one of the first compounds reported to antagonize the activation of the histamine H3 receptor by histamine. We have prepared a large series of burimamide analogs by variation of the alkyl spacer length of burimamide from two methylene groups to six methylene groups and also by replacement of the N-methyl group with other alkyl and aryl groups. All analogs are reversible, competitive H3 antagonists as determined on the guinea pig intestine. Elongation of the alkyl chain from an ethylene chain to a hexylene chain results in an increase of the H3 antagonistic activity. The H3 selective pentylene and hexylene analogs of burimamide are about 10 times more potent than burimamide. The N-thiourea substituents, however, have no beneficial influence on the affinity.


Assuntos
Burimamida/análogos & derivados , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos , Tioureia/química , Animais , Burimamida/química , Burimamida/farmacologia , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Cobaias , Técnicas In Vitro , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/metabolismo
10.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 19(3): 248-54, 1994 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7806839

RESUMO

There was still controversy regarding the physiology of acid secretion in 1964 when a team at Smith Kline & French Laboratories in England started a project to prove the existence of more than one receptor for histamine and to find a substance capable of blocking the effects not blocked by the commonly used antihistamines. The team was convinced that histamine was the final mediator of acid secretion. After 8 years, James Black and his coworkers published evidence of the first histamine2-receptor antagonist, burimamide. As this substance was not suitable for oral therapy, the research continued. Metiamide was synthesized with promising clinical effects but questionable safety. The final answer was cimetidine (Tagamet), approved in England in November 1976. Cimetidine was a breakthrough in the treatment of peptic ulcers. In this article I focus on the human factors lying behind many of the decisions made during the years of research. Without personal courage under stressful conditions, the H2-receptor antagonists might never have reached the market.


Assuntos
Cimetidina/história , Úlcera Péptica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Animais , Burimamida/história , Burimamida/uso terapêutico , Cimetidina/uso terapêutico , Cães , Indústria Farmacêutica/história , Inglaterra , Antagonistas dos Receptores H2 da Histamina/química , Antagonistas dos Receptores H2 da Histamina/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Metiamida/história , Metiamida/uso terapêutico , Pesquisa/história , Estados Unidos
11.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 149(6): 1506-11, 1994 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8004306

RESUMO

There is increased recognition that lung mast cell mediators not only produce the symptoms of acute asthma, but also result in the recruitment and activation of additional proinflammatory cells, such as eosinophils. Histamine, one of the major mast cell mediators, is known to have numerous effects on eosinophil function. These effects of histamine are mediated by distinct receptors on the surface of eosinophils, only some of which have been characterized. Prior studies have suggested that eosinophils have non-H1, non-H2 histamine receptors which mediate the chemotactic effects of histamine. We observed previously that the histamine-induced increase in cytosolic calcium in human eosinophils could not be blocked by classic H1 or H2 antagonists, but could be inhibited by the H3 antagonist thioperamide. The purpose of this study was to further characterize the pharmacologic properties of this calcium-linked histamine receptor. Using Fura-2 loaded eosinophils to measure the concentration of cytosolic calcium, we examined the effect of additional histamine receptor antagonists and agonists. We found that the pKb for the H3 antagonists thioperamide, impromidine, and burimamide (8.1, 7.6, and 7.2, respectively), were similar to those reported for H3 receptors in the central nervous system, suggesting that the eosinophil histamine receptor was similar to H3 receptors. However, when the known H3 agonists were tested for activity ([R]-alpha-methylhistamine, N alpha-methylhistamine), the potencies of these compounds were much less than the potency of histamine itself, indicating a significant difference between H3 receptors and this eosinophil histamine receptor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)


Assuntos
Asma/imunologia , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Receptores Histamínicos/imunologia , Doença Aguda , Anticonvulsivantes/imunologia , Asma/sangue , Burimamida/imunologia , Cálcio/análise , Eosinófilos/química , Fura-2 , Agonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/imunologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos , Humanos , Impromidina/imunologia , Inflamação , Líquido Intracelular/química , Mastócitos/imunologia , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Metilistaminas/imunologia , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/imunologia , Piperidinas/imunologia , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/imunologia , Receptores Histamínicos/classificação
12.
Brain Res ; 641(2): 203-7, 1994 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8012822

RESUMO

Histamine H3 antagonists have been reported to discriminate subclasses of histamine H3 agonist binding in rat cortical membranes. This phenomenon was investigated by autoradiography of cryostat sections of rat forebrain labelled with [3H]N alpha-methylhistamine ([3H]NAMH, 4 nM). Displacement curves with thioperamide detected a single site in cortex and striatum (pIC50 = 8.18 +/- 0.03). However, Hill coefficients (nH = 0.51 +/- 0.12) suggested the possible presence of multiple binding sites. Displacement with burimamide was consistent with two site models in all brain regions examined (pIC50(A) = 7.9 +/- 1.5; pIC50(B) = 5.6 +/- 0.7), except for the medial septum where a single site was detected. Elsewhere, the relative abundance of the two sites displaced by burimamide (H3A:H3B) appeared to be 1:2. Thioperamide may have failed to discriminate two sites because the IC50s were too similar to be distinguished in the present autoradiographic study.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Metilistaminas/metabolismo , Receptores Histamínicos H3/metabolismo , Animais , Autorradiografia , Sítios de Ligação , Ligação Competitiva , Encéfalo/citologia , Burimamida/farmacologia , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos , Masculino , Especificidade de Órgãos , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Prosencéfalo/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Trítio
13.
Br J Pharmacol ; 107(2): 347-51, 1992 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1330174

RESUMO

1. The effect of (R)-alpha-methylhistamine, a selective H3-histamine receptor agonist, was examined on the neurogenic hypertension and tachycardia that is induced by stimulation of areas in the medulla oblongata of guinea-pigs. Electrical medullary stimulation (32 Hz, 3-5 s trains, 0.5-1.0 ms square pulse, 25-400 microA) produced intensity-dependent increases in blood pressure and a more variable tachycardia. 2. (R)-alpha-methylhistamine inhibited the hypertension and tachycardia due to submaximal CNS stimulation. The inhibition of hypertension by (R)-alpha-methylhistamine was dose-dependent (10-300 micrograms kg-1, i.v.) and was not seen at high intensities of stimulation. 3. (R)-alpha-methylhistamine (300 micrograms kg-1, i.v.) did not attenuate the pressor response to adrenaline (1 and 3 micrograms kg-1, i.v.), indicating that the effect of (R)-alpha-methylhistamine was not mediated by a postjunctional action on smooth muscle. 4. The inhibition of CNS-induced hypertension by (R)-alpha-methylhistamine (300 micrograms kg-1, i.v.) was blocked by the H3 antagonists, thioperamide (ID50 = 0.39 mg kg-1, i.v.), impromidine (ID50 = 0.22 mg kg-1, i.v.) and burimamide (ID50 = 6 mg kg-1, i.v.). The rank order potency of these antagonists is consistent with activity at the H3B receptor subtype. Chlorpheniramine (30 micrograms kg-1, i.v.) and cimetidine (3 mg kg-1, i.v.) did not antagonize the inhibition of CNS-hypertension by (R)-alpha-methylhistamine. 5. These results suggest that (R)-alpha-methylhistamine inhibits sympathetic hypertensive responses in guinea-pigs by activation of prejunctional H3-receptors, possibly located on postganglionic nerve terminals. Furthermore, on the basis of the rank order potency to different H3-antagonists, it appears that the H3B-receptor subtype is involved with H3-receptor responses on vascular sympathetic nerves.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Agonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/farmacologia , Bulbo/fisiologia , Metilistaminas/farmacologia , Receptores Histamínicos/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiologia , Animais , Burimamida/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Estimulação Elétrica , Epinefrina/farmacologia , Cobaias , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/farmacologia , Impromidina/farmacologia , Masculino , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Receptores Histamínicos H3 , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 260(2): 762-7, 1992 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1531360

RESUMO

Human isolated intact pulmonary arterial muscle ring preparations which were precontracted with serotonin (10 microM) relaxed when stimulated with low concentrations of histamine, 2-[2-thiazolyl]ethylamine or 2-[pyridyl]ethylamine (pD2 values: 8.66 +/- 0.22, 7.10 +/- 0.06 and 6.20 +/- 0.26, respectively) or contracted at higher concentrations of these agonists. This relaxant response was obliterated in endothelial denuded tissues. Chlorpheniramine (H1-antagonist; 0.25 and 2.5 microM) induced a small contractile response in the tissues at resting tone (0.08 +/- 0.03 g and 0.10 +/- 0.10 g, respectively). Chlorpheniramine also shifted the histamine relaxation curves to the right (pD2 values: control, 8.85 +/- 0.31; 0.25 microM, 6.90 +/- 0.41; and 2.5 microM, 5.58 +/- 0.30; N = 6). Dimaprit (H2-agonist) induced a small relaxation (20%) in both intact and denuded tissues. Treatment of the tissues with cimetidine (H2-antagonist; 50 microM), burimamide (H2/H3-antagonist; 10 microM) and impromidine (H2-agonist/H3-antagonist; 1 microM) did not alter histamine-induced relaxation or contraction. Indomethacin (1.7 microM) caused a small contraction in these tissues and significantly reduced the histamine relaxation. The nitric oxide inhibitors (L-NG-monoethyl-L-arginine, 30 and 300 microM; or L-NG-nitroarginine, 30 and 300 microM) induced a slight and variable contraction in the preparations. However, these inhibitors, only in the presence of indomethacin, inhibited the relaxant effects of histamine and potentiated the contractions induced by this amine. These data suggest that a dual endogenous vasodilatory mechanism is present in human isolated pulmonary arterial muscle preparations and that products of the cyclooxygenase and endothelium-derived relaxing factor-nitric oxide pathway may interact to regulate histamine stimulation of H1-receptors.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Artéria Pulmonar/metabolismo , Receptores Histamínicos/metabolismo , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Arginina/farmacologia , Burimamida/farmacologia , Clorfeniramina/farmacologia , Cimetidina/farmacologia , Dimaprit , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Histamina/farmacologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Indometacina/farmacologia , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relaxamento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/fisiologia , Nitroarginina , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiologia , Serotonina/farmacologia , Tetraetilamônio , Compostos de Tetraetilamônio/farmacologia , Tioureia/farmacologia , ômega-N-Metilarginina
15.
Pharmacology ; 42(5): 241-5, 1991.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1876608

RESUMO

Peptide histidine methionine (PHM) is a neuropeptide with structural homology to vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), itself a putative vasodilatory neurotransmitter. Intra-arterial administration of PHM caused a transient, dose-dependent increase in canine vertebral artery blood flow in vivo. PHM was less potent in this effect than VIP. The interaction of PHM with the vasoconstrictor amines, norepinephrine, histamine, and serotonin, was examined using isolated strips of the bovine middle cerebral artery. PHM shifted the concentration-response curves for vasocontraction by norepinephrine and histamine to the right but did not affect the vasocontraction induced by serotonin. These results suggest that PHM may have a role in the regulation of the cerebral circulation.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo PHI/farmacologia , Artéria Vertebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Atropina/farmacologia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/efeitos dos fármacos , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Burimamida/farmacologia , Bovinos , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Histamina/farmacologia , Injeções Intra-Arteriais , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Propranolol/farmacologia , Serotonina/farmacologia , Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/farmacologia , Vasoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Drug Des Deliv ; 7(3): 183-202, 1991.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1910443

RESUMO

We describe an electronic and conformational study of histamine H2-receptor ligands of the imidazole series, in which the possibilities of configurational isomerism (the thiourea group) and N3H and N1H tautomerism (imidazole ring) were considered. The results suggest that the conformational flexibility of the molecules and the properties of the imidazole ring are of special importance in the display of H2-receptor activity. A theoretical model of histamine H2-receptor interactions is proposed on the basis of these and other results. A very important characteristic of our model is its ability to explain H2-receptor activation by compounds which differ structurally, and to explain antagonism at the same receptor. The stereospecificity of rigid analogues of cimetidine and tiotidine, and the importance of chain length in flexible histamine H2-antagonists are also accounted for.


Assuntos
Receptores Histamínicos H2/fisiologia , Burimamida/química , Guanidinas/química , Histamina/análogos & derivados , Histamina/química , Imidazóis/química , Metiamida/análogos & derivados , Metiamida/química , Modelos Moleculares , Modelos Teóricos , Conformação Molecular , Receptores Histamínicos H2/ultraestrutura
17.
Mol Pharmacol ; 38(5): 610-3, 1990 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2172771

RESUMO

The H3-histamine receptor provides feedback inhibition of histamine synthesis and release as well as inhibition of other neurotransmitter release. We have characterized this receptor by radioligand binding studies with the H3 agonist N alpha-[3H]methylhistamine ([3H]NAMHA). The results of [3H]NAMHA saturation binding and NAMHA inhibition of [3H]NAMHA binding were consistent with an apparently single class of receptors (KD = 0.37 nM, Bmax = 73 fmol/mg of protein) and competition assays with other agonists and the antagonists impromidine and dimaprit disclosed only a single class of sites. In contrast, inhibition of [3H]NAMHA binding by the specific high affinity H3 antagonist thioperamide revealed two classes of sites (KiA = 5 nM, BmaxA = 30 fmol/mg of protein; KiB = 68 nM, BmaxB = 48 fmol/mg of protein). Burimamide, another antagonist that, like thioperamide, contains a thiourea group, likewise discriminated between two classes of sites. In addition to differences between some antagonist potencies for the two receptors, there is a differential guanine nucleotide sensitivity of the two. The affinity of the H3A receptor for [3H] NAMHA was reduced less than 2-fold, whereas [3H]NAMHA binding to the H3B receptor was undetectable in the presence of guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate). The distinction between H3A and H3B receptor subtypes, the former a high affinity and the latter a low affinity thioperamide site, draws support from published in vitro data.


Assuntos
Metilistaminas/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Receptores Histamínicos/classificação , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Competitiva , Química Encefálica , Burimamida/farmacologia , Dimaprit , Guanidinas/farmacologia , Guanosina 5'-O-(3-Tiotrifosfato)/farmacologia , Histamina/farmacologia , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Impromidina , Masculino , Ensaio Radioligante , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos , Receptores Histamínicos/análise , Receptores Histamínicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Histamínicos H3 , Tioureia/farmacologia , Trítio
18.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 342(5): 513-9, 1990 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1965326

RESUMO

Rat brain cortex slices or synaptosomes preincubated with 3H-serotonin were superfused with physiological salt solution (which, in the case of slices, contained citalopram, an inhibitor of serotonin uptake), and the effects of histamine and related drugs on the evoked tritium overflow were studied. The electrically (3 Hz) evoked tritium overflow from slices was inhibited by histamine and the H3 receptor agonists R-(-)-alpha-methylhistamine and N alpha-methylhistamine (pIC12.5 values: 6.41, 7.28 and 6.12, respectively), but not affected by the H1 receptor agonist 2-(2-thiazolyl)ethylamine and the H2 receptor agonist dimaprit (each at 10 mumol/l). The concentration-response curve for histamine was shifted to the right by the H3 receptor antagonists impromidine, burimamide and thioperamide (apparent pA2 values: 7.45, 5.97 and 7.88, respectively); the concentration-response curve of serotonin for its inhibitory effect on the electrically evoked overflow was not affected by the three drugs (apparent pA2 values: less than 5.5, less than 5.5 and less than 6.5). Given alone, impromidine, thioperamide and a low concentration of burimamide facilitated the electrically evoked overflow. In slices superfused with K(+)-rich, Ca2(+)-free solution containing tetrodotoxin throughout and in synaptosomes superfused with Ca2(+)-free solution, histamine inhibited the overflow evoked by introduction of Ca2+ (in synaptosomes, simultaneously with an increased amount of K+). In either tissue, the effect of histamine was counteracted by thioperamide. The results provide evidence that exogenous and probably also endogenous histamine inhibits serotonin release in the rat brain cortex via presynaptic histamine H3 receptors.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Histamina/farmacologia , Receptores Histamínicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Serotonina/metabolismo , Sinaptossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Burimamida/farmacologia , Cálcio/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Estimulação Elétrica , Guanidinas/farmacologia , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Impromidina , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Metilistaminas/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos , Receptores Histamínicos H3 , Sinaptossomos/metabolismo , Trítio
19.
Br J Urol ; 64(4): 423-7, 1989 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2819397

RESUMO

Histamine, 2-methylhistamine and 4-methylhistamine produced concentration-related contractions in some isolated human vas deferens preparations. The contractions produced by histamine and its analogues were reversibly and competitively antagonised by the H1-receptor blocker, mepyramine, but not the H2-receptor blockers, burimamide and cimetidine. Phentolamine, atropine and guanethidine did not affect the excitatory action of histamine. Histamine and 4-methylhistamine did not show any inhibitory effect on KCl-induced tone. The results showed that histamine receptors were present in the human vas deferens and the histamine receptors mediating the excitatory response were likely to be H1-receptors.


Assuntos
Histamina/farmacologia , Ducto Deferente/efeitos dos fármacos , Burimamida/farmacologia , Cimetidina/farmacologia , Técnicas de Cultura , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Masculino , Metilistaminas/farmacologia , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirilamina/farmacologia
20.
Neuroscience ; 23(1): 149-57, 1987 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2446202

RESUMO

The regulation of histamine synthesis was studied on rat brain slices or synaptosomes labeled with L-[3H]histidine. Depolarization by increased extracellular K+ concentration enhanced by about twofold the [3H]histamine formation in slices of cerebral cortex. This stimulation was also observed, although to a lesser extent, in synaptosomes from cerebral cortex and slices from the posterior hypothalamus where most histaminergic cell-bodies are located, suggesting that it may occur in nerve endings as well as in perikarya. In the presence of exogenous histamine in increasing concentrations the K+-induced stimulation was progressively reduced by up to 60-70%. The effect of exogenous histamine appears to be receptor-mediated as shown by its saturable character, high pharmacological specificity and competitive reversal by histamine antagonists. The EC50 value of histamine for synthesis reduction (0.34 +/- 0.03 microM) was similar to its EC50 value for release inhibition known to be mediated by H3-receptors. In addition, whereas mepyramine and tiotidine, two potent antagonists at H1- and H2-receptors, respectively, were poorly effective, the H3-receptor antagonists burimamide and impromidine reversed the histamine effect in an apparently competitive manner. These effects were observed in slices of cerebral cortex or posterior hypothalamus as well as in cortical synaptosomes. Furthermore, even in the absence of added histamine, H3-receptor antagonists enhanced the depolarization-induced stimulation of [3H]histamine synthesis, indicating a participation of released endogenous histamine in the synthesis control process. The potencies of H3-receptor antagonists were similar to those of these agents at presynaptic autoreceptors controlling [3H]histamine release. It is concluded that H3-receptors control not only release but also synthesis of histamine at the level of nerve endings and also, presumably, of perikarya. A relationship between the two regulatory processes, possibly via intracellular calcium, seems likely but remains to be investigated at the molecular level.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Liberação de Histamina/efeitos dos fármacos , Histamina/biossíntese , Hipotálamo Posterior/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Receptores Histamínicos/fisiologia , Animais , Burimamida/farmacologia , Cimetidina/análogos & derivados , Cimetidina/farmacologia , Histamina/farmacologia , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Impromidina , Masculino , Potássio/farmacologia , Pirilamina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos , Receptores Histamínicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Histamínicos H3 , Sinaptossomos/metabolismo , Tiazóis/farmacologia
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