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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1126, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detailed characteristics of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Burkina Faso are scarce. The main aim of this study was to assess HCV seroprevalence in various settings and populations at risk in Burkina Faso between 1990 and 2020. Secondary objectives included the prevalence of HCV Ribonucleic acid (RNA) and the distribution of HCV genotypes. METHODS: A systematic database search, supplemented by a manual search, was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and African Index Medicus. Studies reporting HCV seroprevalence data in low and high-risk populations in Burkina Faso were included, and a random-effects meta-analysis was applied. Risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs institute checklist. RESULTS: Low-risk populations were examined in 31 studies involving a total of 168,151 subjects, of whom 8330 were positive for HCV antibodies. Six studies included a total of 1484 high-risk persons, and 96 had antibodies to HCV. The pooled seroprevalence in low-risk populations was 3.72% (95% CI: 3.20-4.28) and 4.75% (95% CI: 1.79-8.94) in high-risk groups. A non-significant decreasing trend was observed over the study period. Seven studies tested HCV RNA in a total of 4759 individuals at low risk for HCV infection, and 81 were positive. The meta-analysis of HCV RNA yielded a pooled prevalence of 1.65% (95% CI: 0.74-2.89%) in low-risk populations, which is assumed to be indicative of HCV prevalence in the general population of Burkina Faso and suggests that about 301,174 people are active HCV carriers in the country. Genotypes 2 and 1 were the most frequent, with 60.3% and 25.0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: HCV seroprevalence is intermediate in Burkina Faso and indicates the need to implement effective control strategies. There is a paucity of data at the national level and for rural and high-risk populations. General population screening and linkage to care are recommended, with special attention to rural and high-risk populations.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Hepatite C , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health equity features prominently in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, yet there are wide disparities in health between and within countries. In settings of natural resource extraction (e.g., industrial mines), the health of surrounding communities is affected through myriad changes in the physical, social, and economic environment. How changes triggered by such projects translate into health inequities is poorly understood. METHODS: This qualitative study explores potential layers of inequities by systematically coding perceived inequities of affected communities. Drawing on the framework method, we thematically analyzed data from 83 focus group discussions, which enrolled 791 participants from 10 study sites in Burkina Faso, Mozambique, and Tanzania. RESULTS: Participants perceived inequities related to their individual characteristics, intermediate factors acting on the community level, and structural conditions. Due to environmental pollution and land loss, participants were concerned about unsecured livelihoods. Positive impacts, such as job opportunities at the mine, remained scarce for local communities and were claimed not to be equally distributed among community members. CONCLUSION: Extractive industries bear considerable risks to widen existing health gaps. In order to create equal opportunities among affected populations, the wider determinants of health must be considered more explicitly in the licensing process of resource extraction projects.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Mineração , Burkina Faso , Humanos , Moçambique , Tanzânia
3.
Health Policy Plan ; 36(10): 1574-1592, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788442

RESUMO

There is consensus that policy coherence is necessary for implementing effective and sustainable approaches to tackle malnutrition. We look at whether policies and programmes provide a coherent pathway to address nutrition priorities and if programmes are designed to deliver interventions aligned to the nutrition policy agenda in Nigeria and Burkina Faso. A systematic desk review was performed on nutrition-relevant policy and programme documents, obtained through grey literature searches and expert recommendations. We developed a framework with an impact pathway structure that includes five process steps, which was used to guide coding, data reduction and synthesis and structure the analysis. We assessed internal coherence along process steps within a given document and external coherence across process steps for explicitly linked policy/programme pairs. The majority of policies and programmes had partial internal coherence for both countries. The identification of relevant nutrition interventions to address challenges and reach objectives was the strongest connection within policies (16 out of 45 had complete coherence), while among programmes, the strongest connection was coverage indicators that measure interventions (9 out of 21 had complete coherence). Eight programmes explicitly referenced at least one nutrition-relevant policy, with a total of 16 linked policy/programme pairs (13 pairs for Burkina Faso and 3 for Nigeria) across health, nutrition, agriculture and social focus areas. However, none of the linked pairs were assessed to have complete external coherence, suggesting that priorities at the policy level are not fully realized nor translated at the programme level. This study offers a new approach for the assessment of policy and programme coherence and specifically examines policy and programme linkages. We conclude that improved leadership on country priority setting and better alignment for nutrition within and across sectors is needed to enhance the effectiveness of nutrition investments.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Estado Nutricional , Burkina Faso , Humanos , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Nigéria , Política Nutricional
4.
Ann Parasitol ; 67(2): 321-328, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598404

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies of vaginalis trichomonosis, especially in pregnant women are rare in Africa due to the lack of screening programs. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of T. vaginalis infection and its associated factors in pregnant women who attended the antenatal care clinics in three primary health centers of Bobo-Dioulasso. We carried out a cross-sectional study for descriptive and analytical purposes from February to April 2015 in pregnant women seen in prenatal consultations. The study took place in 3 primary public health centers: Guimbi (Central Urban), Bolomakoté (Peri-urban) and Yéguérésso (rural). The trophozoites of Trichomonas vaginalis was carried out by microscopy on vaginal swabs and urine samples. Sociodemographic, obstetric and biological variables were also collected. A total of 315 pregnant women were included in the study. The overall prevalence of urogenital trichomonosis was 3.2%. It was 1.9% in Guimbi, 2.9% in Bolomakoté, and 4.7% in Yéguérésso. The prevalence of HIV infection was 2.2%. Married women were less exposed to T. vaginalis infection than single women (p=0.03). The prevalence of urogenital trichomonosis obtained was considered lower compared to the previously reported from Burkina Faso. Thus, it is essential to extend this study to the whole country periodically by integrating other STIs not subject to a surveillance system and by integrating molecular epidemiology tools.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Trichomonas vaginalis , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes , Prevalência
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 216, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630828

RESUMO

Introduction: in Burkina Faso, despite the strategies implemented to increase the use of contraceptives, the prevalence rate of modern contraceptives remains low. Religion is an important part of the socio-cultural fabric of many communities. Besides, religious leaders play an essential role in adopting and using contraceptive methods to support family health. The study objective was to explore the knowledge, beliefs and perceptions of religious leaders about modern contraceptives among women of childbearing age. Methods: data were collected in September 2018 from twenty-one religious' leaders of the urban municipality of Dori. Study participants were selected based on reasoned sampling with maximum variation (sex, religion, age, residence and level of education). We conducted semi-structured individual interviews, non-participant observations and documentary review. Results: religious leaders have a good knowledge of modern contraceptive methods, but they prefer traditional contraceptive methods and abstinence. They consider modern contraception as abortion and female sterilization and emphasize birth spacing. Furthermore, religious leaders lack training on contraception and have no real links and exchanges with sexual and reproductive health services. As a result, their assessment of the quality of these services is very mixed. Conclusion: religious leaders play a crucial role in improving modern contraceptive methods in Burkina Faso. Close collaboration with family planning services should, at all times, be maintained. The implementation of training and educational activities for religious leaders could help raise modern contraceptive use in Burkina Faso.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Religião , Adulto , Idoso , Burkina Faso , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Liderança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 693281, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616704

RESUMO

Background: Climate change and consequent increases in rainfall variability may have negative consequences for the food production of subsistence farmers in West Africa with adverse impacts on nutrition and health. We explored the pathway from rainfall through diet up to child undernutrition for rural Burkina Faso. Methods: The study used data of a dynamic cohort with 1,439 children aged 7-60 months from the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) for 2017 to 2019. We assessed data on diets, height, weight, household characteristics, and daily precipitation (from 1981 to 2019). Principal component analysis was used to identify distinct child dietary patterns (Dietary Pattern Scores, DPS). These were related to 15 rainfall indicators by area to obtain a precipitation variability score (PVS) through reduced rank regression (RRR). Associations between the PVS and anthropometric measures, height-for-age (HAZ), and weight-for-height (WHZ), were examined using multi-level regression analysis. Results: Stunting (HAZ < -2) and wasting (WHZ < -2) were seen in 24 and 6% of the children. Three main dietary patterns were identified (market-based, vegetable-based, and legume-based diets) and showed mixed evidence for associations with child undernutrition. The RRR-derived PVS explained 14% of the total variance in these DPS. The PVS was characterized by more consecutive dry days during the rainy season, higher cumulative rainfall in July and more extremely wet days. A 1-point increase in the PVS was associated with a reduction of 0.029 (95% CI: -0.06, 0.00, p < 0.05) in HAZ in the unadjusted, and an increase by 0.032 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.06, p < 0.05) in WHZ in the fully adjusted model. Conclusion: Rainfall variability was associated with dietary patterns in young children of a rural population of Burkina Faso. Increased rainfall variability was associated with an increase in chronic undernutrition, but not in acute undernutrition among young children.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , População Rural , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Humanos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e048230, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475164

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The period following childbirth poses physiological, physical, social and psychological challenges to women that may affect their quality of life. Few studies in Africa have explored women's health-related quality of life (HrQoL) and its determinants in postpartum populations, including the quality of women's relationships with their male partners. We investigated whether relationship satisfaction was associated with better HrQoL among postpartum women in Burkina Faso, 8 months after childbirth. METHODS: We analysed data from 547 women from the control arm of a randomised controlled trial in Burkina Faso. The study outcome was a woman's HrQoL, assessed using the cross-culturally validated WHOQOL-BREF tool, with response categories adapted for Burkina Faso. The exposure was relationship satisfaction measured using questions adapted from the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and Marital Assessment Test tools. We calculated the median HrQOL scores for the study sample, overall and for each domain of HrQOL (physical, psychological, social and environmental). The association between relationship satisfaction and HrQoL was examined using multiple linear regression models with robust SEs. RESULTS: Postpartum women had high median HrQoL scores in the physical (88.1), psychological (93.1), social (86.1) and environmental (74.0) domains and overall HrQoL (84.0). We found that higher relationship satisfaction is associated with increased HrQoL. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found that for each point increase in relationship satisfaction score, the increase in HrQoL was 0.39 (p<0.001) for the overall HrQoL; 0.32 (p=0.013) for the physical domain; 0.25 (p=0.037) for the psychological domain; 0.46 (p<0.001) for the social domain and 0.49 (p<0.001) for the environmental domain. CONCLUSION: Higher relationship satisfaction is associated with higher HrQoL scores. Policies should aim to support women to cope with the challenges of childbirth and childcare in the postpartum period to improve postpartum women's HrQoL.


Assuntos
Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade de Vida , Burkina Faso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 896, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The world has high hopes of vaccination against COVID-19 to protect the population, boost economies and return to normal life. Vaccination programmes are being rolled out in high income countries, but the pandemic continues to progress in many low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) despite implementation of strict hygiene measures. We aim to present a comprehensive research protocol that will generate epidemiological, sociological and anthropological data about the COVID-19 epidemic in Burkina Faso, a landlocked country in West Africa with scarce resources. METHODS: We will perform a multidisciplinary research using mixed methods in the two main cities in Burkina Faso (Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso). Data will be collected in the general population and in COVID-19 patients, caregivers and health care professionals in reference care centers: (i) to determine cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Burkinabe population using blood samples collected from randomly selected households according to the WHO-recommended protocol; (ii) develop a score to predict severe complications of COVID-19 in persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 using retrospective and prospective data; (iii) perform semi-structured interviews and direct observation on site, to describe and analyze the healthcare pathways and experiences of patients with COVID-19 attending reference care centers, and to identify the perceptions, acceptability and application of preventive strategies among the population. DISCUSSION: This study will generate comprehensive data that will contribute to improving COVID-19 response strategies in Burkina Faso. The lessons learned from the management of this epidemic may serve as examples to the country authorities to better design preventive strategies in the case of future epidemics or pandemics. The protocol was approved by the Ministry for Health (N° 2020-00952/MS/CAB/INSP/CM) and the Health Research Ethics Committee in Burkina Faso (N° 2020-8-140).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39(Suppl 1): 5, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548897

RESUMO

Introduction: acute intestinal intussusception is a life-threatening surgical condition. In some settings, rotavirus vaccines have been associated with a low-level increased risk of intussusception. We describe the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and management of intussusception in a tertiary referral hospital in Burkina Faso prior to the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in October 2013. Methods: we retrospectively reviewed medical records of all children under 5 years of age treated at the Charles de Gaulle Pediatric Hospital for intussusception meeting the Brighton level 1 diagnostic criteria, from October 31st, 2008 to October 30th, 2013. We report the incidence of intussusception as well as descriptive characteristics of these cases. Results: a total of 107 Brighton level 1 intussusception cases were identified, representing a hospital incidence of 21.4 cases / year. There were 69 males and 38 females (sex ratio of 1.8), with a median age of 8 months (range 2 months to 4 years). Sixty-two percent of intussusception cases occurred among infants (n = 67 cases). The average time from symptom onset to seeking medical consultation was 3.8 days +/- 2.7 (range 0 to 14 days). Treatment was mainly surgical (105 patients, 98.1%) with 35 patients (32.7%) undergoing intestinal resection. Thirty-seven patients (35.5%) experienced post-operative complications. The mortality rate was 9.3%. Intestinal resection was a risk factor for death from intussusception. Conclusion: in this review of intussusception hospitalizations prior to rotavirus vaccine introduction in Burkina Faso, delays in seeking care were common and were associated with mortality.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Intussuscepção/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Intussuscepção/mortalidade , Intussuscepção/terapia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Tempo para o Tratamento
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 118, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512854

RESUMO

Introduction: from a genetic point of view P. falciparumis extremely polymorphic. There is a variety of parasite strains infesting individuals living in malaria endemic areas. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum parasites and Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 gene mutations in Nanoro area, Burkina Faso. Methods: blood samples from plasmodium carriers residing in the Nanoro Health District were genotyped using nested PCR. Parasite gene mutations associated with resistance to antimalarial drugs were detected by PCR-RFLP. Results: samples of 672 patients were successfully genotyped. No msp1and msp2allelic families exhibited an increase in developing mutations in resistance genes. However, mutant strains of these genes were present at greater levels in monoclonal infections than in multi-clonal infections. Conclusion: this study provides an overview of the relationship between polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum parasites and mutations in resistance genes. These data will undoubtedly contribute to improving knowledge of the parasite´s biology and its mechanisms of resistance to antimalarial drugs.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Burkina Faso , Resistência a Medicamentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Mutação , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo Genético , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
11.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257170, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591893

RESUMO

As the epidemiological transition progresses throughout sub-Saharan Africa, life lived with diseases is an increasingly important part of a population's burden of disease. The burden of disease of climate-sensitive health outcomes is projected to increase considerably within the next decades. Objectively measured, reliable population health data is still limited and is primarily based on perceived illness from recall. Technological advances like non-invasive, consumer-grade wearable devices may play a vital role in alleviating this data gap and in obtaining insights on the disease burden in vulnerable populations, such as heat stress on human cardiovascular response. The overall goal of this study is to investigate whether consumer-grade wearable devices are an acceptable, feasible and valid means to generate data on the individual level in low-resource contexts. Three hundred individuals are recruited from the two study locations in the Nouna health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS), Burkina Faso, and the Siaya HDSS, Kenya. Participants complete a structured questionnaire that comprises question items on acceptability and feasibility under the supervision of trained data collectors. Validity will be evaluated by comparing consumer-grade wearable devices to research-grade devices. Furthermore, we will collect demographic data as well as the data generated by wearable devices. This study will provide insights into the usage of consumer-grade wearable devices to measure individual vital signs in low-resource contexts, such as Burkina Faso and Kenya. Vital signs comprising activity (steps), sleep (duration, quality) and heart rate (hr) are important measures to gain insights on individual behavior and activity patterns in low-resource contexts. These vital signs may be associated with weather variables-as we gather them from weather stations that we have setup as part of this study to cover the whole Nouna and Siaya HDSSs-in order to explore changes in behavior and other variables, such as activity, sleep, hr, during extreme weather events like heat stress exposure. Furthermore, wearable data could be linked to health outcomes and weather events. As a result, consumer-grade wearables may serve as a supporting technology for generating reliable measurements in low-resource contexts and investigating key links between weather occurrences and health outcomes. Thus, wearable devices may provide insights to better inform mitigation and adaptation interventions in these low-resource settings that are direly faced by climate change-induced changes, such as extreme weather events.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Recursos em Saúde , Saúde , Pesquisa , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adolescente , Adulto , Burkina Faso , Criança , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Malar J ; 20(1): 362, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy remains a public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Identifying risk factors for malaria in pregnancy could assist in developing interventions to reduce the risk of malaria in Burkina Faso and other countries in the region. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out to measure Plasmodium falciparum infection using microscopy in pregnant women in Saponé Health District, central Burkina Faso. Data were collected on individual, household and environmental variables and their association with P. falciparum infection assessed using multivariable analysis. RESULTS: A total of 356 pregnant women were enrolled in the surveys, 174 during the dry season and 182 during the wet season. The mean number of doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy (IPTp-SP) was 0.4 doses during the first trimester, 1.1 doses at the second and 2.3 doses at the third. Overall prevalence of P. falciparum infection by microscopy was 15.7%; 17.8% in the dry season and 13.7% in the wet season. 88.2% of pregnant women reported sleeping under an insecticide-treated net (ITN) on the previous night. The odds of P. falciparum infection was 65% lower in women who reported using an ITN compared to those that did not use an ITN (Odds ratio, OR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.14-0.86, p = 0.02). IPTp-SP was also associated with reduced P. falciparum infection, with each additional dose of IPTp-SP reducing the odds of infection by 44% (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.39-0.79, p = 0.001). Literate women had a 2.54 times higher odds of P. falciparum infection compared to illiterate women (95% CI 1.31-4.91, p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of P. falciparum infection among pregnant women remains high in Burkina Faso, although use of IPTp-SP and ITNs were found to reduce the odds of infection. Despite this, compliance with IPTp-SP remains far from that recommended by the National Malaria Control Programme and World Health Organization. Behaviour change communication should be strengthened to encourage compliance with protective malaria control tools during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gestantes , Pirimetamina/administração & dosagem , Sulfadoxina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/parasitologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1979279, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586046

RESUMO

The Government of Burkina Faso committed to the multi-sector approach on nutrition in 2014 and has conducted the development of a Multi-Sector Nutrition Plan 2020-2024. This study aims to understand and analyse the Nutrition organizational capacities at the municipal level to support the scaling up of interventions within the National Multi-Sector Nutrition Plan. A qualitative study was conducted at the end of 2017, based on the framework for nutrition capacity developed by the United Nations Network Secretariat in collaboration with five funding agencies, to assess the organizational capacity dimension. Data collection consisted of focus groups and information collection through workshops with key informants. In total, 22 rural municipalities were targeted and 152 key informants were involved, including mayors, municipal councillors, members of the village development committee, and local technical agents in charge of agriculture, livestock and health. The gaps identified were poor integration of nutrition into local development strategic plans, less evolved coordination on nutrition, weak development of nutrition community approaches and dependence on the state budget matched to a non-existent budget monitoring system. The findings showed an unequal distribution and limited number of technical agents to cover villages within a given municipality, inadequate skills to support services expansions such as water and sanitation, health, agriculture and livestock. In addition, no reference was made to monitoring and evaluation, accountability or sharing information. The main capacity needs on nutrition are the transfer of technical competencies from the regional to the municipal level, the strengthening of technical skills on nutrition, and the setting up of an integrated data collection system involving key players. The identification of needs and opportunities and the newly finalized guide on nutrition integration into local development plans and strategies are useful to drive change for multisectoral implementation.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional , Estado Nutricional , Burkina Faso , Cidades , Governo , Humanos
14.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1764, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents are considered at high risk of developing iron deficiency. Studies in children indicate that the prevalence of iron deficiency increased with malaria transmission, suggesting malaria seasonally may drive iron deficiency. This paper examines monthly seasonal infection patterns of malaria, abnormal vaginal flora, chorioamnionitis, antibiotic and antimalarial prescriptions, in relation to changes in iron biomarkers and nutritional indices in adolescents living in a rural area of Burkina Faso, in order to assess the requirement for seasonal infection control and nutrition interventions. METHODS: Data collected between April 2011 and January 2014 were available for an observational seasonal analysis, comprising scheduled visits for 1949 non-pregnant adolescents (≤19 years), (315 of whom subsequently became pregnant), enrolled in a randomised trial of periconceptional iron supplementation. Data from trial arms were combined. Body Iron Stores (BIS) were calculated using an internal regression for ferritin to allow for inflammation. At recruitment 11% had low BIS (< 0 mg/kg). Continuous outcomes were fitted to a mixed-effects linear model with month, age and pregnancy status as fixed effect covariates and woman as a random effect. Dichotomous infection outcomes were fitted with analogous logistic regression models. RESULTS: Seasonal variation in malaria parasitaemia prevalence ranged between 18 and 70% in non-pregnant adolescents (P < 0.001), peaking at 81% in those who became pregnant. Seasonal variation occurred in antibiotic prescription rates (0.7-1.8 prescriptions/100 weekly visits, P < 0.001) and chorioamnionitis prevalence (range 15-68%, P = 0.026). Mucosal vaginal lactoferrin concentration was lower at the end of the wet season (range 2-22 µg/ml, P < 0.016), when chorioamnionitis was least frequent. BIS fluctuated annually by up to 53.2% per year around the mean BIS (5.1 mg/kg2, range 4.1-6.8 mg/kg), with low BIS (< 0 mg/kg) of 8.7% in the dry and 9.8% in the wet seasons (P = 0.36). Median serum transferrin receptor increased during the wet season (P < 0.001). Higher hepcidin concentration in the wet season corresponded with rising malaria prevalence and use of prescriptions, but with no change in BIS. Mean Body Mass Index and Mid-Upper-Arm-Circumference values peaked mid-dry season (both P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis supports preventive treatment of malaria among adolescents 15-19 years to decrease their disease burden, especially asymptomatic malaria. As BIS were adequate in most adolescents despite seasonal malaria, a requirement for programmatic iron supplementation was not substantiated.


Assuntos
Ferro , Malária , Adolescente , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estações do Ano , Vagina
15.
Vaccine ; 39(43): 6370-6377, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In March 2017, Burkina Faso introduced meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (MACV) into the Expanded Programme on Immunization. MACV is administered to children aged 15-18 months, concomitantly with the second dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2). One year after MACV introduction, we assessed the sources and content of immunization information available to caregivers and explored motivations and barriers that influence their decision to seek MACV for their children. METHODS: Twenty-four focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with caregivers of children eligible for MACV and MCV2. Data collection occurred in February-March 2018 in four purposively selected districts, each from a separate geographic region; within each district, caregivers were stratified into groups based on whether their children were unvaccinated or vaccinated with MACV. FGDs were recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: We identified many different sources and content of information about MACV and MCV2 available to caregivers. Healthcare workers were most commonly cited as the main sources of information; caregivers also received information from other caregivers in the community. Caregivers' motivations to seek MACV for their children were driven by personal awareness, engagements with trusted messengers, and perceived protective benefits of MACV against meningitis. Barriers to MACV and MCV2 uptake were linked to the unavailability of vaccines, immunization personnel not providing doses, knowledge gaps about the 15-18 month visit, practical constraints, past negative experiences, sociocultural influences, and misinformation, including misunderstanding about the need for MCV2. CONCLUSIONS: MACV and MCV2 uptake may be enhanced by addressing vaccination barriers and effectively communicating vaccination information and benefits through trusted messengers such as healthcare workers and other caregivers in the community. Educating healthcare workers to avoid withholding vaccines, likely due to fear of wastage, may help reduce missed opportunities for vaccination.


Assuntos
Meningite Meningocócica , Vacinas Meningocócicas , Burkina Faso , Cuidadores , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Meningite Meningocócica/prevenção & controle , Motivação , Sorogrupo , Vacinação , Vacinas Conjugadas
16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1498, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Burkina Faso, gender inequality prevents women from meeting their reproductive needs, leading to high rates of unintended pregnancies, abortions and deaths. Evidence shows that empowering women may increase the proportion of demand for family planning satisfied using modern methods (mDFPS), but few studies have measured this process in multiple spheres of life. We investigated how empowerment influences the mDFPS among married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in Burkina Faso. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2010 Burkina Faso Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) on 4714 MWRA with reproductive needs living in 573 communities. We used principal component analysis (PCA) and Cronbach's alpha test to explore and assess specific and consistently relevant components of women's agency in marital relationships. Aggregated measures at the cluster level were used to assess gender norms and relationships in communities. Descriptive statistics were performed and multilevel logistic regression models were carried out to concurrently gauge the effects of women's agency and community-level of gender equality on mDFPS, controlling for socioeconomic factors. RESULTS: Overall, less than one-third (30.8%) of the demand for family planning among MWRA were satisfied with modern methods. Participation in household decision-making, freedom in accessing healthcare, and opposition to domestic violence were underlying components of women's agency in marital relationships. In the full model adjusted for socioeconomic status, freedom in accessing healthcare was significantly (aOR 1.27, CI 1.06-1.51) associated with mDFPS. For community-level variables, women's greater access to assets (aOR 1.72, 95% CI 1.13-2.61) and family planning messages (aOR 2.68, 95% CI 1.64-4.36) increased mDFPS, while higher fertility expectations (aOR 0.75, 95% CI 0.64-0.87) reduced it. Unexpectedly, women in communities with higher rates of female genital mutilation were more likely (aOR 2.46, 95% CI 1.52-3.99) to have mDFPS. CONCLUSIONS: Empowering women has the potential to reduce gender inequality, raise women's agency and increase mDFPS. This influence may occur through both balanced marital relationships and fair community gender norms and relationships. Progress toward universal access to reproductive services should integrate the promotion of women's rights. TRIAL REGISTRATION: No clinical trial has been performed in this study.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção , Casamento , Burkina Faso , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Análise Multinível , Gravidez
17.
N Engl J Med ; 385(11): 1005-1017, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria control remains a challenge in many parts of the Sahel and sub-Sahel regions of Africa. METHODS: We conducted an individually randomized, controlled trial to assess whether seasonal vaccination with RTS,S/AS01E was noninferior to chemoprevention in preventing uncomplicated malaria and whether the two interventions combined were superior to either one alone in preventing uncomplicated malaria and severe malaria-related outcomes. RESULTS: We randomly assigned 6861 children 5 to 17 months of age to receive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine (2287 children [chemoprevention-alone group]), RTS,S/AS01E (2288 children [vaccine-alone group]), or chemoprevention and RTS,S/AS01E (2286 children [combination group]). Of these, 1965, 1988, and 1967 children in the three groups, respectively, received the first dose of the assigned intervention and were followed for 3 years. Febrile seizure developed in 5 children the day after receipt of the vaccine, but the children recovered and had no sequelae. There were 305 events of uncomplicated clinical malaria per 1000 person-years at risk in the chemoprevention-alone group, 278 events per 1000 person-years in the vaccine-alone group, and 113 events per 1000 person-years in the combination group. The hazard ratio for the protective efficacy of RTS,S/AS01E as compared with chemoprevention was 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 1.01), which excluded the prespecified noninferiority margin of 1.20. The protective efficacy of the combination as compared with chemoprevention alone was 62.8% (95% CI, 58.4 to 66.8) against clinical malaria, 70.5% (95% CI, 41.9 to 85.0) against hospital admission with severe malaria according to the World Health Organization definition, and 72.9% (95% CI, 2.9 to 92.4) against death from malaria. The protective efficacy of the combination as compared with the vaccine alone against these outcomes was 59.6% (95% CI, 54.7 to 64.0), 70.6% (95% CI, 42.3 to 85.0), and 75.3% (95% CI, 12.5 to 93.0), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of RTS,S/AS01E was noninferior to chemoprevention in preventing uncomplicated malaria. The combination of these interventions resulted in a substantially lower incidence of uncomplicated malaria, severe malaria, and death from malaria than either intervention alone. (Funded by the Joint Global Health Trials and PATH; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03143218.).


Assuntos
Amodiaquina/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Antimaláricas , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Pirimetamina/uso terapêutico , Sulfadoxina/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Quimioprevenção , Terapia Combinada , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Vacinas Antimaláricas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Antimaláricas/efeitos adversos , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/mortalidade , Masculino , Mali/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Convulsões Febris/etiologia
18.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 198, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the delivery of immunisation services globally. Many countries have postponed vaccination campaigns out of concern about infection risks to the staff delivering vaccination, the children being vaccinated, and their families. The World Health Organization recommends considering both the benefit of preventive campaigns and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when making decisions about campaigns during COVID-19 outbreaks, but there has been little quantification of the risks. METHODS: We modelled excess SARS-CoV-2 infection risk to vaccinators, vaccinees, and their caregivers resulting from vaccination campaigns delivered during a COVID-19 epidemic. Our model used population age structure and contact patterns from three exemplar countries (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Brazil). It combined an existing compartmental transmission model of an underlying COVID-19 epidemic with a Reed-Frost model of SARS-CoV-2 infection risk to vaccinators and vaccinees. We explored how excess risk depends on key parameters governing SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility, and aspects of campaign delivery such as campaign duration, number of vaccinations, and effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) and symptomatic screening. RESULTS: Infection risks differ considerably depending on the circumstances in which vaccination campaigns are conducted. A campaign conducted at the peak of a SARS-CoV-2 epidemic with high prevalence and without special infection mitigation measures could increase absolute infection risk by 32 to 45% for vaccinators and 0.3 to 0.5% for vaccinees and caregivers. However, these risks could be reduced to 3.6 to 5.3% and 0.1 to 0.2% respectively by use of PPE that reduces transmission by 90% (as might be achieved with N95 respirators or high-quality surgical masks) and symptomatic screening. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection risks to vaccinators, vaccinees, and caregivers during vaccination campaigns can be greatly reduced by adequate PPE, symptomatic screening, and appropriate campaign timing. Our results support the use of adequate risk mitigation measures for vaccination campaigns held during SARS-CoV-2 epidemics, rather than cancelling them entirely.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação , Brasil , Burkina Faso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(3): 627-629, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339384

RESUMO

Environmental Mycobacterium ulcerans causes a disabling skin disease called Buruli ulcer. Recent studies completed the knowledge of the evolving geographic extension and epidemiology of Buruli ulcer in West Africa, where Côte d'Ivoire is reporting the highest number of cases. We report seven polymerase chain reaction-documented patients in Burkina Faso, a neighboring country of Côte d'Ivoire, where previously Buruli ulcer cases were confirmed primarily using clinical arguments.


Assuntos
Úlcera de Buruli/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium ulcerans/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Úlcera de Buruli/epidemiologia , Úlcera de Buruli/transmissão , Costa do Marfim , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Patologia Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
20.
AIDS ; 35(13): 2201-2210, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the time from HIV diagnosis to ART initiation and the effect of rapid ART initiation (i.e. within 7 days of HIV diagnosis) on attrition and virologic and immunologic responses among MSM in Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, and Togo. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study between 2015 and 2019. METHODS: MSM aged 18 years or older newly diagnosed with HIV infection were eligible to participate. ART was proposed to participants upon HIV diagnosis, irrespective of clinical stage and CD4+ cell count, and was initiated as soon as possible, with no specific time frame. Determinants of rapid ART initiation and its effect on treatment outcomes were assessed using multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Of 350 MSM, 335 (95.7%) initiated ART after a median time of 5 days. Of the latter, 216 (64.5%) had rapid ART initiation. The 335 participants were followed up for a median time of 24.1 months. One hundred and eleven (33.1%) were not retained in care. Rapid ART initiation was less likely in participants with a CD4+ cell count at least 200 cells/µl [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15-0.88]. It improved viral load suppression (aOR 6.96, 95% CI 1.98-24.46) but had no effect on attrition (aOR 0.87, 95% CI 0.57-1.33) or CD4+ cell count increase (adjusted coefficient 28.23, 95% CI -17.00 to 73.45). CONCLUSION: These results in MSM in West Africa support the WHO recommendation for rapid ART initiation. Clinics need to develop context-specific strategies for rapid ART initiation and for retaining MSM in HIV care.ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02626286.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
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