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1.
Ambio ; 51(1): 183-198, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782853

RESUMO

Opportunistic reporting of species observations to online platforms provide one of the most extensive sources of information about the distribution and status of organisms in the wild. The lack of a clear sampling design, and changes in reporting over time, leads to challenges when analysing these data for temporal change in organisms. To better understand temporal changes in reporting, we use records submitted to an online platform in Sweden (Artportalen), currently containing 80 million records. Focussing on five taxonomic groups, fungi, plants, beetles, butterflies and birds, we decompose change in reporting into long-term and seasonal trends, and effects of weekdays, holidays and weather variables. The large surge in number of records since the launch of the, initially taxa-specific, portals is accompanied by non-trivial long-term and seasonal changes that differ between the taxonomic groups and are likely due to changes in, and differences between, the user communities and observer behaviour.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Ciência do Cidadão , Animais , Aves , Plantas , Suécia
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7248, 2021 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903755

RESUMO

The coexistence of closely-related species in sympatry is puzzling because ecological niche proximity imposes strong competition and reproductive interference. A striking example is the widespread wing pattern convergence of several blue-banded Morpho butterfly species with overlapping ranges of distribution. Here we perform a series of field experiments using flying Morpho dummies placed in a natural habitat. We show that similarity in wing colour pattern indeed leads to interspecific territoriality and courtship among sympatric species. In spite of such behavioural interference, demographic inference from genomic data shows that sympatric closely-related Morpho species are genetically isolated. Mark-recapture experiments in the two most closely-related species unravel a strong temporal segregation in patrolling activity of males. Such divergence in phenology reduces the costs of reproductive interference while simultaneously preserving the benefits of convergence in non-reproductive traits in response to common ecological pressures. Henceforth, the evolution of multiple traits may favour species diversification in sympatry by partitioning niche in different dimensions.


Assuntos
Borboletas/genética , Especiação Genética , Simpatria , Animais , Mimetismo Biológico , Borboletas/classificação , Corte , Ecossistema , Masculino , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Territorialidade , Asas de Animais
3.
Zootaxa ; 5004(4): 501-520, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811292

RESUMO

A new species, Pieris tadokoroi, sp. nov. is described from Himachal Pradesh, India. The new species is closely similar to those of the Pieris napi group and can be diagnosed by its smaller size and a broad apical forewing patch. Based on the recently collected material, the Pieris napi group from India is reviewed. The male and female genitalia are analyzed and illustrated, including the first description of the female genitalia of Pieris extensa bhutya Talbot, 1939. Androconia of all the related species are studied and described.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Animais , Feminino , Genitália , Índia , Masculino
4.
Zootaxa ; 4999(2): 157-168, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810496

RESUMO

A new, and only the third known species of the Neotropical montane genus Oressinoma Doubleday is describedO. sorina n. sp., from the Andes of central Peru. It is distinguishable immediately from the other two congeners by the shape of the hindwing underside submarginal orange band, and by the male genitalia. The systematics of Oressinoma are reviewed. A preliminary analysis is carried out based on COI barcode confirming the separate specific status of O. sorina n. sp. in relation to other two congeners. Both barcode and genital morphology data suggest that the widespread O. typhla Doubleday may be a complex of allopatric or, locally parapatric species. The genus Oressinoma is the only neotropical member of the predominantly Australian subtribe Coenonymphina, represented in the entire Holarctic by one genus onlyCoenonympha Hbner, considered as the putative sister-genus of Oressinoma. Their origins and relationships are briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Lepidópteros , Animais , Genitália Masculina , Masculino , Peru
5.
Zootaxa ; 5061(2): 249-270, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810628

RESUMO

Memphis Hbner, [1819] is a nymphalid butterfly genus exclusive to the Neotropics. It includes species with iridescent bluish or greenish coloration on the upper side of the wings while the underside is cryptic, resembling dead leaves. This paper aims to describe a remarkable new species, M. smalli Riley Dias sp. nov., from the remote Atlantic slopes of Panama based on molecular and morphological analyses. We also review the taxonomy of species herein included in the arginussa species group based on distances analyses of DNA sequence data. The arginussa species group, as defined here, includes M. arginussa (Geyer, 1832), M. eubaena (Boisduval, 1870) stat. rest., M. onophis (Felder Felder, 1861) stat. rest., M. lemons (Druce, 1877), M. neidhoeferi (Rotger, Escalante Coronado, 1965), M. perenna (Godman Salvin, [1884]), M. lankesteri (Hall, 1935) stat. rest., M. paulus Costa Orellana, 2014, M. pithyusa (Felder, 1869), M. herbacea (Butler Druce, 1872) and M. smalli sp. nov. Anaea pithyusa morena Hall, 1935 syn. nov. is recognized as a synonym of Nymphalis pithyusa Felder, 1869. The new species and its closest ally, M. herbacea, are illustrated, including characters of the head, labial palpus, wings, legs, male and female genitalia and their distribution map.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Lepidópteros , Animais , Borboletas/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Panamá , Asas de Animais
6.
Zootaxa ; 5061(1): 95-114, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810639

RESUMO

A new satyrine butterfly species, Splendeuptychia tupinamba Freitas, Huertas Rosa, sp. nov. (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae), is described. This species is found throughout a large geographical range in Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, predominantly in the Cerrado domain, with some records in neighboring Amazonia and Atlantic Forest. Morphology and molecular data indicate that this species is part of a clade that includes Splendeuptychia ashna (the type species of the genus Splendeuptychia), and several species placed in the recently described genus Nubila Viloria, Andrade Henao, 2019.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Florestas
7.
Zootaxa ; 5067(2): 151-186, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810751

RESUMO

Based on comparative morphology of adults, a phylogeny is proposed for the butterfly tribe Amathusiini (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae). The dataset includes 92 characters scored for 45 species in 12 genera, representing the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis for this group. Parsimony analyses produced a well-resolved strict consensus tree where genera were divided in three main groups: (clade 1) Stichophthalma; (clade 2) Aemona, Faunis, Melanocyma and Taenaris; (clade 3) Enispe, Discophora, Thaumantis, Thauria, Amathusia, Amathuxidia, and Zeuxidia. While genera in clades 1 and 2 were found to be morphologically homogeneous, clade 3 showed remarkable morphological divergence between and within genera. The monophyly of most genera was recovered with variable levels of support, but Melanocyma and Taenaris nested within Faunis. Therefore, here Melanocyma NEW SYN. is subsumed within Faunis, and Taenaris STAT. REV. is regarded as a subgenus of Faunis. Mimicry likely evolved a single time within the Faunis-Taenaris assemblage, as species of Taenaris formed a monophyletic group. Results are compared to early classifications and recent DNA-based analyses, and points of agreement and conflicts are discussed.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Borboletas/genética , Filogenia
8.
Zootaxa ; 5048(4): 486-510, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810788

RESUMO

A new species and eight new subspecies of Papilionoidea discovered in Vietnam between 2002 and 2020 are described and illustrated. The status of two taxa are revised. New taxa include Pieridae: Delias sanaca bidoupa Monastyrskii Vu subspec. nov. and Talbotia naganum aurelia Monastyrskii Vu subspec. nov.; Nymphalidae: Abrota ganga pulcheria Monastyrskii Vu, subspec. nov.; Bassarona recta consonensis Monastyrskii Vu, subspec. nov.; Pantoporia bieti aurantina Monastyrskii To subspec. nov.; Ragadia latifasciata cristata Monastyrskii Vu, subspec. nov.; Ragadia latifasciata crystallina Monastyrskii Vu, subspec. nov.; Faunis indistincta luctus Monastyrskii Vu subspec. nov. Aemona gialaica Monastyrskii, K. Saito Vu, spec. nov. The taxon infuscata Devyatkin Monastyrskii, previously described as the subspecies Aemona tonkinensis infuscata, was elevated to the species level, while the taxon critias (Ragadia critias Riley Godfrey) was reduced to a subspecies. Three Satyrinae species were recorded from Vietnam for the first time: Palaeonympha opalina Butler, 1871; Ypthima motschulskyi Bremer Grey, 1853; and Ragadia latifasciata Leech, 1891.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Sanguessugas , Cifozoários , Animais , Vietnã
9.
Zootaxa ; 5023(4): 555-570, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810948

RESUMO

A new species of Taydebis Freitas, 2003 from south Brazil is described using comparative morphology and species distributions. Also, based on morphology, we transfer Neonympha melobosis Capronnier, 1874 (formerly placed in Paryphthimoides Forster, 1964) to Taydebis, and recognize Euptychia peculiaris Butler, 1874 as its junior synonym (syn. nov.). Furthermore, the monotypic Prenda Freitas Mielke, 2011 is herein treated as junior synonym of Taydebis based on morphology, molecular and ecological evidence. Species of Taydebis are endemic and restricted to south Brazil, and now comprises three species: Taydebis guria Zacca, Casagrande Mielke sp. nov., T. melobosis comb. nov. and T. clarissa Freitas Mielke comb. nov. To continue clarifying Euptychiina taxonomy, Euptychia undulata Butler, 1867 (also formerly placed in Paryphthimoides) is transferred to Hermeuptychia Forster, 1964, and we provide additional information on its taxonomy, morphology, and distribution. Diagnoses, illustrations, and distributional maps are provided for all taxa except T. clarissa comb. nov.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Lepidópteros , Animais , Brasil
10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257889, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644319

RESUMO

Despite increasing concern regarding broad-scale declines in insects, there are few published long-term, systematic butterfly surveys in North America, and fewer still that have incorporated the influence of changing climate and landscape variables. In this study, we analyzed 20 years of citizen science data at seven consistently monitored protected areas in Illinois, U.S.A. We used mixed models and PERMANOVA to evaluate trends in butterfly abundance, richness, and composition while also evaluating the effects of temperature and land use. Overall butterfly richness, but not abundance, increased in warmer years. Surprisingly, richness also was positively related to percent impervious surface (at the 2 km radius scale), highlighting the conservation value of protected areas in urban landscapes (or alternately, the potential negative aspects of agriculture). Precipitation had a significant and variable influence through time on overall butterfly abundance and abundance of resident species, larval host plant specialists, and univoltine species. Importantly, models incorporating the influence of changing temperature, precipitation, and impervious surface indicated a significant overall decline in both butterfly abundance and species richness, with an estimated abundance decrease of 3.8%/year and richness decrease of 1.6%/year (52.5% and 27.1% cumulatively from 1999 to 2018). Abundance and richness declines were also noted across all investigated functional groups except non-resident (migratory) species. Butterfly community composition changed through time, but we did not find evidence of systematic biotic homogenization, perhaps because declines were occurring in nearly all functional groups. Finally, at the site-level, declines in either richness or abundance occurred at five of seven locations, with only the two largest locations (>300 Ha) not exhibiting declines. Our results mirror those of other long-term butterfly studies predominantly in Europe and North America that have found associations of butterflies with climate variables and general declines in butterfly richness and abundance.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Animais , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Illinois , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências
11.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 163(17): 34-35, 2021 10.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595637

Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Face , Humanos
12.
Arthropod Struct Dev ; 65: 101113, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666210

RESUMO

A large fraction of dorsal wing surface ground scales show an unusual granulated nature, composed of material apparently extruded from the scale lumen in male individuals of both Trichonis Hewitson, 1865 species in the tribe Eumaeini, a rare Guyanian-Amazonian genus. Only a few not-granulated male specimens are known, females are not granulated. The granulated scales are investigated by various microscopic (optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, focused ion beam lamella cutting) and spectroscopic (optical reflectance, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS), Raman) techniques. The characteristic blue colour unique in the South American representatives of the tribe is documented and analysed. EDS spectra show that the granules contain additional calcium and oxygen as compared with the un-granulated regions of the same scale. Electron diffraction (inside the TEM) did not reveal any crystalline component in the granules. The granulated wing surfaces of the males exhibit a UV absorption band at 280 nm, characteristic for biogenic CaCO3; therefore, the material of the granules is tentatively identified as CaCO3. It is shown that the granules influence the optical properties of the dorsal wing surface resulting in a characteristic spectrum.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Cor , Feminino , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Caracteres Sexuais , Asas de Animais
13.
J Theor Biol ; 531: 110898, 2021 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508757

RESUMO

Butterfly wing color patterns are a representative model system for studying biological pattern formation, due to their two-dimensional simple structural and high inter- and intra-specific variabilities. Moreover, butterfly color patterns have demonstrated roles in mate choice, thermoregulation, and predator avoidance via disruptive coloration, attack deflection, aposematism, mimicry, and masquerade. Because of the importance of color patterns to many aspects of butterfly biology and their apparent tractability for study, color patterns have been the subjects of many attempts to model their development. Early attempts focused on generalized mechanisms of pattern formation such as reaction-diffusion, diffusion gradient, lateral inhibition, and threshold responses, without reference to any specific gene products. As candidate genes with expression patterns that resembled incipient color patterns were identified, genetic regulatory networks were proposed for color pattern formation based on gene functions inferred from other insects with wings, such as Drosophila. Particularly detailed networks incorporating the gene products, Distal-less (Dll), Engrailed (En), Hedgehog (Hh), Cubitus interruptus (Ci), Transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß), and Wingless (Wg), have been proposed for butterfly border ocelli (eyespots) which helps the investigation of the formation of these patterns. Thus, in this work, we develop a mathematical model including the gene products En, Hh, Ci, TGF-ß, and Wg to mimic and investigate the eyespot formation in butterflies. Our simulations show that the level of En has peaks in the inner and outer rings and the level of Ci has peaks in the inner and middle rings. The interactions among these peaks activate cells to produce white, black, and yellow pigments in the inner, middle, and outer rings, respectively, which captures the eyespot pattern of wild type Bicyclus anynana butterflies. Additionally, our simulations suggest that lack of En generates a single black spot and lack of Hh or Ci generates a single white spot, and a deficiency of TGF-ß or Wg will cause the loss of the outer yellow ring. These deficient patterns are similar to those observed in the eyespots of Vanessa atalanta, Vanessa altissima, and Chlosyne nycteis. Thus, our model also provides a hypothesis to explain the mechanism of generating the deficient patterns in these species.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Proteínas Hedgehog , Animais , Borboletas/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Pigmentação , Asas de Animais
14.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 11(9)2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544126

RESUMO

Wolbachia is arguably one of the most ubiquitous heritable symbionts among insects and understanding its transmission dynamics is crucial for understanding why it is so common. While previous research has studied the transmission pathways of Wolbachia in several insect lineages including Lepidoptera, this study takes advantage of data collected from the lepidopteran tribe Aeromachini in an effort to assess patterns of transmission. Twenty-one of the 46 species of Aeromachini species were infected with Wolbachia. Overall, 25% (31/125) of Aeromachini specimens tested were Wolbachia positive. All Wolbachia strains were species-specific except for the wJho strain which appeared to be shared by three host species with a sympatric distribution based on a cophylogenetic comparison between Wolbachia and the Aeromachini species. Two tests of phylogenetic congruence did not find any evidence for cospeciation between Wolbachia strains and their butterfly hosts. The cophylogenetic comparison, divergence time estimation, and Wolbachia recombination analysis revealed that Wolbachia acquisition in Aeromachini appears to have mainly occurred mainly through horizontal transmission rather than codivergence.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Wolbachia , Animais , Borboletas/genética , Filogenia , Recombinação Genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Wolbachia/genética
15.
J Exp Biol ; 224(18)2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587624

RESUMO

In true color vision, animals discriminate between light wavelengths, regardless of intensity, using at least two photoreceptors with different spectral sensitivity peaks. Heliconius butterflies have duplicate UV opsin genes, which encode ultraviolet and violet photoreceptors, respectively. In Heliconius erato, only females express the ultraviolet photoreceptor, suggesting females (but not males) can discriminate between UV wavelengths. We tested the ability of H. erato, and two species lacking the violet receptor, Heliconius melpomene and Eueides isabella, to discriminate between 380 and 390 nm, and between 400 and 436 nm, after being trained to associate each stimulus with a sugar reward. We found that only H. erato females have color vision in the UV range. Across species, both sexes show color vision in the blue range. Models of H. erato color vision suggest that females have an advantage over males in discriminating the inner UV-yellow corollas of Psiguria flowers from their outer orange petals. Moreover, previous models ( McCulloch et al., 2017) suggested that H. erato males have an advantage over females in discriminating Heliconius 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-OHK) yellow wing coloration from non-3-OHK yellow wing coloration found in other heliconiines. These results provide some of the first behavioral evidence for female H. erato UV color discrimination in the context of foraging, lending support to the hypothesis ( Briscoe et al., 2010) that the duplicated UV opsin genes function together in UV color vision. Taken together, the sexually dimorphic visual system of H. erato appears to have been shaped by both sexual selection and sex-specific natural selection.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Visão de Cores , Animais , Borboletas/genética , Cor , Feminino , Masculino , Opsinas/genética , Opsinas de Bastonetes , Asas de Animais
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5717, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588433

RESUMO

The global increase in species richness toward the tropics across continents and taxonomic groups, referred to as the latitudinal diversity gradient, stimulated the formulation of many hypotheses to explain the underlying mechanisms of this pattern. We evaluate several of these hypotheses to explain spatial diversity patterns in a butterfly family, the Nymphalidae, by assessing the contributions of speciation, extinction, and dispersal, and also the extent to which these processes differ among regions at the same latitude. We generate a time-calibrated phylogeny containing 2,866 nymphalid species (~45% of extant diversity). Neither speciation nor extinction rate variations consistently explain the latitudinal diversity gradient among regions because temporal diversification dynamics differ greatly across longitude. The Neotropical diversity results from low extinction rates, not high speciation rates, and biotic interchanges with other regions are rare. Southeast Asia is also characterized by a low speciation rate but, unlike the Neotropics, is the main source of dispersal events through time. Our results suggest that global climate change throughout the Cenozoic, combined with tropical niche conservatism, played a major role in generating the modern latitudinal diversity gradient of nymphalid butterflies.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Biodiversidade , Borboletas/fisiologia , Clima Tropical , Animais , Extinção Biológica , Genes de Insetos , Especiação Genética , Geografia , Filogenia , Análise Espaço-Temporal
17.
Mol Ecol ; 30(20): 4991-5008, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379852

RESUMO

Effective population size affects the efficacy of selection, rate of evolution by drift and neutral diversity levels. When species are subdivided into multiple populations connected by gene flow, evolutionary processes can depend on global or local effective population sizes. Theory predicts that high levels of diversity might be maintained by gene flow, even very low levels of gene flow, consistent with species long-term effective population size, but tests of this idea are mostly lacking. Here, we show that Lycaeides butterfly populations maintain low contemporary (variance) effective population sizes (e.g. ~200 individuals) and thus evolve rapidly by genetic drift. However, populations harboured high levels of genetic diversity consistent with an effective population size several orders of magnitude larger. We hypothesized that the differences in the magnitude and variability of contemporary versus long-term effective population sizes were caused by gene flow of sufficient magnitude to maintain diversity but only subtly affect evolution on generational timescales. Consistent with this hypothesis, we detected low but nontrivial gene flow among populations. Furthermore, using short-term population-genomic time-series data, we documented patterns consistent with predictions from this hypothesis, including a weak but detectable excess of evolutionary change in the direction of the mean (migrant gene pool) allele frequencies across populations and consistency in the direction of allele frequency change over time. The documented decoupling of diversity levels and short-term change by drift in Lycaeides has implications for our understanding of contemporary evolution and the maintenance of genetic variation in the wild.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Fluxo Gênico , Animais , Borboletas/genética , Deriva Genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Genômica , Humanos
18.
Neotrop Entomol ; 50(5): 767-803, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350567

RESUMO

The first phylogenetic hypotheses for the high Andean satyrine butterfly genus Altopedaliodes is proposed based on sequence data from mitochondrial (COI and COII) and nuclear (EF-1α) genes. Four species previously included in the genus were found not to be closely related to the clade containing the type species for Altopedaliodes, and these species are therefore removed and placed in the appropriate genus: Pedaliodes cocytia (C. Felder and R. Felder, 1867) n. comb., Pedaliodes nebris Thieme 1905rev. comb., Neopedaliodes tamaensis (Pyrcz and Viloria 2007) n. comb., and Altopedaliodes similis Henao, Páez and Rodríguez-M., 2017; the last name is here synonymized with Pedaliodes nebris (Thieme 1905) n. syn. A taxonomic revision of the twelve species in Altopedaliodes as newly circumscribed is presented and all the currently recognized taxa are revised. We describe two new species, A. llanganati Padrón, Pyrcz and Willmott n. sp. (Ecuador, Napo) and A. pilimbala Pyrcz and Boyer n. sp. (Colombia, Cauca), and three new subspecies, A. reissi papallacta Padrón, Pyrcz and Willmott n. ssp. (Ecuador, Napo), A. reissi dominica Pyrcz and Padrón n. ssp. (Colombia, Valle del Cauca) and A. halli cagnoni Boyer, Pyrcz and Padrón n. ssp. (Ecuador, Morona-Santiago). A new status is proposed for A. nucea Pyrcz and Viloria 1999, n. stat., we combine Altopedaliodes scydmaena (Hayward, 1968) n. comb. and Altopedaliodes belmira (Pyrcz and Rodríguez, 2004), n. comb., n. stat. into the genus and treat the latter taxon as a species, and we newly treat Altopedaliodes scydmaena kruegeri Pyrcz 1999n. stat. as a subspecies.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Altitude , Animais , Borboletas/classificação , Colômbia , Filogenia
19.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 584, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Animal behavior is largely driven by the information that animals are able to extract and process from their environment. However, the function and organization of sensory systems often change throughout ontogeny, particularly in animals that undergo indirect development. As an initial step toward investigating these ontogenetic changes at the molecular level, we characterized the sensory gene repertoire and examined the expression profiles of genes linked to vision and chemosensation in two life stages of an insect that goes through metamorphosis, the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. RESULTS: Using RNA-seq, we compared gene expression in the heads of late fifth instar larvae and newly eclosed adults that were reared under identical conditions. Over 50 % of all expressed genes were differentially expressed between the two developmental stages, with 4,036 genes upregulated in larval heads and 4,348 genes upregulated in adult heads. In larvae, upregulated vision-related genes were biased toward those involved with eye development, while phototransduction genes dominated the vision genes that were upregulated in adults. Moreover, the majority of the chemosensory genes we identified in the B. anynana genome were differentially expressed between larvae and adults, several of which share homology with genes linked to pheromone detection, host plant recognition, and foraging in other species of Lepidoptera. CONCLUSIONS: These results revealed promising candidates for furthering our understanding of sensory processing and behavior in the disparate developmental stages of butterflies and other animals that undergo metamorphosis.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Borboletas/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma , Larva/genética , Masculino , Transcriptoma
20.
Biol Lett ; 17(8): 20210175, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343435

RESUMO

The consequences of climate change for biogeographic range dynamics depend on the spatial scales at which climate influences focal species directly and indirectly via biotic interactions. An overlooked question concerns the extent to which microclimates modify specialist biotic interactions, with emergent properties for communities and range dynamics. Here, we use an in-field experiment to assess egg-laying behaviour of a range-expanding herbivore across a range of natural microclimatic conditions. We show that variation in microclimate, resource condition and individual fecundity can generate differences in egg-laying rates of almost two orders of magnitude in an exemplar species, the brown argus butterfly (Aricia agestis). This within-site variation in fecundity dwarfs variation resulting from differences in average ambient temperatures among populations. Although higher temperatures did not reduce female selection for host plants in good condition, the thermal sensitivities of egg-laying behaviours have the potential to accelerate climate-driven range expansion by increasing egg-laying encounters with novel hosts in increasingly suitable microclimates. Understanding the sensitivity of specialist biotic interactions to microclimatic variation is, therefore, critical to predict the outcomes of climate change across species' geographical ranges, and the resilience of ecological communities.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Microclima , Animais , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Feminino , Herbivoria , Plantas , Temperatura
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