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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253852, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355905

RESUMO

Abstract The aim objective of this study was to determine the trophic ecology of juvenile and adult Acestrorhynchus falcirostris during the rising and flood (high-water) period in six island lakes adjacent to the Solimões River. As such, we investigated: i) the trophic position, through the fractional trophic niche; ii) the niche breadth; iii) niche overlap and iv) the food strategy of the species. The specimens were collected during the years 2014 to 2017, using gillnets with mesh sizes ranging from 30 to 120mm between opposite knots. Through the analysis of stomach contents, the preference in the consumption of items of animal origin was observed. Juveniles consumed insects in greater proportions (IAi% = 50%), while adults consumed fish (IAi%=99,98%). Despite the large supply of food items available in the high-water period, juveniles were the only ones to consume items of allochthonous origin, such as insects. Juveniles presented a different dietary strategy and dietary composition to adults. Juveniles were omnivores with a generalist strategy, while adults were piscivores with a specialist strategy. Thus, the food composition, niche breadth, trophic position and feeding strategy of Acestrorhynchus falcirostris change due to the stage of development.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ecologia trófica de juvenis e adultos de Acestrorhynchus falcirostris durante o período de enchente e cheia em seis lagos de ilha adjacentes ao rio Solimões. Assim, investigamos: i) a posição trófica, através do nicho trófico fracional; ii) a largura de nicho; iii) sobreposição de nicho; iv) a estratégia alimentar. Os espécimes foram coletados durante os anos de 2014 a 2017, utilizando redes de emalhar com malha variando de 30 a 120mm entre nós opostos. Por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal, observamos a preferência no consumo de itens de origem animal. Os juvenis consumiram insetos em maiores proporções (IAi% = 50%), enquanto os adultos consumiram preferencialmente peixes (IAi% = 99,98%). Apesar da grande oferta de alimentos disponíveis no período da cheia, os juvenis eram os únicos a consumir itens de origem alóctone, como por exemplo, os insetos. Os juvenis apresentaram uma estratégia alimentar e composição alimentar diferente para os adultos. Os juvenis foram considerados onívoros com uma estratégia generalista, enquanto os adultos foram considerados piscívoros com uma estratégia alimentar mais especialista. Assim, a composição alimentar, amplitude do nicho, posição trófica e a estratégia alimentar de Acestrorhynchus falcirostris muda em função do estágio de desenvolvimento.


Assuntos
Animais , Rios , Caraciformes , Estações do Ano , Lagos , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Peixes , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal
2.
J Math Biol ; 86(2): 31, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36637536

RESUMO

We incorporate stoichiometry (the balance of key elements) into an intraguild predation (IGP) model. Theoretical and numerical results show that our system exhibits complex dynamics, including chaos and multiple types of both bifurcations and bistability. Types of bifurcation present include saddle-node, Hopf, and transcritical bifurcations, and types of bistability present include node-node, node-cycle, and cycle-cycle bistability; cycle-cycle bistability has never been observed in IGP ordinary differential equation models. Stoichiometry can stabilize or destabilize the system via the disappearance or appearance of chaos. The species represented in the model can coexist for moderate levels of light intensity and nutrient availability. When the amount of light or nutrients present is extremely high or low, coexistence of the species becomes impossible, potentially harming biodiversity. Interestingly, stoichiometry can facilitate the re-emergence of severely endangered species as light intensity increases. In a temporally changing environment, the system can jump between different unstable states following changes in light intensity, with the trajectory followed depending strongly on initial conditions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Comportamento Predatório , Biodiversidade , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional
3.
Water Res ; 230: 119575, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623385

RESUMO

While dam construction supports social and economic development, changes in hydraulic conditions can also affect natural aquatic ecosystems, especially microbial ecosystems. The compositional and functional traits of multi-trophic microbiota can be altered by dam construction, which may result in changes in aquatic predator-prey interactions. To understand this process, we performed a large-scale sampling campaign in the urban reaches of the dam-impacted Yangtze River (1 995 km) and obtained 211 metagenomic datasets and water quality data. We first compared the compositional traits of planktonic microbial communities upstream, downstream, and in a dam reservoir. Results showed that Bacteroidetes (R-strategy) bacteria were more likely to survive upstream, whilst the reservoir and downstream regions were more conducive to the survival of K-strategy bacteria such as Actinobacteria. Eukaryotic predators tended to be enriched upstream, whilst phototrophs tended to be enriched in the reservoir and downstream regions. Based on bipartite networks, we inferred that the potential microbial predator-prey interactions gradually and significantly decreased from upstream to the downstream and dam regions, affecting 56% of keystone microbial species. Remarkably, functional analysis showed that the abundance of the photosynthetic gene psbO was higher in the reservoir and downstream regions, whilst the abundance of the KEGG carbohydrate metabolic pathway was higher upstream. These results indicate that dam construction in the Yangtze River induced planktonic microbial ecosystem transformation from detritus-based food webs to autotroph-based food webs.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Plâncton , Ecossistema , Rios/microbiologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Bacteroidetes , China
4.
Water Res ; 230: 119590, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638733

RESUMO

The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) serves as a collection of unique ecosystems featured as oligotrophic and hypometabolic conditions, and is particularly vulnerable to threats posed by anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Active fluvial processes on the QTP, especially the lateral migration of rivers and channel abandonment accompanied by variations in the hydrological connectivity, and changes in river geomorphology, intensively modify this highland river-floodplain system. However, little is known about how these processes alter the trophic characteristics of highland river system on earth. In this study, we conducted field investigations on a typical meandering river, the Quanji River (QR), located in the northeastern QTP by sampling macroinvertebrates, surveying trophic sources, and measuring a range of environmental conditions. Based on the collected data, we identified four biotopes for the QR through hierarchical clustering, established the representative food web for each biotope through the allometric diet breadth model, and estimated the biomass storage and flux within food web for each biotope through the biomass balance model. Our results show that the identified biotopes differed markedly in hydrological connectivity. Biotopes 1 and 2, which were in the main river channel represented the condition of high connectivity, Biotope 3 in the open channel represented the median connectivity, while Biotope 4 in the semi-open/closed channel represented the low connectivity. In contrast to the unimodal pattern commonly observed in lowland rivers, indices for the highland QR, including the taxa richness, trophic group richness, biomass flux, biomass transfer efficiency, and trophic stability demonstrated a single-valley response pattern to the hydrological connectivity. We argue that the intermediate disturbance hypothesis still works on highland river ecosystems, whereas the optimal disturbance occurs in the low connectivity rather than median connectivity. We attribute this skewness to the low resistance and resilience of highland macroinvertebrate community in the face of hydrodynamic disturbances brought by flood events, and the biological disturbances from the predation by endemic migratory fish (Gymnocypris przewalskii) in QR. This study reveals that lateral migration and channel abandonment play important roles in highland river systems in the QTP in the context of biological and energetic perspectives and suggests that management strategies for highland rivers should be made different from those of lowland rivers.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Biomassa , Hidrologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1234, 2023 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36683069

RESUMO

The well-being of humans is closely linked to the well-being of species in any ecosystem, but the relationship between humans and nature has changed over time as societies have become more industrialized. In order to ensure the future of our ecosystems, we need to protect our planet's biodiversity. In this work, a prey-predator model with fear dropping prey's birth as well as death rates and nonlinear harvesting, is investigated. In addition, we consider that the consumption rate of predators, i.e., the functional response, is dependent on schooling behavior of both species. We have investigated the local stability of the equilibrium points and different types of bifurcations, such as transcritical, saddle-node, Hopf and Bogdanov-Takens (BT). We find that consumption rate of predator, fear and harvesting effort give complex dynamics in the neighbourhood of BT-points. Harvesting effort has both stabilizing and destabilizing effects. There is bistability between coexistence and predator-free equilibrium points in the system. Further, we have studied the deterministic model in fluctuating environment. Simulation results of stochastic system includes time series solutions of one simulation run and corresponding phase portraits. Notably, several simulation runs are conducted to obtain time series solutions, histograms, and stationary distributions. Our findings exhibit that during stochastic processes, model species fluctuate around some average values of the deterministic steady-state for lower environmental disturbances. However, higher values of environmental disturbances lead the species to extinction.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Animais , Modelos Biológicos , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Medo
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(5): e2209037120, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689656

RESUMO

Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) and wolves (Canis lupus) are two apex predators with strong and cascading effects on ecosystem structure and function. After decades of recovery from near extirpation, their ranges now overlap, allowing sea otters and wolves to interact for the first time in the scientific record. We intensively studied wolves during 2015 to 2021 in an island system colonized by sea otters in the 2000s and by wolves in 2013. After wolf colonization, we quantified shifts in foraging behavior with DNA metabarcoding of 689 wolf scats and stable isotope analyses, both revealing a dietary switch from Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus), the terrestrial in situ primary prey, to sea otters. Here we show an unexpected result of the reintroduction and restoration of sea otters, which became an abundant marine subsidy for wolves following population recovery. The availability of sea otters allowed wolves to persist and continue to reproduce, subsequently nearly eliminating deer. Genotypes from 390 wolf scats and telemetry data from 13 wolves confirmed island fidelity constituting one of the highest known wolf population densities and upending standardly accepted wolf density predictions based on ungulate abundance. Whereas marine subsidies in other systems are generally derived from lower trophic levels, here an apex nearshore predator became a key prey species and linked nearshore and terrestrial food webs in a recently deglaciated and rapidly changing ecosystem. These results underscore that species restoration may serve as an unanticipated nutrient pathway for recipient ecosystems even resulting in cross-boundary subsidy cascades.


Assuntos
Cervos , Lontras , Lobos , Animais , Ecossistema , Comportamento Predatório , Cadeia Alimentar , Dinâmica Populacional
7.
Mar Environ Res ; 184: 105858, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36630747

RESUMO

Macroalgal bloom events have been frequent in recent years. Eutrophication and overexploitation fishing may favor blooms through nutrient availability and capturing top predators. We aim to investigate the drivers of the macroalgae blooms and their consequences on the food web of the two tropical coastal ecosystems: Porto do Mangue (with high macroalgae production) and Baía Formosa (control environment, without macroalgae), both exploited by artisanal fisheries in northeastern Brazil. The food webs are modeled using the Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) approach. Our results suggest that fishing did not favor macroalgae blooms but rather the high concentration of nutrients added to the semi-arid conditions. Furthermore, the macroalgae bloom showed low trophic impact, so much of their biomass is transferred into detritus. However, when it decomposes, this accumulation of matter alters the structure and functioning of the ecosystem, affecting its main fish resources: shrimp and piscivorous fish. Investigating blooms is key to management.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Alga Marinha , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Pesqueiros , Biomassa , Eutrofização
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 57(2): 951-962, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599118

RESUMO

Aquatic micropollutants can be transported to terrestrial systems and their consumers by emergent aquatic insects. However, micropollutants, such as metals, may also affect the flux of physiologically important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). As certain PUFAs have been linked to physiological fitness and breeding success of terrestrial consumers, reduced fluxes from aquatic systems could affect terrestrial populations and food webs. We chronically exposed larvae of the aquatic insect Chironomus riparius to a range of environmentally relevant sediment contents of cadmium (Cd) or copper (Cu) in a 28-day microcosm study. Since elevated water temperatures can enhance metals' toxic effects, we used two temperature regimes, control and periodically elevated temperatures (heat waves) reflecting an aspect of climate change. Cd and Cu significantly reduced adult emergence by up to 95% and 45%, respectively, while elevated temperatures had negligible effects. Both metal contents were strongly reduced (∼90%) during metamorphosis. Furthermore, the chironomid FA profile was significantly altered during metamorphosis with the factors sex and metal exposure being relevant predictors. Consequently, fluxes of physiologically important PUFAs by emergent adults were reduced by up to ∼80%. Our results suggest that considering fluxes of physiologically important compounds, such as PUFAs, by emergent aquatic insects is important to understand the implications of aquatic micropollutants on aquatic-terrestrial meta-ecosystems.


Assuntos
Chironomidae , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Ecossistema , Ácidos Graxos , Cádmio , Metais/toxicidade , Insetos/fisiologia
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 250: 114503, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36610297

RESUMO

Emerging aquatic insects serve as one link between aquatic and adjacent riparian food webs via the flux of energy and nutrients. These insects provide high-quality subsidy to terrestrial predators. Thus, any disturbance of emergence processes may cascade to higher trophic levels and lead to effects across ecosystem boundaries. One stressor with potential impact on non-target aquatic insects, especially on non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae), is the widely used mosquito control agent Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti). In a field experiment, we investigated emerging insect communities from Bti-treated (three applications, maximum field rate) and control floodplain pond mesocosms (FPMs) over 3.5 months for changes in their composition, diversity as well as the emergence dynamics and the individual weight of emerged aquatic insects over time. Bti treatments altered community compositions over the entire study duration - an effect mainly attributed to an earlier (∼10 days) and reduced (∼26%) peak in the emergence of Chironomidae, the dominant family (88% of collected individuals). The most reasonable explanation for this significant alteration is less resource competition caused by a decrease in chironomid larval density due to lethal effects of Bti. This is supported by the higher individual weight of Chironomidae emerging from treated FPMs (∼21%) during Bti application (April - May). A temporal shift in the emergence dynamics can cause changes in the availability of prey in linked terrestrial ecosystems. Consequently, terrestrial predators may be affected by a lack of appropriate prey leading to bottom-up and top-down effects in terrestrial food webs. This study indicates the importance of a responsible and elaborated use of Bti and additionally, highlights the need to include a temporal perspective in evaluations of stressors in aquatic-terrestrial meta-ecosystems.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Chironomidae , Humanos , Animais , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Insetos
10.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 561, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631629

RESUMO

Predator-prey interactions are critical for understanding species composition and community assembly; however, there is still limited research on whether and how the prey species composition or community assembly in natural communities are mediated by predators. To address this question, we performed a field investigation to examine the influence of the presence of Lutra lutra on the diversity of fish communities of the Hunchun River Basin, Jilin Province, China. Our results indicate that L. lutra, as a potential umbrella species and generalist predator in the stream ecosystem, promotes the coexistence of a vast variety of fish taxa, which emphasizes the importance of top-down control in the ecological community. We suggest that L. lutra regulates the fish community assembly likely through the stochastic process. Although this was a pilot study regarding predator-prey interactions, the results highlight the effects of predators on the prey community assembly, and emphasize the role of predators on the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem function. Future conservation decisions involving ecosystem biodiversity should require the inclusion of predation intensity. The inclusion of scientific research and protection of umbrella species would thus constitute an additional and important step in biodiversity conservation.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Lontras , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Rios , Projetos Piloto , Peixes/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia
11.
Math Biosci Eng ; 20(1): 437-455, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650773

RESUMO

In this paper, a delayed fractional Lotka-Volterra food chain chemostat model with incommensurate orders is proposed, and the effect on system stability and bifurcation of this model are discussed. First, for the system with no controller, the stability and Hopf bifurcation with respect to time delay are investigated. Taking the time delay as the bifurcation parameter, the relevant characteristic equations are analyzed, and the conditions for Hopf bifurcation are proposed. The results show that the controller can fundamentally affect the stability of the system, and that they both have an important impact on the generation of bifurcation at the same time. Finally, numerical simulation is carried out to support the theoretical data.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Simulação por Computador , Fatores de Tempo
12.
J Biol Dyn ; 17(1): 2166133, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36648150

RESUMO

In this paper, we consider a predator-prey model with nonuniform predator dispersal, called predation-induced dispersal (PID), which represents predator motility depending on the maximal predation rate and the predator death rate in a spatially heterogeneous region. We study the local stability of the semitrivial steady state when predators are absent for models with PID and linear dispersal. We then investigate the local/global bifurcation from the semitrivial steady state of these models. Finally, we compare the results of the model with PID to the results of the model with linear dispersal. We conclude that the nonuniform dispersal of predators obeying PID increases fitness for predator invasion when rare; thus, predators with PID can invade a region with an increased probability even in cases wherein predators dispersed linearly cannot invade a certain region. Based on the results, we provide an ecological interpretation with the simulations.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Dinâmica Populacional , Probabilidade , Cadeia Alimentar
13.
J Biol Dyn ; 17(1): 2164803, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36648149

RESUMO

In this paper, a new stochastic four-species predator-prey model with disease in the first prey is proposed and studied. First, we present the stochastic model with some biological assumptions and establish the existence of globally positive solutions. Moreover, a condition for species to be permanent and extinction is provided. The above properties can help to save the dangered population in the ecosystem. Through Lyapunov functions, we discuss the asymptotic stability of a positive equilibrium solution for our model. Furthermore, it is also shown that the system has a stationary distribution and indicating the existence of a stable biotic community. Finally, our results of the proposed model have revealed the effect of random fluctuations on the four species ecosystem when adding the alternative food sources for the predator population. To illustrate our theoretical findings, some numerical simulations are presented.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Dinâmica Populacional , Comportamento Predatório , Cadeia Alimentar
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(2): e2202488120, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595667

RESUMO

Human exposure to monomethylmercury (CH3Hg), a potent neurotoxin, is principally through the consumption of seafood. The formation of CH3Hg and its bioaccumulation in marine food webs experience ongoing impacts of global climate warming and ocean biogeochemistry alterations. Employing a series of sensitivity experiments, here we explicitly consider the effects of climate change on marine mercury (Hg) cycling within a global ocean model in the hypothesized twenty-first century under the business-as-usual scenario. Even though the overall prediction is subjected to significant uncertainty, we identify several important climate change impact pathways. Elevated seawater temperature exacerbates elemental Hg (Hg0) evasion, while decreased surface wind speed reduces air-sea exchange rates. The reduced export of particulate organic carbon shrinks the pool of potentially bioavailable divalent Hg (HgII) that can be methylated in the subsurface ocean, where shallower remineralization depth associated with lower productivity causes impairment of methylation activity. We also simulate an increase in CH3Hg photodemethylation potential caused by increased incident shortwave radiation and less attenuation by decreased sea ice and chlorophyll. The model suggests that these impacts can also be propagated to the CH3Hg concentration in the base of the marine food web. Our results offer insight into synergisms/antagonisms in the marine Hg cycling among different climate change stressors.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Água do Mar , Cadeia Alimentar , Mudança Climática , Metilação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246180, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278550

RESUMO

Abstract In fisheries, the phenomenon known as fishing down food webs is supposed to be a consequence of overfishing, which would be reflected in a reduction in the trophic level of landings. In such scenarios, the resilience of carnivorous, top predator species is particularly affected, making these resources the first to be depleted. The Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, exemplifies a predator resource historically targeted by artisanal fisheries on the Brazilian coast. The present work analyzes landings in three periods within a 50-year timescale on the Parana coast, Southern Brazil, aiming to evaluate whether historical production has supposedly declined. Simultaneously, the diet was analyzed to confirm carnivorous habits and evaluate the trophic level in this region. Surprisingly, the results show that from the 1970's to 2019 Serra Spanish mackerel production grew relatively to other resources, as well as in individual values. The trophic level was calculated as 4.238, similar to other Scomberomorus species, consisting of a case where landings increase over time, despite the high trophic level and large body size of the resource. The results agree with a recent global assessment that has demystified a necessary correlation between high trophic level and overexploitation, but possible factors acting on the present findings are discussed.


Resumo Na pesca, o fenômeno fishing down food webs, ou 'pescando teias tróficas abaixo', expressa a redução do nível trófico na composição das capturas, e tem origem tradicionalmente atribuída à sobrepesca. Sob intenso extrativismo, a resiliência das espécies carnívoras, predadoras de topo, é particularmente afetada, sendo seus estoques os primeiros a entrarem em depleção. A cavala, ou serra, ou sororoca, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, é exemplo de recurso predador historicamente alvo da pesca artesanal, de pequena escala, na costa brasileira. O presente trabalho analisa os valores de desembarque do recurso em três períodos ao longo de 50 anos na costa paranaense, sul do Brasil, com objetivo de avaliar se sua produção tem efetivamente diminuído. Ainda, estuda-se a dieta da espécie na região, para confirmar seus hábitos carnívoros e avaliar o nível trófico na região. Os resultados mostram que, surpreendentemente, dos anos 1970 para 2019 a produção de S. brasiliensis tem aumentado em valores absolutos, bem como relativamente à de outros recursos, em que pese o nível trófico 4,238, similar a outras espécies do gênero. Constata-se que a pesca da cavala na região de estudo constitui um caso de aumento nos desembarques a despeito de elevado nível trófico e grande tamanho corpóreo. Os resultados concordam com recente levantamento em nível mundial, que nega existir correlação necessária entre sobrepesca e nível trófico alto, mas fatores que podem explicar os resultados do presente trabalho são discutidos.


Assuntos
Animais , Perciformes , Pesqueiros , Brasil , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Cadeia Alimentar
17.
Mar Environ Res ; 183: 105835, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36527765

RESUMO

Tropical oceans host a high diversity of species, including large marine consumers. In these oligotrophic ecosystems, oceanic islands often favour the aggregation of species and biomass as they provide feeding opportunities related to the mechanisms of island mass effect. As such, the waters surrounding La Reunion (Southwest Indian Ocean) host seabirds, large pelagic teleosts, elasmobranchs, delphinids and sea turtles. Isotopic niche partitioning and comparison of trophic levels among these species (n = 21) were investigated using stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis. Overall, δ13C values were highly variable among taxa, indicating that the species exploit multiple foraging habitats along a coast-open ocean gradient. Overlap in δ15N values was limited, except for teleost species, the two species of sea turtles and two species of delphinids, the Indo-pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) and the Spinner dolphin (Stellena longirostris). Stable isotope analyses of samples collected over a 9-years period on different tissues with different integration times provide a consistent picture of the structure of the community of large marine vertebrates species around La Reunion and highlight the underlying mechanisms to limit the competition between species. The wide range of isotopic values confirms that large marine vertebrates have different trophic roles in coastal marine food webs around this oceanic island, which limits their potential of competitive interactions for resources.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Stenella , Animais , Ecossistema , Oceano Índico , Cadeia Alimentar , Estado Nutricional , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt A): 130090, 2023 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279653

RESUMO

As demand for sustainable marine aquaculture (mariculture) and marine food supply surges worldwide, there is a growing need for new tools to assess mariculture impacts on local ecosystems, including the cycling of toxic organic contaminants. With this in mind, we developed the Contaminant Fate in Aquaculture-Modified Ecosystems (CFAME) model. The current model was designed to explore the fate of mariculture-derived organic contaminants in the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand, known for its Chinook salmon farming industry. Model evaluation indicated robust model design, with 80% of modeled concentrations falling within a factor of ten of measured ones for native biota. Model results showed that mariculture was a source of organic contaminants in the sediment even at the Marlborough Sounds regional level and in wild marine fishes with high trophic levels near the farm area. Future research attention should be directed toward measuring chemicals with low log KAW (<0) and high log KOW values (e.g., >3) in sediment, and chemicals with log KOW values of 3-9 in wild fish.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ecossistema , Aquicultura , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 864: 160876, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36539089

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are ubiquitous in the marine environment, yet information regarding their occurrence in the food web is limited. We investigated the concentration and composition of MPs in water and diverse zooplankton groups from the Arabian Sea basin. Forty-one zooplankton tows were collected with a bongo net (330 µm mesh) from the Arabian Sea in January 2019. MPs in the surface water varied between 0 and 0.055 particles/m3, with a relatively higher concentration (0.013 ± 0.002 particles/m3) in the central Arabian Sea. Though fibrous MPs were most abundant in the seawater (77.14 %), zooplankton prefers small fragments (55.3 %). The size of MPs was distinctly smaller (277.1 ± 46.74 µm) in zooplankton than that in seawater (864.32 ± 73.72 µm), and MPs bioaccumulation was observed in almost all the zooplankton functional groups. Polymer composition revealed polyamide, polyethylene, polypropylene, and PVC were abundant in water and zooplankton, suggesting that the textile, fishing, shipping, and packaging industries are significant sources. The prevailing northeasterly winds, strong West India Coastal Current, and conducive westward radiated Rossby wave during January 2019 have carried the microplastic contaminated water mass away from the coast, posing a threat to the open ocean ecosystems. These results demand further attention to investigate the state of plastic pollution in the Arabian Sea basin.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Zooplâncton , Plásticos , Cadeia Alimentar , Oceano Índico , Ecossistema , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água
20.
Curr Biol ; 33(2): 389-396.e3, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36580916

RESUMO

The conversion of natural ecosystems into human-modified landscapes (HMLs) is the main driver of biodiversity loss in terrestrial ecosystems.1,2,3 Even when species persist within habitat remnants, populations may become so small that ecological interactions are functionally lost, disrupting local interaction networks.4,5 To uncover the consequences of land use changes toward ecosystem functioning, we need to understand how changes in species richness and abundance in HMLs6,7,8 rearrange ecological networks. We used data from forest vertebrate surveys and combined modeling and network analysis to investigate how the structure of predator-prey networks was affected by habitat insularization induced by a hydroelectric reservoir in the Brazilian Amazonia.9 We found that network complexity, measured by interaction diversity, decayed non-linearly with decreasingly smaller forest area. Although on large forest islands (>100 ha) prey species were linked to 3-4 potential predators, they were linked to one or had no remaining predator on small islands. Using extinction simulations, we show that the variation in network structure cannot be explained by abundance-related extinction risk or prey availability. Our findings show that habitat loss may result in an abrupt disruption of terrestrial predator-prey networks, generating low-complexity ecosystems that may not retain functionality. Release from predation on some small islands may produce cascading effects over plants that accelerate forest degradation, whereas predator spillover on others may result in overexploited prey populations. Our analyses highlight that in addition to maintaining diversity, protecting large continuous forests is required for the persistence of interaction networks and related ecosystem functions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Humanos , Florestas , Biodiversidade , Vertebrados
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