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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35010795

RESUMO

The ongoing 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic continues to impact the health of individuals worldwide, including causing pauses in lifesaving cancer screening and prevention measures. From time to time, elective medical procedures, such as those used for cancer screening and early detection, were deferred due to concerns regarding the spread of the infection. The short- and long-term consequences of these temporary measures are concerning, particularly for medically underserved populations, who already experience inequities and disparities related to timely cancer care. Clearly, the way out of this pandemic is by increasing COVID-19 vaccination rates and doing so in an equitable manner so that communities most affected receive preferential access and administration. In this article, we provide a perspective on vaccine equity by featuring the experience of the California Hispanic community, who has been disproportionately impacted by the pandemic. We first compared vaccination rates in two United States-Mexico border counties in California (San Diego County and Imperial County) to counties elsewhere in California with a similar Hispanic population size. We show that the border counties have substantially lower unvaccinated proportions of Hispanics compared to other counties. We next looked at county vaccination rates according to the California Healthy Places Index, a health equity metric and found that San Diego and Imperial counties achieved more equitable access and distribution than the rest of the state. Finally, we detail strategies implemented to achieve high and equitable vaccination in this border region, including Imperial County, an agricultural region that was California's epicenter of the COVID-19 crisis at the height of the pandemic. These United States-Mexico border county data show that equitable vaccine access and delivery is possible. Multiple strategies can be used to guide the delivery and access to other public health and cancer preventive services.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , California/epidemiologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos , Vacinação
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 150683, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627915

RESUMO

Pesticides are widely recognized as important biological stressors in streams, especially in heavily developed urban and agricultural areas like the Central California Coast region. We assessed occurrence and potential toxicity of pesticides in small streams in the region using two analytical methods: a broad-spectrum (223 compounds) method in use since 2012 and a newly developed method for 30 additional new-generation fungicides and insecticides. At least one pesticide compound was identified in 83 of the 85 streams sampled. About one-half (48%) of the 253 pesticides measured were detected at least once and 27 were detected in 10% or more of samples. Three of the top 4, and 6 of the top 10 most frequently detected compounds (chlorantraniliprole, dinotefuran, boscalid, thiamethoxam, clothianidin and the fluopicolide degradate 2,6-dichlorobenzamide) were analyzed by the new method. Pesticide mixtures were common, with two or more pesticide compounds detected in 81% of samples and 10 or more in 32% of samples. The pesticide count at a site was relatively consistent over the 6-week study. Four sites with mixed land-use in the lower basin (<5 km from the sampling site) tended to have the highest pesticide counts and the highest concentrations. Potential toxicity (assessed by comparison to benchmarks) to invertebrates was much more common than potential toxicity to fish or plants and was associated with a wide array of insecticides. The common occurrence of new-generation pesticides highlights the need to continuously update analytical methods to keep pace with changing pesticide use for a fuller assessment of pesticide occurrence and effects on the environment.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , California , Monitoramento Ambiental , Praguicidas/análise , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
3.
J Environ Manage ; 302(Pt B): 114083, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800763

RESUMO

An essential component of sustainable forest management is accurate monitoring of forest activities. Although monitoring efforts have generally increased for many forests throughout the world, in practice, effective monitoring is complex. Determining the magnitude and location of progress towards sustainability targets can be challenging due to diverse forest operations across multiple jurisdictions, the lack of data standardization, and discrepancies between field inspections and remotely-sensed records. In this work, we used California as a multijurisdictional case study to explore these problems and develop an approach that broadly informs forest monitoring strategies. The State of California recently entered into a shared stewardship agreement with the US Forest Service (USFS) and set a goal to jointly treat one million acres of forest and rangeland annually by 2025. Currently, however, federal and state forest management datasets are disjoint. This work addresses three barriers stymying the use of federal and state archival records to assess management goals. These barriers are: 1) current databases from different jurisdictions have not been combined due to their distinct data collection processes and internal structures; 2) datasets have not been comprehensively analyzed, despite the need to understand the extent of previous treatments as well as the rate of current activity; and 3) the spatial accuracy of archival datasets has not been evaluated against remotely-sensed data. To reduce these barriers, we first aggregated existing archival forest management records between 1984 and 2019 from the USFS' Forest Activity Tracking System (FACTS) and the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CAL FIRE) using a qualitative scalar of treatment intensity. Combined FACTS and CAL FIRE completed footprint acres - defined as unique areas of land where a treatment was completed at any time since 1984 - have decreased since a peak in 2008. At most, 300,000 footprint acres are completed each year, 30% of the million-acre goal. Prescribed fires - defined as direct burning operations - have risen over time, according to the FACTS hazardous fuels dataset but prescribed fire records in CAL FIRE's dataset have rapidly increased since 2016. We also refined the spatial and temporal detail of the aggregated management record using the Continuous Change Detection and Classification algorithm on satellite remote sensing data to produce a state-wide time series map of harvest disturbances. A comparison of the algorithm's refined data to the archival record potentially suggests over-reporting in both FACTS and CAL FIRE's archival datasets. Our integrated dataset provides a better assessment of current treatments and the path towards the 1-million-acre a year goal. The refined dataset leverages the strengths of complementary, albeit imperfect, monitoring strategies from archives and remotely-sensed detection.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal , California
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150298, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies have found that residential proximity to upstream oil and gas production is associated with increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Emissions of ambient air pollutants from oil and gas wells in the preproduction and production stages have been proposed as conferring risk of adverse health effects, but the extent of air pollutant emissions and resulting nearby pollution concentrations from wells is not clear. OBJECTIVES: We examined the effects of upstream oil and gas preproduction (count of drilling sites) and production (total volume of oil and gas) activities on concentrations of five ambient air pollutants in California. METHODS: We obtained data on approximately 1 million daily observations from 314 monitors in the EPA Air Quality System, 2006-2019, including daily concentrations of five routinely monitored ambient air pollutants: PM2.5, CO, NO2, O3, and VOCs. We obtained data on preproduction and production operations from Enverus and the California Geographic Energy Management Division (CalGEM) for all wells in the state. For each monitor and each day, we assessed exposure to upwind preproduction wells and total oil and gas production volume within 10 km. We used a panel regression approach in the analysis and fit adjusted fixed effects linear regression models for each pollutant, controlling for geographic, seasonal, temporal, and meteorological factors. RESULTS: We observed higher concentrations of PM2.5 and CO at monitors within 3 km of preproduction wells, NO2 at monitors at 1-2 km, and O3 at 2-4 km from the wells. Monitors with proximity to increased production volume observed higher concentrations of PM2.5, NO2, and VOCs within 1 km and higher O3 concentrations at 1-2 km. Results were robust to sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: Adjusting for geographic, meteorological, seasonal, and time-trending factors, we observed higher concentrations of ambient air pollutants at air quality monitors in proximity to preproduction wells within 4 km and producing wells within 2 km.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , California , Campos de Petróleo e Gás
5.
J Environ Manage ; 304: 114255, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942550

RESUMO

Wildfire sizes and proportions burned with high severity effects are increasing in seasonally dry forests, especially in the western USA. A critical need in efforts to restore or maintain these forest ecosystems is to determine where fuel build-up caused by fire exclusion reaches thresholds that compromise resilience to fire. Empirical studies identifying drivers of fire severity patterns in actual wildfires can be confounded by co-variation of vegetation and topography and the stochastic effects of weather and rarely consider long-term changes in fuel caused by fire exclusion. To overcome these limitations, we used a spatially explicit fire model (FlamMap) to compare potential fire behavior by topographic position in Lassen Volcanic National Park (LAVO), California, a large (43,000 ha), mountainous, unlogged landscape with extensive historical and contemporary fuels data. Fuel loads were uniformly distributed and incrementally increased across the landscape, meaning variation in fire behavior within each simulation was due to topography and among simulations, to fuels. We analyzed changes in fire line intensity (FLI) and crown fire potential as surface and canopy fuels increased from historical to contemporary levels and with percentile and actual wildfire weather conditions. Sensitivity to the influence of fuel build-up on fire behavior varied by topographic position. Steep slopes and ridges were most sensitive. At lower surface fuel loads, under pre-exclusion and contemporary canopy conditions, fire behavior was comparable and remained surface-type. As fuels increased, FLI and passive crown fire increased on steep slopes and ridgetops but remained largely unchanged on gentle slopes. Topographic variability in fire behavior was greatest with intermediate fuels. At higher surface fuel loads, under contemporary canopy fuels, passive crown fire dominated all topographic positions. With LAVO's current surface fuels, the area with potential for passive crown fire during actual fire weather increased from 6% pre-exclusion to 34% due to canopy fuel build-up. For topographically diverse landscapes, the results highlight where contemporary fire characteristics are most likely to deviate from historical patterns and may help managers prioritize locations for prescribed burning and managed wildfire to increase fire resilience in fuel rich landscapes.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Incêndios Florestais , California , Florestas , Tempo (Meteorologia)
6.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118396, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688723

RESUMO

A growing number of studies report associations between air pollution and COVID-19 mortality. Most were ecological studies at the county or regional level which disregard important local variability and relied on data from only the first few months of the pandemic. Using COVID-19 deaths identified from death certificates in California, we evaluated whether long-term ambient air pollution was related to weekly COVID-19 mortality at the census tract-level during the first ∼12 months of the pandemic. Weekly COVID-19 mortality for each census tract was calculated based on geocoded death certificate data. Annual average concentrations of ambient particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) and <10 µm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) over 2014-2019 were assessed for all census tracts using inverse distance-squared weighting based on data from the ambient air quality monitoring system. Negative binomial mixed models related weekly census tract COVID-19 mortality counts to a natural cubic spline for calendar week. We included adjustments for potential confounders (census tract demographic and socioeconomic factors), random effects for census tract and county, and an offset for census tract population. Data were analyzed as two study periods: Spring/Summer (March 16-October 18, 2020) and Winter (October 19, 2020-March 7, 2021). Mean (standard deviation) concentrations were 10.3 (2.1) µg/m3 for PM2.5, 25.5 (7.1) µg/m3 for PM10, 11.3 (4.0) ppb for NO2, and 42.8 (6.9) ppb for O3. For Spring/Summer, adjusted rate ratios per standard deviation increase were 1.13 (95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.17) for PM2.5, 1.16 (1.11, 1.21) for PM10, 1.06 (1.02, 1.10) for NO2, and 1.09 (1.04, 1.14) for O3. Associations were replicated in Winter, although they were attenuated for PM2.5 and PM10. Study findings support a relation between long-term ambient air pollution exposure and COVID-19 mortality. Communities with historically high pollution levels might be at higher risk of COVID-19 mortality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , California/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Mortalidade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Theriogenology ; 177: 157-164, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710647

RESUMO

Long-term studies of mountain lions (Puma concolor) in Southern California have documented persistent small population sizes and the lowest genetic variation of any mountain lion population, except for the Federally endangered mountain lion subspecies, the Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi). There is overwhelming molecular evidence supporting inbreeding and low genetic diversity in these Southern California populations but there is a lack of phenotypical evidence of inbreeding depression. The primary goal of this study was to assess male mountain lions, in Southern California, for teratospermia (>60% abnormal sperm production), one of the first signs of inbreeding depression in mountain lions that are associated with decreased reproduction and population decline. From December 2019 to December 2020, we surveyed mountain lions during live captures, after mortality events, and in images collected from camera traps in the following populations: Santa Monica Mountains, Santa Susana Mountains, Santa Ana Mountains, and the Eastern Peninsular Range. Mountain lions were sampled for known physical abnormalities associated with inbreeding depression such as teratospermia, cryptorchidism, and distal tail kinks. For teratospermia, we extracted testes from five males post-mortem to assess sperm morphology. Epididymal sperm evaluations revealed all males were teratospermic. Across all samples, on average, 93% of observed spermatozoa were abnormal. We physically examined 32 mountain lions (males and females) for distal tail kinks, and we observed one individual affected. We examined 15 male mountain lions for cryptorchidism, and we observed one unilaterally cryptorchid male and one male with testes that differed significantly in size, likely reflecting asynchronous migration of the testes during puberty. Further, we identified three other animals in camera-trap images that had distal tail kinks, for a total of four. In conclusion, from December 2019 to December 2020, we identified nine individuals exhibiting physical signs of inbreeding depression. These reproductive and physical signs of inbreeding depression in Southern California mountain lions increase the urgency of conservation efforts in the region.


Assuntos
Depressão por Endogamia , Leões , Puma , Animais , California , Feminino , Endogamia , Masculino , Reprodução
8.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): 50-59, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797241

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence rates are 2- to 5-fold higher among persons incarcerated in the United States than in the general population. PROGRAM OR POLICY: We describe an outbreak investigation of COVID-19 at a jail (jail A) in Alameda County during March 2020-March 2021. IMPLEMENTATION: To prevent COVID-19 cases among incarcerated persons and employees, staff at jail A and the county public health department worked to develop and recommend infection control measures implemented by jail A including, but not limited to, face covering use among incarcerated persons and staff; cohorting incarcerated persons at a higher risk of severe COVID-19 in dedicated housing units; quarantining all newly detained individuals for 14 days; and offering testing for all symptomatic incarcerated persons, newly incarcerated persons at day 2 and day 10, and all persons who resided in a housing unit where a COVID-19 case was detected. EVALUATION: A total of 571 COVID-19 cases were detected among incarcerated persons at jail A during March 2020-March 2021, which represented a total incidence of 280 per 1000 population, 5 times higher than the rate in Alameda County. Of the 571 cases among incarcerated persons, 557 (98%) were male; 415 (73%) were aged 18 to 40 years; 249 (44%) were Latino; and 180 (32%) were African American; 354 (62%) were not symptomatic; and 220 (39%) had no comorbidities. Less than 2% of infected incarcerated persons were hospitalized, and no deaths were reported. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 disproportionately impacted persons incarcerated at jail A, with higher numbers among Latinos and African Americans. Implementation of COVID-19 infection control and testing measures, and collaboration between public health, law enforcement, and health care providers may have, in part, led to reductions in morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19 at jail A.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Prisões Locais , California/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prisões , Quarentena , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
9.
Environ Res ; 203: 111872, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403668

RESUMO

There is limited population-scale evidence on the burden of exposure to wildfire smoke during pregnancy and its impacts on birth outcomes. In order to investigate this relationship, data on every singleton birth in California 2006-2012 were combined with satellite-based estimates of wildfire smoke plume boundaries and high-resolution gridded estimates of surface PM2.5 concentrations and a regression model was used to estimate associations with preterm birth risk. Results suggest that each additional day of exposure to any wildfire smoke during pregnancy was associated with an 0.49 % (95 % CI: 0.41-0.59 %) increase in risk of preterm birth (<37 weeks). At sample median smoke exposure (7 days) this translated to a 3.4 % increase in risk, relative to an unexposed mother. Estimates by trimester suggest stronger associations with exposure later in pregnancy and estimates by smoke intensity indicate that observed associations were driven by higher intensity smoke-days. Exposure to low intensity smoke-days had no association with preterm birth while an additional medium (smoke PM2.5 5-10 µg/m3) or high (smoke PM2.5 > 10 µg/m3) intensity smoke-day was associated with an 0.95 % (95 % CI: 0.47-1.42 %) and 0.82 % (95 % CI: 0.41-1.24 %) increase in preterm risk, respectively. In contrast to previous findings for other pollution types, neither exposure to smoke nor the relative impact of smoke on preterm birth differed by race/ethnicity or income in our sample. However, impacts differed greatly by baseline smoke exposure, with mothers in regions with infrequent smoke exposure experiencing substantially larger impacts from an additional smoke-day than mothers in regions where smoke is more common. We estimate 6,974 (95 % CI: 5,513-8,437) excess preterm births attributable to wildfire smoke exposure 2007-2012, accounting for 3.7 % of observed preterm births during this period. Our findings have important implications for understanding the costs of growing wildfire smoke exposure, and for understanding the benefits of smoke mitigation measures.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Nascimento Prematuro , Incêndios Florestais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos
10.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 53(12): 1055-1059, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895558

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the decrease in very low food security (VLFS) observed in California shortly after California's coronavirus disease (COVID-19) shutdown remained throughout Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) 2020. To investigate associations among unemployment, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) enrollment, and VLFS across FFY 2020. METHODS: Telephone interview responses from mothers from randomly sampled households from low-income areas throughout California to the 6-item US Department of Agriculture Food Security Survey Module identified VLFS families. Logistic regression examined VLFS rates before vs after California's COVID-19 shutdown, with race/ethnicity, age, and education as covariates. Pearson correlations were calculated for unemployment, SNAP enrollment, and VLFS. RESULTS: Most (66.4%) of the 2,682 mothers were Latina. VLFS declined from 19.3% before to 14.5% after California's COVID-19 shutdown (adjusted odds ratio, 0.705; P = 0.002). The correlation for unemployment and SNAP household participation was 0.854 (P = 0.007), and for SNAP participation and VLFS was -0.869 (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Publicly-funded assistance programs may lower food insecurity, even during a time of increased economic hardship. Examining the specific factors responsible for the observed decline in VLFS has merit. Whether VLFS remains below the rate observed before California's COVID-19 shutdown is worthy of ongoing study.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Assistência Alimentar , California , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Desemprego
11.
BMJ ; 375: e068848, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911691

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of the mRNA-1273 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 variants and assess its effectiveness against the delta variant by time since vaccination. DESIGN: Test negative case-control study. SETTING: Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC), an integrated healthcare system. PARTICIPANTS: Adult KPSC members with a SARS-CoV-2 positive test sent for whole genome sequencing or a negative test from 1 March 2021 to 27 July 2021. INTERVENTIONS: Two dose or one dose vaccination with mRNA-1273 (Moderna covid-19 vaccine) ≥14 days before specimen collection versus no covid-19 vaccination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes included infection with SARS-CoV-2 and hospital admission with covid-19. In pre-specified analyses for each variant type, test positive cases were matched 1:5 to test negative controls on age, sex, race/ethnicity, and specimen collection date. Conditional logistic regression was used to compare odds of vaccination among cases versus controls, with adjustment for confounders. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated as (1-odds ratio)×100%. RESULTS: The study included 8153 cases and their matched controls. Two dose vaccine effectiveness was 86.7% (95% confidence interval 84.3% to 88.7%) against infection with the delta variant, 98.4% (96.9% to 99.1%) against alpha, 90.4% (73.9% to 96.5%) against mu, 96-98% against other identified variants, and 79.9% (76.9% to 82.5%) against unidentified variants (that is, specimens that failed sequencing). Vaccine effectiveness against hospital admission with the delta variant was 97.5% (92.7% to 99.2%). Vaccine effectiveness against infection with the delta variant declined from 94.1% (90.5% to 96.3%) 14-60 days after vaccination to 80.0% (70.2% to 86.6%) 151-180 days after vaccination. Waning was less pronounced for non-delta variants. Vaccine effectiveness against delta infection was lower among people aged ≥65 years (75.2%, 59.6% to 84.8%) than those aged 18-64 years (87.9%, 85.5% to 89.9%). One dose vaccine effectiveness was 77.0% (60.7% to 86.5%) against infection with delta. CONCLUSIONS: Two doses of mRNA-1273 were highly effective against all SARS-CoV-2 variants, especially against hospital admission with covid-19. However, vaccine effectiveness against infection with the delta variant moderately declined with increasing time since vaccination.


Assuntos
/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , /administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , California , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259703, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748607

RESUMO

Two mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273) against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are globally authorized as a two-dose regimen. Understanding the magnitude and duration of protective immune responses is vital to curbing the pandemic. We enrolled 461 high-risk health services workers at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and first responders in the Los Angeles County Fire Department (LACoFD) to assess the humoral responses in previously infected (PI) and infection naïve (NPI) individuals to mRNA-based vaccines (BNT162b2/Pfizer- BioNTech or mRNA-1273/Moderna). A chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay was used to detect antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 Spike in vaccinees prior to (n = 21) and following each vaccine dose (n = 246 following dose 1 and n = 315 following dose 2), and at days 31-60 (n = 110) and 61-90 (n = 190) following completion of the 2-dose series. Both vaccines induced robust antibody responses in all immunocompetent individuals. Previously infected individuals achieved higher median peak titers (p = 0.002) and had a slower rate of decay (p = 0.047) than infection-naïve individuals. mRNA-1273 vaccinated infection-naïve individuals demonstrated modestly higher titers following each dose (p = 0.005 and p = 0.029, respectively) and slower rates of antibody decay (p = 0.003) than those who received BNT162b2. A subset of previously infected individuals (25%) required both doses in order to reach peak antibody titers. The biologic significance of the differences between previously infected individuals and between the mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2 vaccines remains uncertain, but may have important implications for booster strategies.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunidade Humoral , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos , California/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Socorristas , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Imunoensaio , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Universidades
13.
Prev Vet Med ; 197: 105506, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740025

RESUMO

Our study objective was to estimate the magnitude of association of BRD risk factors including failure of passive immunity transfer, sex, age, and the detection of suspected BRD etiological pathogens in pre-weaned dairy calves in California. A conditional logistic regression model and a mixed-effects logistic regression model were used to estimate the association of these potential risk factors with BRD from a matched and nested case-control studies, respectively. For each exposure covariate, the odds ratio (OR) is the ratio of odds of an exposure in a BRD calf (case) to that in a non-BRD calf (control). In the matched case-control study, an interaction term between failure of transfer of passive immunity and sex of calf showed that female calves were more negatively impacted by failure of transfer of passive immunity compared to male calves. The odds ratios comparing failure of transfer of passive immunity in BRD score positive calves versus controls for male calves was 1.34 (95 % CI: 0.87, 2.06) and was 2.47 (95 % CI: 1.54, 3.96) for female calves. The model odds ratios varied from 1.74 (95 % CI: 1.26, 2.42) for Mycoplasma spp. to 9.18 (95 % CI: 2.60, 32.40) for Histophilus somni, with Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida having an OR of 6.64 (95 % CI: 4.39, 10.03) and 6.53 (95 % CI: 4.44, 9.59), respectively. For bovine respiratory syncytial virus positive calves, the OR was 4.60 (95 % CI: 3.04, 6.97). Findings from the nested case-control study showed that based on thoracic ultrasonography findings consistent with BRD, the odds of a calf being 1 day older compared to a day younger were 1.01 (95 % CI: 1.00, 1.02) among BRD cases. For the bacterial and viral pathogens, the OR for Mycoplasma spp. and Pasteurella multocida were 1.85 (95 % CI: 1.24, 2.75) and 1.86 (95 % CI: 1.28, 2.71), respectively. The OR values for these pathogens were similar when both thoracic auscultation and ultrasound findings were used to detect cases of BRD. Based on positive scores for BRD using the California BRD scoring system, the OR for facility type, calf ranch versus dairy farm, was 3.17 (95 % CI: 1.43, 7.01), Mannheimia haemolytica was 3.50 (95 % CI: 2.00, 6.11), Pasteurella multocida was 1.78 (95 % CI: 1.21, 2.60), and bovine coronavirus was 2.61 (95 % CI: 1.85, 3.70). Results from both study designs showed the difference in relative contributions of age, sex, immune status, and pathogens in BRD occurrence between cases and controls in pre-weaned dairy calves.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Animais , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Desmame
15.
Zootaxa ; 5068(1): 60-80, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810722

RESUMO

The California Floristic Province contains numerous ecological regions and a complex geological and geographical history that make it one of the worlds biodiversity hotspots. A number of wide-ranging taxa span across these regions and show complex patterns of dispersal, vicariance and lineage diversification, making localized small ranged species with lower levels of vagility essential to understanding the overall region. Here, we investigate the biogeography and population structure of the California Giant Salamander (Dicamptodon ensatus) (Eschscholtz 1833), an endemic species localized to a narrow coastal region between two areas of biological significance in the California Floristic Province, the North Coast Divide and Monterey Bay. We sequenced one mtDNA fragment (control region) for 133 individuals and a subset of 38 individuals for the anonymous nuclear locus E16C7. We analyzed these sequences with phylogenetic, coalescent, Bayesian clustering, and population genetic approaches in order to infer population structure, phylogenetic structure, and biogeographic history. Additionally, we examined occurrence data with species distribution modeling to generate a habitat suitability map to aid our interpretation of geographic structure. Our analyses recovered 4 major mtDNA lineages, two of which are combined into 3 major lineages when nuDNA is examined. These 3 major lineages are bounded by 4 major current or past geological features; the North Coast Divide, the former Wilson Grove Embayment/current Petaluma Gap, San Francisco Bay, and Monterey Bay. Other low-vagility species linked to moist microclimates and forest habitat do share similarities with the genetic patterns of D. ensatus hinting at a larger role for the past Wilson Grove embayment and modern Petaluma Gap in California biogeography.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial , Urodelos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , California , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Estruturas Genéticas , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Urodelos/genética
16.
Zootaxa ; 5051(1): 171-235, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810901

RESUMO

Several species belonging to the harpacticoid families Ameiridae Boeck, Ancorabolidae Sars, Argestidae Por, and Rhizothrichidae Por have been described so far as an ongoing long-term project on the diversity of deep-sea benthic harpacticoids collected from the Gulf of California and Mexican Pacific. Amongst the several harpacticoid taxa, the subfamily Stenheliinae Brady (Miraciidae Dana) showed to be one of the most important components to overall species richness in deep-sea sediments. Following the rejection of segmentation pattern of the first swimming leg as the only discriminant for subgeneric assignment of stenheliin taxa, four new species of Delavalia Brady, 1869 and two new genera, Archaeohuysia gen. nov. and Diarthropodella gen. nov. are proposed herein. The new Delavalia species belong to the longicaudata-group with close relatives in shallow-water habitats. The so far monotypic Archaeohuysia gen. nov. showed to be unique in the combination of the general structure of the first swimming leg and retention of the primitive complement of four setae on the second endopodal segment of the same leg. Diarthropodella gen. nov. is the only stenheliin taxon with a two-segmented exopod of the first swimming leg. Some comments are given on probable multiple colonization events of stenheliin taxa.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Animais , California , Ecossistema , México , Natação
17.
Zootaxa ; 5051(1): 151-170, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810902

RESUMO

At present, only a handful of harpacticoid species of the families Ameiridae Boeck, Ancorabolidae Sars, Argestidae Por, and Rhizothrichidae Por have been described from the deep sea of the Gulf of California and west coast of the Baja California Peninsula. Recent efforts resulted in the description of a new genus, Wellstenvalia Gmez Cruz-Barraza, 2021, closely related to Muohuysia zdikmen, 2009 and Wellstenhelia Karanovic Kim, 2014 and some new deep-sea species of Delavalia Brady, 1869. Other new stenheliin genera from the Gulf of California and the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula are the subjects of another contribution in this volume. The present contribution deals with the description of the first deep-sea representatives of Pseudostenhelia Wells, 1967 and Beatricella Scott, 1905, two typically shallow brackish water and marine genera. Some comments on their relationships are given.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Animais , California , México , Águas Salinas
18.
Zootaxa ; 5051(1): 117-150, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810903

RESUMO

At present, only 11 species of harpacticoid copepods have been described from the deep sea of the Gulf of California and the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula. These efforts had until recently been focused exclusively on the families Ameiridae Boeck, Argestidae Por, and Rhizothrichidae Por. Preliminary analyses revealed also an important contribution of the subfamily Stenheliinae Brady (Miraciidae Dana) to the overall species richness and diversity of deep-sea benthic copepods from the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula, and the central and southern Gulf of California. One new species of the genus Wellstenhelia Karanovic Kim, 2014, We. euterpoides sp. nov., and one new genus and species, Wellstenvalia wellsi gen. et sp. nov., are herein described from sediment samples taken at eight sampling stations in the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula and in the central and southern Gulf of California. Wellstenhelia euterpoides sp. nov. seems to be closely related to We. euterpe Karanovic Kim, 2014 with which it shares the reduced armature complement of the baseoendopod of the female fifth leg. The so far monotypic genus Wellstenvalia gen. nov. was found to be closely related to Muohuysia zdikmen, 2009 and Wellstenhelia. Some comments on the relationships between the new genus proposed here and other stenheliin genera and species are provided as a contribution towards the monophyly of the subfamily.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Animais , California , Feminino , México , Manejo de Espécimes
19.
Zootaxa ; 5026(4): 507-526, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810919

RESUMO

This paper includes several nomenclatural changes in dendrochirotid holothuroids, mostly based on materials from the USNM. These include the erection of a new genus Pseudostolus for two Indo-Pacific Stolus species [(S. kilberti Rajpal Thandar, 1999 and S. rapax Koehler Vaney (1908)], re-assignment of Havelockia uniannulatus (Sluiter, 1914), Thyone pseudofusus Deichmann 1930, T. parafusus Deichmann, 1941 and T. axiologa H.L. Clark, 1938, to the genus Stolus, and re-assignment of Havelockia nozawai (Mitsukuri, 1912) and Thyone adinopoda Pawson Miller, 1981 to the genus Sclerothyone Thandar, 1989. In addition, a lectotype is designated for (T. vilis Sluiter, 1901), based on the study of type material at the ZMUA. The Caribbean Stolus cognatus is also described and commented on and a single, perhaps juvenile specimen from the Gulf of California is described as Thyone ? n. sp.


Assuntos
Equinodermos , Pepinos-do-Mar , Animais , California
20.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258738, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemics of COVID-19 in student populations at universities were a key concern for the 2020-2021 school year. The University of California (UC) System developed a set of recommendations to reduce campus infection rates. SARS-CoV-2 test results are summarized for the ten UC campuses during the Fall 2020 term. METHODS: UC mitigation efforts included protocols for the arrival of students living on-campus students, non-pharmaceutical interventions, daily symptom monitoring, symptomatic testing, asymptomatic surveillance testing, isolation and quarantine protocols, student ambassador programs for health education, campus health and safety pledges, and lowered density of on-campus student housing. We used data from UC campuses, the UC Health-California Department of Public Health Data Modeling Consortium, and the U.S. Census to estimate the proportion of each campus' student populations that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and compared it to the fraction individuals aged 20-29 years who tested positive in their respective counties. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 cases in campus populations were generally low in September and October 2020, but increased in November and especially December, and were highest in early to mid-January 2021, mirroring case trajectories in their respective counties. Many students were infected during the Thanksgiving and winter holiday recesses and were detected as cases upon returning to campus. The proportion of students who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during Fall 2020 ranged from 1.2% to 5.2% for students living on campus and was similar to students living off campus. For most UC campuses the proportion of students testing positive was lower than that for the 20-29-year-old population in which campuses were located. CONCLUSIONS: The layered mitigation approach used on UC campuses, informed by public health science and augmented perhaps by a more compliant population, likely minimized campus transmission and outbreaks and limited transmission to surrounding communities. University policies that include these mitigation efforts in Fall 2020 along with SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, may alleviate some local concerns about college students returning to communities and facilitate resumption of normal campus operations and in-person instruction.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Universidades , Adulto , Teste para COVID-19 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , California/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Surtos de Doenças , Escolaridade , Epidemias , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Quarentena , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
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