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1.
J Vet Dent ; 38(2): 67-74, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821512

RESUMO

As part of an annual wellness evaluation, we performed oral and dental examination under general anesthesia in 7 zoo Bolivian squirrel monkeys aged 10 and 15 years, and 8 zoo black-tufted marmosets aged between 1 and 7 years. No oral discomfort was observed in any animal prior to the procedure. Apart from dilacerated roots of second mandibular incisor teeth in Bolivian squirrel monkeys and one case of presumably odontodysplasia in a black-tufted marmoset, no major variations in number and shape of the present teeth and roots were revealed. All 15 animals had gingivitis, but periodontitis was only diagnosed in 3 black-tufted marmosets. Most commonly diagnosed dental pathology in Bolivian squirrel monkeys was attrition/abrasion, affecting 11.9% of all teeth, followed by caries, which was only diagnosed in older animals. Altogether 8 fractured teeth were diagnosed in Bolivian squirrel monkeys only, with root fracture being the most common type, followed by complicated crown fracture and complicated crown-root fracture. Radiographic signs of endodontic disease were found in 10 teeth in Bolivian squirrel monkeys and in one nonvital tooth with intact crown in a black-tufted marmoset. We associated high occurrence of caries in the older Bolivian squirrel monkeys with their diet and saliva characteristics of these animals. Lack of any periodontitis in Bolivian squirrel monkeys may partially be attributed to limitations of radiography technique, although squirrel monkeys appear to be far less susceptible to naturally occurring periodontitis than marmosets.


Assuntos
Callithrix , Animais , Saimiri
2.
Elife ; 102021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723794

RESUMO

Acoustic signals serve communication within and across species throughout the animal kingdom. Studying the genetics, evolution, and neurobiology of acoustic communication requires annotating acoustic signals: segmenting and identifying individual acoustic elements like syllables or sound pulses. To be useful, annotations need to be accurate, robust to noise, and fast.We here introduce DeepAudioSegmenter (DAS), a method that annotates acoustic signals across species based on a deep-learning derived hierarchical presentation of sound. We demonstrate the accuracy, robustness, and speed of DAS using acoustic signals with diverse characteristics from insects, birds, and mammals. DAS comes with a graphical user interface for annotating song, training the network, and for generating and proofreading annotations. The method can be trained to annotate signals from new species with little manual annotation and can be combined with unsupervised methods to discover novel signal types. DAS annotates song with high throughput and low latency for experimental interventions in realtime. Overall, DAS is a universal, versatile, and accessible tool for annotating acoustic communication signals.


Assuntos
Acústica , Comunicação Animal , Callithrix/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Etologia/métodos , Camundongos/fisiologia , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Tentilhões/fisiologia , Masculino , Redes Neurais de Computação
3.
Nature ; 598(7879): 111-119, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616062

RESUMO

The primary motor cortex (M1) is essential for voluntary fine-motor control and is functionally conserved across mammals1. Here, using high-throughput transcriptomic and epigenomic profiling of more than 450,000 single nuclei in humans, marmoset monkeys and mice, we demonstrate a broadly conserved cellular makeup of this region, with similarities that mirror evolutionary distance and are consistent between the transcriptome and epigenome. The core conserved molecular identities of neuronal and non-neuronal cell types allow us to generate a cross-species consensus classification of cell types, and to infer conserved properties of cell types across species. Despite the overall conservation, however, many species-dependent specializations are apparent, including differences in cell-type proportions, gene expression, DNA methylation and chromatin state. Few cell-type marker genes are conserved across species, revealing a short list of candidate genes and regulatory mechanisms that are responsible for conserved features of homologous cell types, such as the GABAergic chandelier cells. This consensus transcriptomic classification allows us to use patch-seq (a combination of whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, RNA sequencing and morphological characterization) to identify corticospinal Betz cells from layer 5 in non-human primates and humans, and to characterize their highly specialized physiology and anatomy. These findings highlight the robust molecular underpinnings of cell-type diversity in M1 across mammals, and point to the genes and regulatory pathways responsible for the functional identity of cell types and their species-specific adaptations.


Assuntos
Córtex Motor/citologia , Neurônios/classificação , Análise de Célula Única , Animais , Atlas como Assunto , Callithrix/genética , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Feminino , Neurônios GABAérgicos/citologia , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glutamatos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Motor/anatomia & histologia , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Transcriptoma
4.
Nature ; 598(7879): 86-102, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616075

RESUMO

Here we report the generation of a multimodal cell census and atlas of the mammalian primary motor cortex as the initial product of the BRAIN Initiative Cell Census Network (BICCN). This was achieved by coordinated large-scale analyses of single-cell transcriptomes, chromatin accessibility, DNA methylomes, spatially resolved single-cell transcriptomes, morphological and electrophysiological properties and cellular resolution input-output mapping, integrated through cross-modal computational analysis. Our results advance the collective knowledge and understanding of brain cell-type organization1-5. First, our study reveals a unified molecular genetic landscape of cortical cell types that integrates their transcriptome, open chromatin and DNA methylation maps. Second, cross-species analysis achieves a consensus taxonomy of transcriptomic types and their hierarchical organization that is conserved from mouse to marmoset and human. Third, in situ single-cell transcriptomics provides a spatially resolved cell-type atlas of the motor cortex. Fourth, cross-modal analysis provides compelling evidence for the transcriptomic, epigenomic and gene regulatory basis of neuronal phenotypes such as their physiological and anatomical properties, demonstrating the biological validity and genomic underpinning of neuron types. We further present an extensive genetic toolset for targeting glutamatergic neuron types towards linking their molecular and developmental identity to their circuit function. Together, our results establish a unifying and mechanistic framework of neuronal cell-type organization that integrates multi-layered molecular genetic and spatial information with multi-faceted phenotypic properties.


Assuntos
Córtex Motor/citologia , Neurônios/classificação , Análise de Célula Única , Animais , Atlas como Assunto , Callithrix , Epigenômica , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glutamatos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Camundongos , Córtex Motor/anatomia & histologia , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Transcriptoma
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5388, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526497

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a multifactorial disorder with characteristic synaptic and gene expression changes. Early intervention during childhood is thought to benefit prognosis. Here, we examined the changes in cortical synaptogenesis, synaptic function, and gene expression from birth to the juvenile stage in a marmoset model of ASD induced by valproic acid (VPA) treatment. Early postnatally, synaptogenesis was reduced in this model, while juvenile-age VPA-treated marmosets showed increased synaptogenesis, similar to observations in human tissue. During infancy, synaptic plasticity transiently increased and was associated with altered vocalization. Synaptogenesis-related genes were downregulated early postnatally. At three months of age, the differentially expressed genes were associated with circuit remodeling, similar to the expression changes observed in humans. In summary, we provide a functional and molecular characterization of a non-human primate model of ASD, highlighting its similarity to features observed in human ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Callithrix , Espinhas Dendríticas/fisiologia , Estimulação Elétrica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Plasticidade Neuronal/genética , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp/métodos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/citologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Ácido Valproico
6.
Behav Processes ; 192: 104495, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487831

RESUMO

In primates, the advantage of trichromacy (i.e., color vision expressed by most humans) over dichromacy (i.e., color vision expressed by many colorblind humans) has been linked to the detection of yellowish/reddish targets against a background of mature green leaves. Nevertheless, mostly because of studies conducted in humans, we know that achromatic cues might also play an important role in object identification, particularly when camouflage is involved. For instance, dichromacy favors the detection of camouflaged targets by exploitation of shape cues. The present study sought to evaluate the relative importance of color and shape cues on the detection of food targets by female and male marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Animals were observed with respect to their foraging behavior and the number of food targets captured. We confirmed that females are advantageous in detecting conspicuous food against a green background and revealed that females and males rely on shape cues to segregate cryptic food. Unexpectedly, males outperformed females in cryptic food foraging, while camouflage improved males' (but not females') performance. Here we show that dichromats could potentially benefit from a better segregation of green natural targets (e.g., immature fruits, green insects, and gum trees) when viewed against a green dappled background.


Assuntos
Callithrix , Visão de Cores , Animais , Percepção de Cores , Sinais (Psicologia) , Alimentos , Folhas de Planta
7.
Lab Anim (NY) ; 50(9): 239, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433924

Assuntos
Callithrix , Animais
8.
Neuron ; 109(15): 2370-2373, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352212

RESUMO

In this issue of Neuron, Duan et al. (2021) use pharmacological manipulation to reveal opposing influences of anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex of marmosets on decisions that are based on action-outcome associations.


Assuntos
Callithrix , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Animais , Giro do Cíngulo , Humanos , Neurônios
9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1790-1806, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427172

RESUMO

The unprecedented in recent history global COVID-19 pandemic urged the implementation of all existing vaccine platforms to ensure the availability of the vaccines against COVID-19 to every country in the world. Despite the multitude of high-quality papers describing clinical trials of different vaccine products, basic detailed data on general toxicity, reproductive toxicity, immunogenicity, protective efficacy and durability of immune response in animal models are scarce. Here, we developed a ß-propiolactone-inactivated whole virion vaccine CoviVac and assessed its safety, protective efficacy, immunogenicity and stability of the immune response in rodents and non-human primates. The vaccine showed no signs of acute/chronic, reproductive, embryo- and fetotoxicity, or teratogenic effects, as well as no allergenic properties in studied animal species. The vaccine induced stable and robust humoral immune response both in form of specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and NAbs in mice, Syrian hamsters, and common marmosets. The NAb levels did not decrease significantly over the course of one year. The course of two immunizations protected Syrian hamsters from severe pneumonia upon intranasal challenge with the live virus. Robustness of the vaccine manufacturing process was demonstrated as well. These data encouraged further evaluation of CoviVac in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunidade Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Callithrix , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Feminino , Cobaias , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Fatores de Tempo , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/efeitos adversos
10.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 50(6): 888-896, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462952

RESUMO

Morphofunctional characteristics of the large intestine are rarely explored to understand the physiology, behavior and ecology of neotropical primates. In this study, we analyzed the histometric parameters of the large intestine of hybrid marmosets (Callithrix sp.) captured in forest fragments of Viçosa-Brazil, under seasonal interference. These animals were predominantly insectivorous in the rainy season and gummivores in the dry season. Large intestine fragments were collected and processed according to histological methods and stained with toluidine blue for general analysis, periodic acid of Schiff (PAS) and Alcian blue (AB) for goblet cells, Grimelius and Masson Fontana for argyrophil and argentaffin endocrine cells. Several histometric parameters were more expressive in the large intestine of the rainy season marmosets: greater thickness of the parietal layers, greater number of argyrophil and argentaffin endocrine cells, and AB-positive goblet cells, characteristics favor secretomotor functions and reduce the passage time of the fecal bolus, which is consistent with an insectivorous diet. In contrast, parameters such as crypt width, height of the absorptive cells and striated border, and the number of PAS-positive cells were more expressive in the dry season marmosets, reflecting the need for longer passage time for digestion and absorption of food items from tree gum, which are more complex and demand the action of microorganisms present in the large intestine, as well as greater protection against the abrasive action of dietary fibers and against microorganisms. Thus, it can be said that the marmoset's large intestine has morphological adaptations to maximize energy intake from the diet, which alternates under the influence of seasonality.


Assuntos
Callithrix , Células Endócrinas , Animais , Dieta , Células Caliciformes , Intestino Grosso
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17279, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446741

RESUMO

The Brazilian buffy-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix aurita), one of the world's most endangered primates, is threatened by anthropogenic hybridization with exotic, invasive marmoset species. As there are few genetic data available for C. aurita, we developed a PCR-free protocol with minimal technical requirements to rapidly generate genomic data with genomic skimming and portable nanopore sequencing. With this direct DNA sequencing approach, we successfully determined the complete mitogenome of a marmoset that we initially identified as C. aurita. The obtained nanopore-assembled sequence was highly concordant with a Sanger sequenced version of the same mitogenome. Phylogenetic analyses unexpectedly revealed that our specimen was a cryptic hybrid, with a C. aurita phenotype and C. penicillata mitogenome lineage. We also used publicly available mitogenome data to determine diversity estimates for C. aurita and three other marmoset species. Mitogenomics holds great potential to address deficiencies in genomic data for endangered, non-model species such as C. aurita. However, we discuss why mitogenomic approaches should be used in conjunction with other data for marmoset species identification. Finally, we discuss the utility and implications of our results and genomic skimming/nanopore approach for conservation and evolutionary studies of C. aurita and other marmosets.


Assuntos
Callithrix/genética , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Genômica/métodos , Hibridização Genética/genética , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos/métodos , Animais , Brasil , Callithrix/classificação , DNA Mitocondrial/classificação , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Masculino , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3207-3216, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387927

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic neglected disease of worldwide public health concern. Leptospira species can infect a wide range of wild and domestic mammals and lead to a spectrum of disease, including severe and fatal forms. Herein, we report for the first time a fatal Leptospira interrogans infection in a free-ranging nonhuman primate (NHP), a black-tufted marmoset. Icterus, pulmonary haemorrhage, interstitial nephritis, and hepatocellular dissociation were the main findings raising the suspicion of leptospirosis. Diagnostic confirmation was based on specific immunohistochemical and PCR assays for Leptospira species. Immunolocalization of leptospiral antigens and identification of pathogenic species (L. interrogans species) were important for better understanding the pathogenesis of the disease. One Health-related implications of free-ranging NHPs in anthropized areas and transmission dynamics of human and animal leptospirosis are discussed.


Assuntos
Leptospira interrogans , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Saúde Única , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Callithrix , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15665, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341361

RESUMO

Amazonia has the richest primate fauna in the world. Nonetheless, the diversity and distribution of Amazonian primates remain little known and the scarcity of baseline data challenges their conservation. These challenges are especially acute in the Amazonian arc of deforestation, the 2500 km long southern edge of the Amazonian biome that is rapidly being deforested and converted to agricultural and pastoral landscapes. Amazonian marmosets of the genus Mico are little known endemics of this region and therefore a priority for research and conservation efforts. However, even nascent conservation efforts are hampered by taxonomic uncertainties in this group, such as the existence of a potentially new species from the Juruena-Teles Pires interfluve hidden within the M. emiliae epithet. Here we test if these marmosets belong to a distinct species using new morphological, phylogenomic, and geographic distribution data analysed within an integrative taxonomic framework. We discovered a new, pseudo-cryptic Mico species hidden within the epithet M. emiliae, here described and named after Horacio Schneider, the pioneer of molecular phylogenetics of Neotropical primates. We also clarify the distribution, evolutionary and morphological relationships of four other Mico species, bridging Linnean, Wallacean, and Darwinian shortfalls in the conservation of primates in the Amazonian arc of deforestation.


Assuntos
Callitrichinae , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Agricultura , Animais , Brasil , Callithrix , Ecossistema , Filogenia
14.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372593

RESUMO

For achieving retrograde gene transfer, we have so far developed two types of lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with fusion envelope glycoprotein, termed HiRet vector and NeuRet vector, consisting of distinct combinations of rabies virus and vesicular stomatitis virus glycoproteins. In the present study, we compared the patterns of retrograde transgene expression for the HiRet vs. NeuRet vectors by testing the cortical input system. These vectors were injected into the motor cortex in rats, marmosets, and macaques, and the distributions of retrograde labels were investigated in the cortex and thalamus. Our histological analysis revealed that the NeuRet vector generally exhibits a higher efficiency of retrograde gene transfer than the HiRet vector, though its capacity of retrograde transgene expression in the macaque brain is unexpectedly low, especially in terms of the intracortical connections, as compared to the rat and marmoset brains. It was also demonstrated that the NeuRet but not the HiRet vector displays sufficiently high neuron specificity and causes no marked inflammatory/immune responses at the vector injection sites in the primate (marmoset and macaque) brains. The present results indicate that the retrograde transgene efficiency of the NeuRet vector varies depending not only on the species but also on the input projections.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Lentivirus/genética , Neurônios/virologia , Transgenes/genética , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/virologia , Callithrix , Feminino , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Ratos , Especificidade da Espécie , Transdução Genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética
15.
J Med Primatol ; 50(6): 335-338, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448212

RESUMO

A seven-year-old female common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) presented with weight loss. Imaging revealed a left thoracic mass, confirmed at necropsy. Histology and immunohistochemistry suggested a well-differentiated pulmonary adenocarcinoma. No evidence of local lymphovascular invasion or distant metastasis was observed. This is the first report of pulmonary adenocarcinoma in marmosets.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Doenças dos Macacos , Animais , Callithrix , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/diagnóstico
16.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0238663, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370743

RESUMO

Studies of personality traits in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) indicate that there are five or six constructs-Sociability, Dominance, Neuroticism, Openness, and two related to Conscientiousness. The present study attempted to determine whether our earlier study of laboratory-housed individuals only yielded three-Dominance, Sociability, and Neuroticism-because of a low amount of between-subjects variance. To do so, we increased our sample size from 77 to 128. In addition, we ascertained the reliability and validity of ratings and whether polymorphisms related to the serotonin 1a receptor were associated with personality. We found Sociability, Dominance, and Negative Affect factors that resembled three domains found in previous studies, including ours. We also found an Openness and Impulsiveness factor, the latter of which bore some resemblance to Conscientiousness, and two higher-order factors, Pro-sociality and Boldness. In further analyses, we could not exclude the possibility that Pro-sociality and Boldness represented a higher-level of personality organization. Correlations between personality factors and well-being were consistent with the definitions of the factors. There were no significant associations between personality and genotype. These results suggest that common marmoset personality structure varies as a function of rearing or housing variables that have not yet been investigated systematically.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Callithrix/metabolismo , Callithrix/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Neuroticismo/fisiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comportamento Social
17.
J Neurosci ; 41(39): 8197-8209, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417331

RESUMO

The middle temporal (MT) area of the extrastriate visual cortex has long been studied in adulthood for its distinctive physiological properties and function as a part of the dorsal stream, yet interestingly it possesses a similar maturation profile as the primary visual cortex (V1). Here, we examined whether an early-life lesion in MT of marmoset monkeys (six female, two male) altered the dorsal stream development and the behavioral precision of reaching-to-grasp sequences. We observed permanent changes in the anatomy of cortices associated with both reaching (parietal and medial intraparietal areas) and grasping (anterior intraparietal area), as well as in reaching-and-grasping behaviors. In addition, we observed a significant impact on the anatomy of V1 and the direction sensitivity of V1 neurons in the lesion projection zone. These findings indicate that area MT is a crucial node in the development of primate vision, affecting both V1 and areas in the dorsal visual pathway known to mediate visually guided manual behaviors.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Previous studies have identified a role for the MT area of the visual cortex in perceiving motion, yet none have examined its central role in the development of the visual cortex and in the establishment of visuomotor behaviors. To address this, we used a unilateral MT lesion model in neonatal marmosets before examining the anatomic, physiological, and behavioral consequences. In adulthood, we observed perturbations in goal-orientated reach-and-grasp behavior, altered direction selectivity of V1 neurons, and changes in the cytoarchitecture throughout dorsal stream areas. This study highlights the importance of MT as a central node in visual system development and consequential visuomotor activity.


Assuntos
Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Vias Visuais/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Animais , Callithrix , Feminino , Masculino , Neurônios/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Córtex Visual/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Visuais/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15683, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344939

RESUMO

Recent studies find increasing evidence for vocal accommodation in nonhuman primates, indicating that this form of vocal learning is more prevalent than previously thought. Convergent vocal accommodation (i.e. becoming more similar to partners) indicates social closeness. At the same time, however, becoming too similar may compromise individual recognisability. This is especially problematic if individual recognisability is an important part of the call function, like in long-distance contact calls. In contrast, in calls with a different function, the trade-off between signalling social closeness and individual recognisability might be less severe. We therefore hypothesized that the extent and consequences of accommodation depend on the function of a given call, and expected (1) more accommodation in calls for which individual identity is less crucial and (2) that individual identity is less compromised in calls that serve mainly to transmit identity compared to calls where individual recognisability is less important. We quantified vocal accommodation in three call types over the process of pair formation in common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus, n = 20). These three call types have different functions and vary with the degree to which they refer to individual identity of the caller. In accordance with our predictions, we found that animals converged most in close contact calls (trill calls), but less in calls where individual identity is more essential (phee- and food calls). In two out of three call types, the amount of accommodation was predicted by the initial vocal distance. Moreover, accommodation led to a drop in statistical individual recognisability in trill calls, but not in phee calls and food calls. Overall, our study shows that patterns of vocal accommodation vary between call types with different functions, suggestive of trade-offs between signalling social closeness and individual recognisability in marmoset vocalizations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Callithrix/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Comportamento Social , Vocalização Animal , Animais
20.
Curr Opin Pharmacol ; 60: 11-16, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280704

RESUMO

The common marmoset, a New World monkey, has a primate-specific cortex with approximately 40 Brodmann areas. Genetically encoded calcium indicator (GECI) techniques have been applied to study the functional organization of the marmoset cortex. The success of GCaMP (a green fluorescent of GECI) imaging and other advances, including optogenetic approaches, provide an interesting and exciting opportunity to study the primate brain at the molecular and cellular levels, leading to an understanding of primate neural circuits. These approaches will help advance our knowledge on cognition in primates, including humans, and therapy for human neurological and psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Callithrix , Animais , Vetores Genéticos , Optogenética
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