Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.506
Filtrar
1.
Zool Res ; 42(6): 761-771, 2021 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643070

RESUMO

The pygmy marmoset, the smallest of the anthropoid primates, has a broad distribution in Western Amazonia. Recent studies using molecular and morphological data have identified two distinct species separated by the Napo and Solimões-Amazonas rivers. However, reconciling this new biological evidence with current taxonomy, i.e., two subspecies, Cebuella pygmaea pygmaea (Spix, 1823) and Cebuella pygmaea niveiventris (Lönnberg, 1940), was problematic given the uncertainty as to whether Spix's pygmy marmoset ( Cebuella pygmaea pygmaea) was collected north or south of the Napo and Solimões-Amazonas rivers, making it unclear to which of the two newly revealed species the name pygmaea would apply. Here, we present the first molecular data from Spix's type specimen of Cebuella pygmaea, as well as novel mitochondrial genomes from modern pygmy marmosets sampled near the type locality (Tabatinga) on both sides of the river. With these data, we can confirm the correct names of the two species identified, i.e., C. pygmaea for animals north of the Napo and Solimões-Amazonas rivers and C. niveiventris for animals south of these two rivers. Phylogenetic analyses of the novel genetic data placed into the context of cytochrome b gene sequences from across the range of pygmy marmosets further led us to re-evaluate the geographical distribution for the two Cebuella species. We dated the split of these two species to 2.54 million years ago. We discuss additional, more recent, subdivisions within each lineage, as well as potential contact zones between the two species in the headwaters of these rivers.


Assuntos
Callitrichinae/classificação , Callitrichinae/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Filogenia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15665, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341361

RESUMO

Amazonia has the richest primate fauna in the world. Nonetheless, the diversity and distribution of Amazonian primates remain little known and the scarcity of baseline data challenges their conservation. These challenges are especially acute in the Amazonian arc of deforestation, the 2500 km long southern edge of the Amazonian biome that is rapidly being deforested and converted to agricultural and pastoral landscapes. Amazonian marmosets of the genus Mico are little known endemics of this region and therefore a priority for research and conservation efforts. However, even nascent conservation efforts are hampered by taxonomic uncertainties in this group, such as the existence of a potentially new species from the Juruena-Teles Pires interfluve hidden within the M. emiliae epithet. Here we test if these marmosets belong to a distinct species using new morphological, phylogenomic, and geographic distribution data analysed within an integrative taxonomic framework. We discovered a new, pseudo-cryptic Mico species hidden within the epithet M. emiliae, here described and named after Horacio Schneider, the pioneer of molecular phylogenetics of Neotropical primates. We also clarify the distribution, evolutionary and morphological relationships of four other Mico species, bridging Linnean, Wallacean, and Darwinian shortfalls in the conservation of primates in the Amazonian arc of deforestation.


Assuntos
Callitrichinae , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Agricultura , Animais , Brasil , Callithrix , Ecossistema , Filogenia
3.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 92(3): 175-182, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077931

RESUMO

Exudates are an important renewable resource for many primates. Exudate renewability is based on observations of primates repeatedly depleting exudate sites and measures of exudate trees' daily replenishment rates, but the role of the consumer in the renewal process is unclear. Trees' exudate production may be independent of the consumer, remaining unchanged regardless of depletion frequency, but since trees produce exudates as a physiological response to fungal infection, they may produce more exudates with more frequent depletion. To test these competing hypotheses, we employed a within-subjects experimental design in which we exposed pygmy marmosets' exudate holes to two treatment conditions: collecting exudates after 5 h and collecting exudates every hour for five consecutive hours. To compare production outputs between treatments, we used generalised linear mixed modelling in which log-transformed production data were a function of treatment with exudate holes nested within trees as a random effect. The model indicated that the cumulative production of hourly exudate removal was significantly greater than the amount accumulated after 5 h. Furthermore, the random effect of holes nested within trees had the greatest impact on variation in differences between treatments, but another unknown source also contributed to the observed variation. These results support the hypothesis that consumers partly drive exudate production, and although it is unknown what other factors, such as fungal load and healing trajectory, may influence variation between treatments, we conclude that pygmy marmosets can stimulate exudate production by consuming exudates.


Assuntos
Callitrichinae/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Árvores/fisiologia , Animais
4.
Biomedica ; 41(Supl. 1): 60-81, 2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111341

RESUMO

Introduction: Enteroparasites can cause problems in animals kept under human care in zoos and shelters. Wild animals have low parasitic loads but when sheltered in closed places they can be higher and lead to clinical manifestations, which increases the cost of medical treatments and care. On the other hand, some enteroparasites can represent a potential risk of zoonotic infection for their animal keepers, visitors, and other zoo animals. In addition, they could affect recovery programs for endangered species. Objectives: To establish the presence and prevalence of potentially zoonotic enteroparasites in primates of the Cebidae and Callitrichidae families at the Zoológico de Cali from September to November, 2017. Materials and methods: We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study. Serial samples from 50 individuals belonging to seven species and two primate families were analyzed by ova and parasite test, flotation, and Kinyoun stain between September and November, 2017. Results: In order of frequency, the parasite genera found in the seven primate species evaluated were Blastocystis spp., Trichomonas spp., Giardia spp., Entamoeba spp., Strongyloides spp., Cyclospora sp., and Trichuris sp. Conclusions: At least six of the parasite genera found have potential zoonotic implications. It is necessary to establish what are the infection sources at the Zoológico de Cali and implement management protocols to reduce the risk of transmission to both humans and other animals in the collection. Additionally, we offer relevant information on the zoonotic potential of each of the enteroparasites found.


Assuntos
Callitrichinae , Cebidae , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Callitrichinae/parasitologia , Cebidae/parasitologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Primatas , Estudos Prospectivos , Zoonoses
5.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(4): 648-654, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047212

RESUMO

Inclusion bodies (IBs) and multinucleate cells can be associated with viral infections; however, IBs and multinucleate cells have been described in normal tissue and with non-viral disease processes in multiple species. We examined fundic stomach from 50 callitrichids histologically for bi- and multinucleate parietal cells and cytoplasmic IBs in gastric epithelial cells. Callitrichids represented included 6 genera: Saguinus (4 spp.), Leontopithecus (1 sp.), Mico (3 spp.), Cebuella (1 sp.), Callithrix (1 sp.), Callimico (1 sp.), and 13 unspecified marmosets. Gastric epithelial IBs were present in 46 of 47 (98%) of the callitrichids from which the stomach was sufficiently well preserved to identify IBs. Cytoplasmic IBs were identified in gastric surface pit epithelial cells (43 of 44, 98%), mucous neck cells (43 of 44, 98%), parietal cells (43 of 44, 98%), and chief cells (43 of 44, 98%). The IBs were eosinophilic, ovoid, round, elongate, or variably indented, sometimes slightly refractile, and 1-6 × 1-13 µm. IBs were sometimes perinuclear and molded around the nucleus. Electron microscopy of the gastric epithelium of one marmoset indicated that IBs were composed of intermediate filaments. The IBs did not stain with immunohistochemical markers for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 or vimentin. Binucleate parietal cells were found in 49 of 50 (98%) callitrichids, and multinucleate parietal cells were observed in 40 of 49 (82%) callitrichids. Gastric epithelial cytoplasmic IBs and bi- and multinucleate parietal cells are likely a normal finding in callitrichids, and, to our knowledge, have not been reported previously.


Assuntos
Callitrichinae/anatomia & histologia , Mucosa Gástrica/ultraestrutura , Corpos de Inclusão/ultraestrutura , Células Parietais Gástricas/ultraestrutura , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/veterinária , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
J Anat ; 239(3): 669-681, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018180

RESUMO

The anatomy of the primate forearm is frequently investigated in terms of locomotor mode, substrate use, and manual dexterity. Such studies typically rely upon broad, interspecific samples for which one or two representative taxa are used to characterize the anatomy of their genus or family. To interpret variation between distantly related taxa, however, it is necessary to contextualize these differences by quantifying variation at lower hierarchical levels, that is, more fine-grained representation within specific genera or families. In this study, we present a focused evaluation of the variation in muscle organization, integration, and architecture within two speciose primate families: the Callitrichidae and Lemuridae. We demonstrate that, within each lineage, several muscle functional groups exhibit substantial variation in muscle organization. Most notably, the digital extensors appear highly variable (particularly among callitrichids), with many unique configurations represented. In terms of architectural variables, both families are more conservative, with the exception of the genus Callimico-for which an increase is observed in forearm muscle mass and strength. We suggest this reflects the increased use of vertical climbing and trunk-to-trunk leaping within this genus relative to the more typically fine-branch substrate use of the other callitrichids. Overall, these data emphasize the underappreciated variation in forearm myology and suggest that overly generalized typification of a taxon's anatomy may conceal significant intraspecific and intrageneric variation therein. Thus, considerations of adaptation within the forearm musculature should endeavor to consider the full range of anatomical variation when making comparisons between multiple taxa within an evolutionary context.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Callitrichinae/anatomia & histologia , Antebraço/anatomia & histologia , Lemuridae/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Locomoção/fisiologia
7.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 175(1): 251-267, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751563

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the diversity of the pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea, by comparing genetic, morphological and pelage traits of animals from Peru and Ecuador. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We extracted DNA from museum specimen osteocrusts and from fecal samples collected from free-ranging individuals. We sequenced the mtDNA cytochrome b gene and the control region from samples collected at 13 different sites and used Bayesian inference and Maximum Likelihood to identify distinct clades. We took measurements of the crania of a subset of these specimens (n = 26) and ran a logistic regression to determine if any of the cranial measurements (n = 22) could predict a specimen's clade. In addition, we examined the pelage patterns of the museum specimens and photographs taken of free-ranging individuals and divided them into pelage types based on coloration of the underbelly. RESULTS: We identified two divergent clades, and two distinct groups with clear geographic boundaries within one of those clades. Two measurements of the zygomatic bone perfectly predicted a given individual's mtDNA clade. We found four distinct pelage patterns in our samples, but these patterns are variable within clades and among individuals within the same population. CONCLUSION: These analyses indicate that the two recognized subspecies of pygmy marmoset should be elevated to the species level (C. pygmaea and C. niveiventris) based on molecular and cranial differences but not on pelage patterns. We provide evidence on the geographic limits of the two clades and identify regions where additional sampling is required to better define the geographic distribution of the two clades.


Assuntos
Callitrichinae , Animais , Animais Selvagens/anatomia & histologia , Animais Selvagens/classificação , Animais Selvagens/genética , Antropologia Física , Callitrichinae/anatomia & histologia , Callitrichinae/classificação , Callitrichinae/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Equador , Feminino , Masculino , Museus , Peru , Filogenia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
8.
Am Nat ; 197(4): 502-508, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755537

RESUMO

AbstractA typical monkey of the subfamily Callitrichinae has two or more cell lineages occupying its tissues: one from "itself," and one from its co-twin(s). Chimerism originates in utero when the twin placentae fuse, vascular anastomoses form between them, and cells are exchanged between conceptuses through their shared circulation. Previously it was thought that chimerism was limited to tissues of the hematopoietic cell lineage and that the germline was clonal, but subsequent empirical work has shown that chimerism may extend to many tissues, including the germline. To explore how natural selection on chimeric organisms should shape their social behavior, I construct an inclusive fitness model of sibling interactions that permits differing degrees of chimerism in the soma and germline. The model predicts that somatic chimerism should diminish sibling rivalry but that germline chimerism should typically intensify it. A further implication of the model is the possibility for intraorganismal conflict over developing phenotypes; as tissues may differ in their extent of chimerism-for example, placenta versus brain-their respective inclusive fitness may be maximized by different phenotypes. Communication between tissues in chimeric organisms might therefore be noisy, rapidly evolving, and fraught, as is common in systems with internal evolutionary conflicts of interest.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Callitrichinae/genética , Quimerismo , Modelos Biológicos , Relações entre Irmãos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
9.
J Comp Pathol ; 183: 1-8, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714426

RESUMO

Cryptococcosis is widely reported in North America and Australia but considered rare in the UK. Disease is mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii and affects animals and humans. Cases of cryptococcosis have been described in non-human primates, including a few in the Callitrichidae family. Six captive callitrichids from five zoological facilities in the UK were diagnosed with cryptococcosis on post-mortem examination over a 13-year period. Histological examination revealed intralesional yeast bodies consistent with Cryptococcus spp in lung, brain, lymph nodes, larynx, salivary gland and ears. C. neoformans was confirmed in two cases by culture and by culture and polymerase chain reaction (28S rRNA gene), respectively. This case series is the first report of Cryptococcus spp in captive callitrichids in the UK and reinforces the need to include this fungal disease in the differential diagnosis of sick callitrichids in zoo settings.


Assuntos
Criptococose , Cryptococcus gattii , Cryptococcus neoformans , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Callitrichinae , Criptococose/veterinária , Cryptococcus gattii/genética , Cryptococcus neoformans/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Reino Unido
10.
Primates ; 62(2): 407-415, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428014

RESUMO

Habituation is used in most field research with primates to minimize observer effects on their behavior. Despite its importance, there is little published on the methods used to habituate different taxa of primates or how these methods vary in different habitat types. We assessed changes in behavior and space use of two groups of Leontocebus lagonotus in the Ecuadorian Amazon in order to document this process. Although the subjects had not been studied before, visitors and researchers were more frequently in the home range of Group 1 than of Group 2. We followed both groups for 2 months, collecting behavioral data through scan sampling and recording the use of space (ground, understory, subcanopy, and canopy) and the routes along which we followed the groups. We then divided our data into two equivalent stages, randomized the data for each stage and looked for significant differences using Wilcoxon tests. Our results show a significant decrease in submissive behaviors toward the observer for both groups and a significant increase in resting and foraging for Group 1. In addition, Group 2 used the subcanopy significantly less and the understory more during the second stage. The routes the animals used were significantly longer in the second stage for Group 1, but not for Group 2. We conclude that our methodology is adequate to advance in the habituation of L. lagonotus in less than 2 months and that a group will habituate more quickly if it has had some previous neutral exposure to humans.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/métodos , Comportamento Animal , Callitrichinae/fisiologia , Animais , Equador , Habituação Psicofisiológica , Humanos
12.
Am J Primatol ; 81(12): e23063, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692027

RESUMO

The establishment of baseline data on parasites from wild primates is essential to understand how changes in habitat or climatic disturbances will impact parasite-host relationships. In nature, multiparasitic infections of primates usually fluctuate temporally and seasonally, implying that the acquisition of reliable data must occur over time. Individual parasite infection data from two wild populations of New World primates, the saddleback (Leontocebus weddelli) and emperor (Saguinus imperator) tamarin, were collected over 3 years to establish baseline levels of helminth prevalence and parasite species richness (PSR). Secondarily, we explored variation in parasite prevalence across age and sex classes, test nonrandom associations of parasite co-occurrence, and assess the relationship between group size and PSR. From 288 fecal samples across 105 individuals (71 saddleback and 34 emperor tamarins), 10 parasite taxa were identified by light microscopy following centrifugation and ethyl-acetate sedimentation. Of these taxa, none were host-specific, Dicrocoeliidae and Cestoda prevalences differed between host species, Prosthenorchis and Strongylida were the most prevalent. Host age was positively associated with Prosthenorchis ova and filariform larva, but negatively with cestode and the Rhabditoidea ova. We detected no differences between expected and observed levels of co-infection, nor between group size and parasite species richness over 30 group-years. Logistic models of individual infection status did not identify a sex bias; however, age and species predicted the presence of four and three parasite taxa, respectively, with saddleback tamarins exhibiting higher PSR. Now that we have reliable baseline data for future monitoring of these populations, next steps involve the molecular characterization of these parasites, and exploration of linkages with health parameters.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Callitrichinae , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Saguinus , Animais , Feminino , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Masculino , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Peru/epidemiologia , Prevalência
13.
Am J Primatol ; 81(9): e23038, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389057

RESUMO

In many birds and mammals, the size and sex composition of litters can have important downstream effects for individual offspring. Primates are model organisms for questions of cooperation and conflict, but the factors shaping interactions among same-age siblings have been less-studied in primates because most species bear single young. However, callitrichines (marmosets, tamarins, and lion tamarins) frequently bear litters of two or more, thereby providing the opportunity to ask whether variation in the size and sex composition of litters affects development, survival, and reproduction. To investigate these questions, we compiled a large dataset of nine species of callitrichines (n = 27,080 individuals; Callithrix geoffroyi, Callithrix jacchus, Cebuella pygmaea, Saguinus imperator, Saguinus oedipus, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Leontopithecus chrysopygus, Leontopithecus rosalia, and Callimico goeldii) from zoo and laboratory populations spanning 80 years (1938-2018). Through this comparative approach, we found several lines of evidence that litter size and sex composition may impact fitness. Singletons have higher survivorship than litter-born peers and they significantly outperform litter-born individuals on two measures of reproductive performance. Further, for some species, individuals born in a mixed-sex litter outperform isosexually-born individuals (i.e., those born in all-male or all-female litters), suggesting that same-sex competition may limit reproductive performance. We also document several interesting demographic trends. All but one species (C. pygmaea) has a male-biased birth sex ratio with higher survivorship from birth to sexual maturity among females (although this was significant in only two species). Isosexual litters occurred at the expected frequency (with one exception: C. pygmaea), unlike other animals, where isosexual litters are typically overrepresented. Taken together, our results indicate a modest negative effect of same-age sibling competition on reproductive output in captive callitrichines. This study also serves to illustrate the value of zoo and laboratory records for biological inquiry.


Assuntos
Callitrichinae/fisiologia , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Longevidade , Reprodução , Razão de Masculinidade , Animais , Animais de Laboratório , Animais de Zoológico , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(4): 280-288, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011515

RESUMO

Objective: The incidence rate of major depression in adolescents reaches approximately 14%. This disorder is usually recurrent, without remission of symptoms even after pharmacological treatment, and persists throughout adult life. Since the effects of antidepressants take approximately 2 weeks to begin, new pharmacological therapies are under continuous exploration. Recent evidence suggests that psychedelics could produce rapid antidepressant effects. In this study, we evaluated the potential antidepressant effects of ayahuasca in a juvenile non-human primate model of depression. Methods: While living with their families, juvenile marmosets (8 males; 7 females) were observed on alternate days for four weeks during a baseline phase. This was followed by 8 weeks of an induced depressive state protocol, the social isolated context (IC), in which the animals were monitored in the first and last weeks. Subsequently, five males and four females were randomly selected for treatment, first with a single administration of saline vehicle (1.67 mL/300 g of body weight, via gavage), followed by a single dose of ayahuasca (1.67 mL/300 g of body weight, via gavage). Both phases lasted 1 week and the animals were monitored daily. A third week of sampling was called the tardive-pharmacological effects phase. In all phases the marmosets were assessed for behavior, fecal cortisol levels, and body weight. Results: After IC, the animals presented typical hypocortisolemia, but cortisol recovered to baseline levels 24 h after an acute dose of ayahuasca; this recovery was not observed in vehicle-treated animals. Additionally, in males, ayahuasca, but not the vehicle, reduced scratching, a stereotypic behavior, and increased feeding. Ayahuasca treatment also improved body weight to baseline levels in both sexes. The ayahuasca-induced behavioral response had long-term effects (14 days). Thus, in this translational juvenile animal model of depression, ayahuasca presented beneficial effects. Conclusions: These results can contribute to the validation of ayahuasca as an antidepressant drug and encourage new studies on psychedelic drugs as a tool for treating mood disorders, including for adolescents with early-onset depression.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Banisteriopsis , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Alucinógenos/administração & dosagem , Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Primatas , Hidrocortisona/análise , Callitrichinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/química
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10356, 2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346187

RESUMO

Increasingly large proportions of tropical forests are anthropogenically disturbed. Where natural regeneration is possible at all, it requires the input of plant seeds through seed dispersal from the forest matrix. Zoochorous seed dispersal - the major seed dispersal mode for woody plants in tropical forests - is particularly important for natural regeneration. In this study, covering a period of more than 20 years, we show that small New World primates, the tamarins Saguinus mystax and Leontocebus nigrifrons, increase their use of an anthropogenically disturbed area over time and disperse seeds from primary forest tree species into this area. Through monitoring the fate of seeds and through parentage analyses of seedlings of the legume Parkia panurensis from the disturbed area and candidate parents from the primary forest matrix, we show that tamarin seed dispersal is effective and contributes to the natural regeneration of the disturbed area.


Assuntos
Callitrichinae , Florestas , Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Fabaceae/genética , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Periodicidade , Estações do Ano , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clima Tropical
16.
Am J Primatol ; 81(10-11): e23003, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190348

RESUMO

Body mass is a strong predictor of diet and nutritional requirements across a wide range of mammalian taxa. In the case of small-bodied primates, because of their limited gut volume, rapid food passage rate, and high metabolic rate, they are hypothesized to maintain high digestive efficiency by exploiting foods rich in protein, fats, and readily available energy. However, our understanding of the dietary requirements of wild primates is limited because little is known concerning the contributions of their gut microbiome to the breakdown and assimilation of macronutrients and energy. To study how the gut microbiome contributes to the feeding ecology of a small-bodied primate, we analyzed the fecal microbiome composition and metabolome of 22 wild saddleback tamarins (adult body mass 360-390 g) in Northern Bolivia. Samples were analyzed using high-throughput Illumina sequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene V3-V5 regions, coupled with GC-MS metabolomic profiling. Our analysis revealed that the distal microbiome of Leontocebus weddelli is largely dominated by two main bacterial genera: Xylanibacter and Hallella (34.7 ± 14.7 and 22.6 ± 12.4%, respectively). A predictive analysis of functions likely carried out by bacteria in the tamarin gut demonstrated the dominance of membrane transport systems and carbohydrate metabolism as the predominant metabolic pathways. Moreover, given a fecal metabolome composed mainly of glucose, fructose, and lactic acid (21.7 ± 15.9%, 16.5 ± 10.7%, and 6.8 ± 5.5%, respectively), the processing of highly fermentable carbohydrates appears to play a central role in the nutritional ecology of these small-bodied primates. Finally, the results also show a potential influence of environmentally-derived bacteria in colonizing the tamarin gut. These results indicate high energetic turnover in the distal gut of Weddell's saddleback tamarin, likely influenced by dominant bacterial taxa that facilitate dietary dependence on highly digestible carbohydrates present in nectar, plant exudates, and ripe fruits.


Assuntos
Callitrichinae/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metaboloma , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bolívia , Callitrichinae/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(4): 3617-3623, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201676

RESUMO

The callitrichids are non-human primates that feed on insects and plant matter in nature, but in captivity, they are fed mostly an artificial diet containing amounts of gluten, in their toxic forms in items such as wheat, barley and rye. The aim of this research was to estimate the blood ß-defensin and Toll like receptor 5 (TLR5) gene expressions and to analyze the stool consistency (firm, soft, diarrheic) in Leontocebus fuscicollis raised in captivity. Blood samples of animals under gluten-free and gluten diets were collected and their fecal output quality was periodically monitored and classified during the course of the study. Gene expression was evaluated using real-time PCR. The stool consistencies of individuals fed a gluten diet were most frequently soft or diarrheic, while it was mostly normal in individuals fed a gluten-free diet. ß-Defensin expression increased in individuals fed a gluten diet, but decreased after 15 days. Expression normalized between 30 and 45 days on a gluten-free diet. However, expression of the TLR5 gene did not change under a gluten diet. A gluten diet affects stool quality, and brings about an immediate increase in blood ß-defensin expression in the beginning but decreases after 15 days.


Assuntos
Dieta Livre de Glúten , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Glutens/metabolismo , Animais , Callitrichinae , Diarreia , Fezes , Imunidade Inata , Inflamação , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/sangue , beta-Defensinas/sangue
18.
Am J Primatol ; 81(4): e22967, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924189

RESUMO

Although potentially beneficial in terms of raising awareness and conservation funding, tourist visitation of wild primates can have negative impacts on visited groups. Tourism-generated noise is a relatively understudied facet of ecotourism research, and the effects of tourist-generated speech on free-ranging, wild primates has never been explored previously. This study investigates the behavioral responses of 10 groups of pygmy marmosets (Cebuella pygmaea) to human speech. Through the use of an experimental playback study using recorded human speech, we show that pygmy marmosets within the Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Reserve, Peru, are significantly less visible, and often move completely out of sight after louder playbacks. Although no consistent differences were found in other behaviors with playback duration and volume, playbacks of human speech tended to increase the amount of time individuals were alert and decrease feeding and resting behaviors. Our results demonstrate that human speech can alter the behavior of visited primates, and identifies a decrease in primate visibility within the increasing volume. As all trials in this study took place near a marmoset group's feeding tree, moving out of sight from the visible study area is a particularly energetically costly behavior, and also has a negative effect on visitor enjoyment as it limits the time that they are able to view the target species. This response was not observed (nor was any other consistent behavior change) in control trials where the marmosets were exposed to human presence but not to speech, suggesting that negative tourist impacts can be reduced by encouraging tourists to refrain from speaking in the presence of visited primate groups.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Callitrichinae/fisiologia , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Fala , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Peru , Descanso
19.
Primates ; 60(2): 155-162, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661171

RESUMO

In a recent article, Silva et al. (Zool Scr 47:133-143, 2018) proposed the relocation of the dwarf marmoset, Mico humilis, to the so far unrecognized genus Callibella. We contend that a taxonomic scheme that recognizes Callibella as if it were a valid genus is inadequately supported, and to some extent contradicted, by the ecological and morphological information provided by the authors. We discuss why the criterion of sympatry, invoked by Silva et al. to justify the recognition of Callibella at the genus level, is uninformative for taxonomic decisions above the species level. We also show that the morphological characteristics used by Silva et al. to separate Mico humilis from the other Mico are individually variable and present in every analyzed species of the genus. Moreover, we demonstrate that the Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered (EDGE) metric, employed by those authors to attempt to justify their taxonomic proposition, makes no sense in a taxonomic context. Conceptually, the use of autapomorphies and plesiomorphies to justify using Callibella goes against one of the main objectives of a meaningful classification, that is, to allow for all kinds of inferences based on previous observations (i.e., to be inductively projectible). Based on these arguments, we demonstrate that regarding Callibella as a subgenus of Mico is the most suitable way of making the Linnean taxonomy of marmosets congruent with the phylogenetic information available for the group.


Assuntos
Callitrichinae/classificação , Filogenia , Terminologia como Assunto , Animais
20.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 41(4): 280-288, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30427388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The incidence rate of major depression in adolescents reaches approximately 14%. This disorder is usually recurrent, without remission of symptoms even after pharmacological treatment, and persists throughout adult life. Since the effects of antidepressants take approximately 2 weeks to begin, new pharmacological therapies are under continuous exploration. Recent evidence suggests that psychedelics could produce rapid antidepressant effects. In this study, we evaluated the potential antidepressant effects of ayahuasca in a juvenile non-human primate model of depression. METHODS: While living with their families, juvenile marmosets (8 males; 7 females) were observed on alternate days for four weeks during a baseline phase. This was followed by 8 weeks of an induced depressive state protocol, the social isolated context (IC), in which the animals were monitored in the first and last weeks. Subsequently, five males and four females were randomly selected for treatment, first with a single administration of saline vehicle (1.67 mL/300 g of body weight, via gavage), followed by a single dose of ayahuasca (1.67 mL/300 g of body weight, via gavage). Both phases lasted 1 week and the animals were monitored daily. A third week of sampling was called the tardive-pharmacological effects phase. In all phases the marmosets were assessed for behavior, fecal cortisol levels, and body weight. RESULTS: After IC, the animals presented typical hypocortisolemia, but cortisol recovered to baseline levels 24 h after an acute dose of ayahuasca; this recovery was not observed in vehicle-treated animals. Additionally, in males, ayahuasca, but not the vehicle, reduced scratching, a stereotypic behavior, and increased feeding. Ayahuasca treatment also improved body weight to baseline levels in both sexes. The ayahuasca-induced behavioral response had long-term effects (14 days). Thus, in this translational juvenile animal model of depression, ayahuasca presented beneficial effects. CONCLUSIONS: These results can contribute to the validation of ayahuasca as an antidepressant drug and encourage new studies on psychedelic drugs as a tool for treating mood disorders, including for adolescents with early-onset depression.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Banisteriopsis , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Alucinógenos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Callitrichinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/química , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Primatas
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...