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1.
Food Chem ; 371: 131201, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598116

RESUMO

Hydrophilic constituents are significant for the taste and nutrition of tea, but their simultaneous quantification remains challenging due to the lack of efficient methods. Based on the hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole-tandem mass spectrometry, this work developed and validated an efficient (8.5 min per run), sensitive (LOQ: 0.002-0.493 µg/mL) and accurate method. This method was successfully used to determine the contents of 45 hydrophilic constituents in Yunnan large-leaf tea. Umami amino acids and umami-enhanced nucleotides generally exhibited higher content in green tea and Pu-erh raw tea. By contrast, a few number of amino acids (e.g., proline and γ-aminobutyric acid) and most alkaloids and nucleosides showed significantly higher contents in black tea or Pu-erh ripen tea. By performing the orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, classification models for distinguishing four types of tea, and green tea from Pu-erh raw tea were established.


Assuntos
Camellia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Chá
2.
Food Chem ; 372: 131143, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601419

RESUMO

The frying process is an excellent way to obtain food with desirable sensory. However, some harmful substances, such as aldehydes and monoepoxy oleic acids, could also be produced. This study mainly explores the inhibition of polyphenols from the Camellia oleifera seed cake extract (CSCE) on the formation of polar compounds, core aldehydes, and monoepoxy oleic acids during deep-fat frying. The results showed that the CSCE could significantly decrease peroxide, p-anisidine, total polar, and monoepoxy oleic acids compared with other groups. In addition, the CSCE could significantly inhibit the generation of oxidized triacylglycerol polymer (TGP) and oxidized triacylglycerol (ox-TG), indicating its anti-polymerization activity. The total amount of core aldehydes and glycerol ester core aldehydes (9-oxo) in soybean oil was significantly reduced. Furthermore, CSCE had a better inhibitory effect on monoepoxy fatty acids than TBHQ. Our results might be helpful to provide a basis for the search for new natural antioxidants.


Assuntos
Camellia , Aldeídos , Temperatura Alta , Ácidos Oleicos , Extratos Vegetais , Óleos Vegetais , Sementes
3.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132110, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523433

RESUMO

Agricultural soils are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that related with intensive fertilizer input. Biochar is widely used to mitigate GHGs, which may interact with soil water content impacting GHG emissions. Camellia oleifera fruit shell (FS) and spent mushroom substrate (MS) are ideal biochar feedstocks. However, the impact of water content and biochar on soil GHG emissions has not been thoroughly understood. Here, we examined CH4 and N2O emissions from C. oleifera plantation soils as affected by biochar (derived from MS or FS, 1 g 25 g-1 soil), water content (60%, 120%, 240% or 360% water holding capacity, WHC), and fertilization (control or chicken manure, CM 2.5 g 25 g-1 soil). We determined the abundance of related microbial functional genes to obtain the underlining mechanisms. The results showed that higher N2O emissions occurred in soils with 120%WHC, due to increased abundance of AOA, AOB and nirS. MS or FS biochar differed in their effects on soil GHG emissions with different WHC. MS biochar was higher in pH, C/N and specific surface area, and mitigated more N2O emissions from soils with CM and 120%WHC relative to FS biochar (by 92.9% and 34.6%, respectively). MS biochar significantly decreased abundance of nitrification related functional genes (AOA, AOB) in soils with 120%WHC and CM, which explained the decrease in N2O emissions. However, MS biochar increased cumulative CH4 emissions from flooded soils via increase in mcrA abundance. Thereby, biochar feedstocks should be considered in CH4 and N2O mitigations from soils with different water contents.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Camellia , Carvão Vegetal , Fertilização , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Solo , Água
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(20): 5362-5371, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738440

RESUMO

The present study explored the effects and its underlying mechanisms of four active fractions of Camellia nitidissima(leaf polyphenols, leaf saponins, flower polyphenols, and flower saponins in C. nitidissima) in inhibiting the proliferation and migration of non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC) by suppressing the epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR). MTT assay was used to detect the effect of four active fractions on the proliferation of NCI-H1975 and HCC827 cells. Wound healing assay and Transwell assay were adopted to evaluate the effect of four active fractions on the migration of NSCLC. The effect of four active fractions on the enzyme activity of EGFR was detected. Molecular docking was carried out to explore the direct action capacity and action sites between representative components of the four active fractions and EGPR. Western blot assay was employed to investigate the effect of four active fractions on the protein expression in EGFR downstream signaling pathways. The results of the MTT assay indicated that the cell viability of NCI-H1975 and HCC827 cells was significantly inhibited by four active fractions at 50, 100, 150, and 200 µg·mL~(-1) in a dose-dependent manner. Wound healing assay and Transwell assay revealed that the migration of NCI-H1975 and HCC827 cells was significantly suppressed by four active fractions. In addition, the results of the protein activity assay showed that the enzyme activity of EGFR was significantly inhibited by four active fractions. The molecular docking results confirmed that various components in four active fractions possessed strong binding activity to EGFR enzymes. Western blot assay revealed that four active fractions down-regulated the protein expression of EGFR and its downstream signaling pathways. It is concluded that the four active fractions of C. nitidissima can inhibit NSCLC. The mechanism may be related to EGFR and its downstream signaling pathways. This study provides a new scientific basis for the clinical treatment of NSCLC with active fractions of C. nitidissima, which is of reference significance for further research on the anti-tumor mechanism of C. nitidissima.


Assuntos
Camellia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Apoptose , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Receptores ErbB/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 416, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leaf color variation is a common trait in plants and widely distributed in many plants. In this study, a leaf color mutation in Camellia japonica (cultivar named as Maguxianzi, M) was used as material, and the mechanism of leaf color variation was revealed by physiological, cytological, transcriptome and microbiome analyses. RESULTS: The yellowing C. japonica (M) exhibits lower pigment content than its parent (cultivar named as Huafurong, H), especially chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoid, and leaves of M have weaker photosynthesis. Subsequently, the results of transmission electron microscopy(TEM) exhibited that M chloroplast was accompanied by broken thylakoid membrane, degraded thylakoid grana, and filled with many vesicles. Furthermore, comparative transcriptome sequencing identified 3,298 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). KEGG annotation analysis results showed that 69 significantly enriched DEGs were involved in Chl biosynthesis, carotenoid biosynthesis, photosynthesis, and plant-pathogen interaction. On this basis, we sequenced the microbial diversity of the H and M leaves. The sequencing results suggested that the abundance of Didymella in the M leaves was significantly higher than that in the H leaves, which meant that M leaves might be infected by Didymella. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, we speculated that Didymella infected M leaves while reduced Chl and carotenoid content by damaging chloroplast structures, and altered the intensity of photosynthesis, thereby causing the leaf yellowing phenomenon of C. japonica (M). This research will provide new insights into the leaf color variation mechanism and lay a theoretical foundation for plant breeding and molecular markers.


Assuntos
Camellia/anatomia & histologia , Camellia/genética , Camellia/metabolismo , Cor , Microbiota , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , China , Clorofila/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/anatomia & histologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Transcriptoma
6.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 795-805, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530324

RESUMO

Cold is a common problem that limits the distribution of Camellia. Camellia japonica (Naidong) is the northernmost species of camellia in China, which is a Tertiary remnant species that can adapt to large changes in temperature. An analysis of the transcriptional response of C. japonica (Naidong) to cold is very important for the planting and distribution of camellia. In this study, the rate of H2O2 levels, electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll and sugar content had a higher degree of cold response during 12-72 h period, than other periods (0-12h, 72h-120h) in C. japonica (Naidong) response to cold treatment. We constructed the first full-length C. japonica (Naidong) transcriptome and identified 4544 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs). A weighted gene coexpression network analysis showed that carbon metabolism, lipid metabolism, and transcription factors played important roles in the resistance of C. japonica (Naidong) to cold stress, and three hub transcription factor regulatory networks were constructed. In addition, overexpressing CjRAV1 led to cold sensitivity in Arabidopsis thaliana, thus CjRAV1 likely plays a negative regulatory role during cold stress in Camellia japonica. This study deepens our understanding of the regulatory mechanism of C. japonica (Naidong) under cold stress and will benefit genetic improvement of camellia.


Assuntos
Camellia , Aclimatação/genética , Camellia/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Transcriptoma
7.
Nanoscale ; 13(34): 14426-14434, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473179

RESUMO

Since carbon dots (CDs) exhibit excellent biocompatibility, low cytotoxicity, near-infrared (NIR) absorbance, and superior photostability, many types of CDs are considered as powerful candidates for photothermal therapy (PTT) applications. However, the development of a desirable CD is still difficult due to insufficient photothermal conversion, thus resulting in the use of high laser power densities at a high dose of CDs for the PTT effect. Herein, bioinspired sulfur-doped CDs (S-CDs) with strong NIR absorbance were prepared from Camellia japonica flowers via a facile hydrothermal method for enhancing the photothermal conversion efficiency. The as-prepared S-CDs exhibited various advantages including cost-effective preparation, good water-solubility, high biocompatibility, intense NIR absorption, and excellent photothermal effect with robust photostability. Most importantly, the optimal low dose of S-CDs (45 µg mL-1) successfully led to efficient PTT performance with a high photothermal conversion efficiency (55.4%) under moderate laser power (808 nm, 1.1 W cm-2) for safe and effective cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Camellia , Neoplasias , Carbono , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fototerapia , Terapia Fototérmica
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125897, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523561

RESUMO

Camellia oleifera shell (COS), a by-product of processing woody vegetable oil, is rich in hemicellulose and lignin. In this study, we investigated the effects of acid concentration, pretreatment temperature and reaction time on the concentration and yield of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) and the degree of polymerization (DP) distribution of XOS when pretreating COS with malic acid (MA). Under moderate condition (2 M MA, 120 â„ƒ, 30 min), the maximum yield of XOS with DP 2-4 was 48.78% (based on the initial xylan) with low xylose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural, in which xylobiose (X2), xylotriose (X3) and xylotraose (X4) concentrations were 5.22 g/L, 2.75 g/L and 2.91 g/L, respectively. In addition, acid-insoluble lignin (AIL) in the residue after MA pretreatment and milling wood lignin (MWL) were mainly composed of guaiacyl and syringyl. AIL has higher thermal stability than MWL, which can be the stabilizer for producing flame-resistant materials.


Assuntos
Camellia , Lignina , Hidrólise , Malatos , Oligossacarídeos
9.
Arch Virol ; 166(11): 3207-3210, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480637

RESUMO

A new positive-strand RNA virus genome was discovered in Camellia japonica plants. The complete genome of the virus is 12,570 nt in size, excluding the poly(A) tail, and contains one large open reading frame (ORF1) and two small open reading frames (ORF2, ORF3). ORF1 and ORF2 are homologous to sequences of waikaviruses, while ORF3 has no relatives in the databases. ORF1 encodes a putative polyprotein precursor that is putatively processed into eight smaller proteins, as in typical waikaviruses. Comprehensive analysis, including BLAST searches, genome organization and pairwise sequence comparisons, and phylogeny reconstructions, invariably placed the virus with the waikaviruses. Furthermore, due to lower amino acid sequence identity to known waikaviruses than the threshold species demarcation cutoff, this virus may represent a new species in the genus Waikavirus, family Secoviridae, and we have tentatively named it "camellia virus A" (CamVA). Finally, a field survey was conducted to assess the occurrence of CamVA in camellias and its associated symptoms.


Assuntos
Camellia/virologia , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Waikavirus/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Proteínas Virais/genética , Waikavirus/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571973

RESUMO

Acyl-lipids are vital components for all life functions of plants. They are widely studied using often in vitro conditions to determine inter alia the impact of genetic modifications and the description of biochemical and physiological functions of enzymes responsible for acyl-lipid metabolism. What is currently lacking is knowledge of if these results also hold in real environments-in in vivo conditions. Our study focused on the comparative analysis of both in vitro and in vivo growth conditions and their impact on the acyl-lipid metabolism of Camelina sativa leaves. The results indicate that in vitro conditions significantly decreased the lipid contents and influenced their composition. In in vitro conditions, galactolipid and trienoic acid (16:3 and 18:3) contents significantly declined, indicating the impairment of the prokaryotic pathway. Discrepancies also exist in the case of acyl-CoA:lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs). Their activity increased about 2-7 times in in vitro conditions compared to in vivo. In vitro conditions also substantially changed LPLATs' preferences towards acyl-CoA. Additionally, the acyl editing process was three times more efficient in in vitro leaves. The provided evidence suggests that the results of acyl-lipid research from in vitro conditions may not completely reflect and be directly applicable in real growth environments.


Assuntos
Acil Coenzima A/metabolismo , Camellia/metabolismo , Galactolipídeos/metabolismo , Lipídeos/fisiologia , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , 1-Acilglicerofosfocolina O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato/fisiologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360902

RESUMO

Acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferases (LPEATs) are known as enzymes utilizing acyl-CoAs and lysophospholipids to produce phosphatidylethanolamine. Recently, it has been discovered that they are also involved in the growth regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana. In our study we investigated expression of each Camelina sativa LPEAT isoform and their behavior in response to temperature changes. In order to conduct a more extensive biochemical evaluation we focused both on LPEAT enzymes present in microsomal fractions from C. sativa plant tissues, and on cloned CsLPEAT isoforms expressed in yeast system. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsLPEAT1c and CsLPEAT2c originated from Camelina hispida, whereas other isoforms originated from Camelina neglecta. The expression ratio of all CsLPEAT1 isoforms to all CsLPEAT2 isoforms was higher in seeds than in other tissues. The isoforms also displayed divergent substrate specificities in utilization of LPE; CsLPEAT1 preferred 18:1-LPE, whereas CsLPEAT2 preferred 18:2-LPE. Unlike CsLPEAT1, CsLPEAT2 isoforms were specific towards very-long-chain fatty acids. Above all, we discovered that temperature strongly regulates LPEATs activity and substrate specificity towards different acyl donors, making LPEATs sort of a sensor of external thermal changes. We observed the presented findings not only for LPEAT activity in plant-derived microsomal fractions, but also for yeast-expressed individual CsLPEAT isoforms.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Camellia/enzimologia , Camellia/genética , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/enzimologia , Temperatura , Acil Coenzima A/metabolismo , Aciltransferases/genética , Camellia/classificação , Camellia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resposta ao Choque Frio , DNA de Plantas/genética , Ativação Enzimática , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Isoenzimas/genética , Microssomos/enzimologia , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade por Substrato
12.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443325

RESUMO

Camellia oil (CA), mainly produced in southern China, has always been called Oriental olive oil (OL) due to its similar physicochemical properties to OL. The high nutritional value and high selling price of CA make mixing it with other low-quality oils prevalent, in order to make huge profits. In this paper, the transverse relaxation time (T2) distribution of different brands of CA and OL, and the variation in transverse relaxation parameters when adulterated with corn oil (CO), were assessed via low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) imagery. The nutritional compositions of CA and OL and their quality indices were obtained via high field NMR (HF-NMR) spectroscopy. The results show that the fatty acid evaluation indices values, including for squalene, oleic acid, linolenic acid and iodine, were higher in CA than in OL, indicating the nutritional value of CA. The adulterated CA with a content of CO more than 20% can be correctly identified by principal component analysis or partial least squares discriminant analysis, and the blended oils could be successfully classified by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, with an accuracy of 100% when the adulteration ratio was above 30%. These results indicate the practicability of LF-NMR in the rapid screening of food authenticity.


Assuntos
Camellia/química , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Óleos Vegetais/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Análise Discriminante , Contaminação de Alimentos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados
13.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444825

RESUMO

Camellia japonica bee pollen is one of the major types of bee pollen in China and exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aims of our study were to evaluate the effects and the possible mechanism of Camellia japonica bee pollen polyphenols on the treatment of hyperuricemia induced by potassium oxonate (PO). The results showed that Camellia japonica bee pollen ethyl acetate extract (CPE-E) owned abundant phenolic compounds and strong antioxidant capabilities. Administration with CPE-E for two weeks greatly reduced serum uric acid and improved renal function. It inhibited liver xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity and regulated the expression of urate transporter 1 (URAT1), glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9), organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) and ATP-binding cassette superfamily gmember 2 (ABCG2) in kidneys. Moreover, CPE-E suppressed the activation of the toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 88/nuclear factor-κB (TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB) signaling pathway and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in PO-treated mice, and related inflammatory cytokines were reduced. CPE-E also modulated gut microbiota structure, showing that the abundance of Lactobacillus and Clostridiaceae increased in hyperuicemic mice. This study was conducted to explore the protective effect of CPE-E on hyperuricemia and provide new thoughts for the exploitation of Camellia japonica bee pollen.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Camellia/química , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Oxônico/efeitos adversos , Pólen/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes , China , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/induzido quimicamente , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fator 1 de Transcrição de Octâmero , Proteína 1 Transportadora de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Ácido Úrico
14.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(7): 2449-2457, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313063

RESUMO

In view of the limitation of scale on the spatial structure of ground objects and the problem that traditional watershed segmentation tends to produce crown over-segmentation, we proposed a segmentation method of Camellia oleifera crown based on the optimized watershed with multi-scale markers, with the C. oleifera base in Mingyue Village of Changsha County as the research object. Firstly, the high-resolution unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was used to collect images. The image features were analyzed to construct the classification system of C. oleifera, and the distribution area of C. oleifera was extracted. After being extracted by multi-scale region iterative growth, the crown markers were applied to the multi-threshold scale watershed transformation. Combined with Johnson index, the optimal scale of crown marker growth and watershed threshold was used to realize the accurate identification of individual trees. The results showed that the relative error between the method of optimized watershed with multi-scale markers and the visual interpretation of the reference value of tree-crown was 9.4% for the separation of individual trees. The overall identification accuracy of each tree was 89.4%, which was 34.8% higher than that of the traditional watershed segmentation method. The optimal iterative growth scale obtained by Johnson index was 20, while the thre-shold scale of watershed segmentation was 85. Compared with the results of different scale combinations, the crown extraction accuracy under the optimal scale was the highest (R2=0.75). The method of optimized watershed with multi-scale markers could accurately separate C. oleifera crown. Applying this method to UAV image crown segmentation could effectively improve the efficiency of economic forest investigation.


Assuntos
Camellia , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Florestas , Árvores
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 795: 148856, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328946

RESUMO

Plants respond to adverse conditions by activating defense mechanisms that alter metabolism and impact agricultural crop yield. Organic mulching of Camellia oleifera leads to increased oil yield compared to control. In this study, multi-platform untargeted metabolomics and qRT-PCR were used to measure the effects of organic mulching on seed kernel metabolism. Metabolomics analysis revealed that tyrosine, tryptophan, and several flavonoids and polyphenol metabolites were significantly lower in the mulched treatment compared to the control, indicating lower stress levels with mulching. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that EAR, SAD, and CoHCD were up-regulated by mulching, while CT, FAD7, FAD8, CoATS1, SQS, SQE, FATB, and ß-AS were down-regulated. Correlation network analysis was used to integrate data from this multi-omics investigation to analyze the relationships between differentially expressed genes, metabolites, and fruit and soil indicators concerning mulch treatment of C. oleifera.


Assuntos
Camellia , Camellia/genética , Secas , Expressão Gênica , Lipídeos , Sementes
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 348, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The oil-tea tree (Camellia oleifera Abel.) is a woody tree species that produces edible oil in the seed. C. oleifera oil has high nutritional value and is also an important raw material for medicine and cosmetics. In China, due to the uncertainty on maturity period and oil synthesis mechanism of many C. oleifera cultivars, growers may harvest fruits prematurely, which could not maximize fruit and oil yields. In this study, our objective was to explore the mechanism and differences of oil synthesis between two Camellia oleifera cultivars for a precise definition of the fruit ripening period and the selection of appropriate cultivars. RESULTS: The results showed that 'Huashuo' had smaller fruits and seeds, lower dry seed weight and lower expression levels of fatty acid biosynthesis genes in July. We could not detect the presence of oil and oil bodies in 'Huashuo' seeds until August, and oil and oil bodies were detected in 'Huajin' seeds in July. Moreover, 'Huashuo' seeds were not completely blackened in October with up to 60.38% of water and approximately 37.98% of oil in seed kernels whose oil content was much lower than normal mature seed kernels. The oil bodies in seed endosperm cells of 'Huajin' were always higher than those of 'Huashuo' from July to October. CONCLUSION: Our results confirmed that C. oleifera 'Huashuo' fruits matured at a lower rate compared to 'Huajin' fruits and that 'Huajin' seeds entered the oil synthesis period earlier than 'Huashuo' seeds. Moreover, 'Huashuo' fruits did not mature during the Frost's Descent period (October 23-24 each year).


Assuntos
Camellia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camellia/genética , Camellia/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , China , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
17.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299400

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to assess the pharmacological effects of black tea (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) water extract on human kinin-forming enzymes in vitro. Tea is a highly consumed beverage in the world. Factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor)-independent- and -dependent activation of prekallikrein to kallikrein leads to the liberation of bradykinin (BK) from high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK). The excessive BK production causes vascular endothelial and nonvascular smooth muscle cell permeability, leading to angioedema. The prevalence of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)-induced angioedema appears to be through BK. Both histamine and BK are potent inflammatory mediators. However, the treatments for histamine-mediated angioedema are unsuitable for BK-mediated angioedema. We hypothesized that long-term consumption of tea would reduce bradykinin-dependent processes within the systemic and pulmonary vasculature, independent of the anti-inflammatory actions of polyphenols. A purified fraction of the black tea water extract inhibited both kallikrein and activated FXII. The black tea water extracts inhibited factor XII-induced cell migration and inhibited the production of kallikrein on the endothelial cell line. We compared the inhibitory effects of the black tea water extract and twenty-three well-known anti-inflammatory medicinal herbs, in inhibiting both kallikrein and FXII. Surprisingly, arjunglucoside II specifically inhibited the activated factor XII (FXIIa), but not the kallikrein and the activated factor XI. Taken together, the black tea water extract exerts its anti-inflammatory effects, in part, by inhibiting kallikrein and activated FXII, which are part of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS), and by decreasing BK production. The inhibition of kallikrein and activated FXII represents a unique polyphenol-independent anti-inflammatory mechanism of action for the black tea.


Assuntos
Bradicinina/metabolismo , Camellia/química , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator XII/antagonistas & inibidores , Sistema Calicreína-Cinina/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Artéria Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Humanos , Artéria Pulmonar/metabolismo
18.
J Food Biochem ; 45(9): e13837, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231229

RESUMO

In this study, Camellia nitidissima Chi leaf extract was investigated for its compounds and pancreatic lipase inhibitory potentials. The interaction was determined using ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence spectroscopy (FS), and molecular docking to understand the inhibiton, kinetic, and conformation of extraction-pancreatic lipase complex. C. nitidissima Chi leaf extraction inhibited the pancreatic lipase activity in a dose-dependent manner at the concentration of 1-12 mg/ml. The Lineweaver-Burk plots indicated that the inhibition on pancreatic lipase by extraction was noncompetitive. In addition, the decrease in α-helix contents, increase in ß-sheet and ß-turn, and decrease in fluorescence intensity after extraction treatment indicated that the conformation of pancreatic lipase was changed. This work revealed that C. nitidissima Chi leaf extraction played a significant role in inhibiting pancreatic lipase activity and brought out a solution of delay fat accumulation. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This study reports the components in the extract of C. nitidissima Chi leaf and its inhibitory effect and mechanism of pancreatic lipase. C. nitidissima Chi leaf is a good source of bioactive components, including multiflorin B, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, vicenin-2, apigenin-6-C-pentosyl-8-C-hexosyl, vitexin, kaempferol, and other ingredients. It can inhibit pancreatic lipase and be used to control obesity and treat hyperlipidemia. This study also revealed the structure changes of C. nitidissima Chi leaf extract on pancreatic lipase, and further revealed the inhibitory mechanism of C. nitidissima Chi leaf extract on lipase, which provides a theoretical basis for C. nitidissima Chi leaf as a lipase inhibitor.


Assuntos
Camellia , Lipase , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pâncreas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(40): 57192-57206, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086174

RESUMO

This experiment was to explore the possible defensive properties and potential molecular mechanisms of Camellia japonica (CJ) against APAP-stimulated acute liver failure (ALF) in mice. In this study, we investigated the effects of CJ on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Mice were orally treated with CJ before or after challenge with APAP. Both pretreatment and post-treatment with CJ attenuated APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, as confirmed by significantly reduced serum toxicity biomarkers and improved hepatic pathological damage. Pretreatment with CJ drastically decreased the rise of hepatic inflammatory cytokines levels and weakened neutrophil infiltration. Furthermore, pretreatment with CJ dramatically decreased the levels of hepatic oxidative stress markers such as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) expression and rescued the reduced hepatic level of GSH caused by APAP overdose. Additionally, CJ pretreatment markedly attenuated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activation, transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) phosphorylation, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, and activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway in the liver. The present study thus reveals that CJ attenuated APAP-induced ALF by inhibiting COX-2 activation, NF-κB, and JNK phosphorylation and activating the AMPK signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Camellia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Falência Hepática Aguda , Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Animais , Falência Hepática Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo
20.
Food Chem ; 364: 130388, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182360

RESUMO

Microwave is a new pretreatment technology, and microwave processing time of camellia seeds is a factor affecting the flavor of camellia seed oil (CSO). Therefore, this study on the characteristic volatile compounds of CSO from microwaved seeds with different processing time was carried out by electronic nose (E-nose), headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and headspace-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (HS-GC-IMS). The results of E-nose show that W1W, W2W and W5S were the main sensors to distinguish the flavor profile of CSOs. Through HS-SPME-GC-MS and odor activity value analysis, 80 volatile compounds were detected and 22 key aroma compounds were screened in CSOs. Compared with HS-SPME-GC-MS, 44 volatile compounds were detected by HS-GC-IMS, including 9 identical compounds and 35 different compounds. In general, the volatile compounds of 0, 2 and 3 min CSOs were mainly alcohols and esters, while the 4, 5 and 6 min CSOs were mainly heterocycles and aldehydes.


Assuntos
Camellia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Micro-Ondas , Odorantes/análise , Sementes/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
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