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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673709

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor symptoms and gait impairments. Among them, freezing of gait (FOG) is one of the most disabling manifestations. Backward walking (BW) is an activity of daily life that individuals with PD might find difficult and could cause falls. Recent studies have reported that gait impairments in PD were more pronounced in BW, particularly in people presenting FOG. However, to the best of our knowledge, no systematic review has synthetized the literature which compared BW performance in PD patients with and without FOG. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in BW performance between PD patients with FOG and PD patients without FOG. METHODS: Two databases, PubMed and Web of Science, were systematically searched to identify studies comparing BW performance in PD patients with and without FOG. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) tool was used to assess the quality of the studies included. RESULTS: Seven studies with 431 PD patients (179 PD with FOG and 252 PD without FOG) met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Among them, 5 studies reported walking speed, 3 studies step length, stride length and lower limb range of motion, 2 studies functional ambulation profile, toe clearance height, swing, and stance percent and 1 study reported the decomposition index and stepping coordination. Compared to PD patients without FOG, PD patients with FOG showed slower walking speed and reduced step length in 3 studies, shorter stride length, lower functional ambulation profile and decreased ankle range of motion in 2 studies, and smaller swing percent, higher stance percent, worse stepping coordination, greater decomposition between movements, and lower toe clearance height in one study. CONCLUSION: Despite the small number of included studies, the findings of this review suggested that PD patients with FOG have worse gait performance during the BW task than PD without FOG.


Assuntos
Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/etiologia , Marcha , Caminhada
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673781

RESUMO

Despite the many research studies on active school travel (AST), the number of children walking/cycling to school is decreasing as there is a lack of implementable research evidence. This review through database searches from 2000 to 2020 aims to identify research gaps and explore new perspectives. The articles are selected and screened methodically for systematic presentation of the review. An existing active school travel framework is used to structure and discuss this review paper on mediating factors influencing children's active travel to school, that is the perceived traffic safety, neighborhood safety, and distance to school. Perception of traffic safety could be ameliorated through lateral separation from the traffic, and this could be a new area of research. The neighborhood safety perception may require more research to validate the previous findings. Schools should be located within high-density residential development so that many children can walk to school.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Viagem , Criança , Humanos , Caminhada , Ciclismo , Segurança , Ambiente Construído , Planejamento Ambiental , Meios de Transporte , Características de Residência
3.
Spinal Cord Ser Cases ; 9(1): 1, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646680

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional equipment inventory. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe the equipment used in activity-based therapy (ABT) programs for individuals with spinal cord injury or disorder (SCI/D) across Canada. SETTINGS: Publicly funded and private SCI/D care settings. METHODS: A survey on equipment available for ABT for different therapeutic goals was answered by Canadian sites providing SCI/D rehabilitation. Information about the setting and type of client were also collected. The survey results were compiled into an inventory of the reported types and use of ABT related equipment, with equipment grouped into varying levels of technology. Descriptive statistics and qualitative descriptive analysis were used to answer the questions: (1) 'who' used the equipment, (2) 'what' types of equipment are used, (3) 'why' (i.e., for which therapeutic goals), and (4) 'how' it is used. RESULTS: Twenty-two sites from eight Canadian provinces completed the survey. Reported equipment was classified into 5 categories (from low to high-tech). Most equipment reported was used to train balance. The high-tech equipment reported as available, was mostly used for walking training and strengthening of the lower limbs. Low-tech equipment was reported as being used most frequently, while high-tech devices, although available, were reported as infrequently or rarely used. CONCLUSIONS: A large spectrum of equipment with varying levels of technology were reported as available, but were inconsistently used to provide ABT interventions across sites. In order to increase the clinical use of available equipment for ABT, education tools such as protocols regarding ABT principles and implementation are needed.


Assuntos
Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Caminhada , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Canadá , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Tecnologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents with functional neurological symptoms disorder (FNSD) commonly present walking abnormalities. Walking is influenced by 'objective' (e.g., fitness) and 'subjective' (e.g., fear) components. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) reflects the interaction between these two components. This study compared the walking ability and RPE before and after rehabilitation of adolescents with FNSD to adolescents with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Factors predicting walking and RPE were also examined. METHODS: Adolescents with FNSD (n = 31) and adolescents with moderate-to-severe TBI (n = 28) aged 6 to 18 years participated in the study. Participants received a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program. Six-minute walk test (6MWT) and RPE were assessed before and after rehabilitation. RESULTS: At pre-test, the TBI group presented lower RPE than the FNSD group (3.38 ± 2.49 and 6.25 ± 2.71, respectively). In the FNSD group, pre-test 6MWT was a significant predictor of post-test 6MWT (adjusted R2 = 0.17; p = 0.01). In the TBI group, post-test 6MWT was significantly predicted by both the pre-test 6MWT and age (adjusted R2 = 0.16; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Prior to the intervention, adolescents with FNSD perceived walking as a more difficult activity than adolescents with TBI. Post-intervention, although the intervention was effective in terms of changes in 6MWT and RPE, the 'subjective' component still contributed to the elevated RPE of the FNSD group.


Assuntos
Esforço Físico , Caminhada , Adolescente , Humanos , Criança , Teste de Caminhada , Medo , Teste de Esforço
5.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 20(1): 14, 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36703214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gait training at fast speeds is recommended to reduce walking activity limitations post-stroke. Fast walking may also reduce gait kinematic impairments post-stroke. However, it is unknown if differences in gait kinematics between people post-stroke and neurotypical adults decrease when walking at faster speeds. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of faster walking speeds on gait kinematics post-stroke relative to neurotypical adults walking at similar speeds. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis with data from 28 people post-stroke and 50 neurotypical adults treadmill walking at multiple speeds. We evaluated the effects of speed and group on individual spatiotemporal and kinematic metrics and performed k-means clustering with all metrics at self-selected and fast speeds. RESULTS: People post-stroke decreased step length asymmetry and trailing limb angle impairment, reducing between-group differences at fast speeds. Speed-dependent changes in peak swing knee flexion, hip hiking, and temporal asymmetries exaggerated between-group differences. Our clustering analyses revealed two clusters. One represented neurotypical gait behavior, composed of neurotypical and post-stroke participants. The other characterized stroke gait behavior-comprised entirely of participants post-stroke with smaller lower extremity Fugl-Meyer scores than the post-stroke participants in the neurotypical gait behavior cluster. Cluster composition was largely consistent at both speeds, and the distance between clusters increased at fast speeds. CONCLUSIONS: The biomechanical effect of fast walking post-stroke varied across individual gait metrics. For participants within the stroke gait behavior cluster, walking faster led to an overall gait pattern more different than neurotypical adults compared to the self-selected speed. This suggests that to potentiate the biomechanical benefits of walking at faster speeds and improve the overall gait pattern post-stroke, gait metrics with smaller speed-dependent changes may need to be specifically targeted within the context of fast walking.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Adulto , Marcha , Caminhada , Velocidade de Caminhada , Extremidade Inferior , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
6.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 60, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593305

RESUMO

Biped robots have attracted increasing attention because of their flexible movement and strong adaptability to the surroundings. However, the small output torque and the weak impact resistance of the motor drive, as well as the large energy consumption of the hydraulic drive limit the performance of the biped robot drive system. Aiming at these shortcomings, an electric-hydraulic hybrid drive system of biped robot was proposed in this paper. The robot platform was designed based on the prototype of the Zhejiang Lab biped robot. The model of the hydraulic drive system and mechanical structure was established to analyze the dynamic characteristic and the load force during walking. The value function reflecting the energy consumption of the hydraulic drive system was proposed. The pressure of the accumulator in the hydraulic power unit was selected as the control parameter. In order to get the minimum value of the value function, so as to reduce the energy consumption of the hydraulic driving system, the control parameters were optimized by using the genetic algorithm. From the simulation results, the proposed optimization algorithm can improve efficiency by 3.49%.


Assuntos
Robótica , Robótica/métodos , Caminhada , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador
7.
J Exp Biol ; 226(2)2023 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657384

RESUMO

We investigated how baboons transition from quadrupedal to bipedal walking without any significant interruption in their forward movement (i.e. transition 'on the fly'). Building on basic mechanical principles (momentum only changes when external forces/moments act on the body), insights into possible strategies for such a dynamical mode transition are provided and applied first to the recorded planar kinematics of an example walking sequence (including several continuous quadrupedal, transition and subsequent bipedal steps). Body dynamics are calculated from the kinematics. The strategy used in this worked example boils down to: crouch the hind parts and sprint them underneath the rising body centre of mass. Forward accelerations are not in play. Key characteristics of this transition strategy were extracted: progression speed, hip height, step duration (frequency), foot positioning at touchdown with respect to the hip and the body centre of mass (BCoM), and congruity between the moments of the ground reaction force about the BCoM and the rate of change of the total angular moment. Statistical analyses across the full sample (15 transitions of 10 individuals) confirm this strategy is always used and is shared across individuals. Finally, the costs (in J kg-1 m-1) linked to on the fly transitions were estimated. The costs are approximately double those of both the preceding quadrupedal and subsequent bipedal walking. Given the short duration of the transition as such (<1 s), it is argued that the energetic costs to change walking posture on the fly are negligible when considered in the context of the locomotor repertoire.


Assuntos
Primatas , Caminhada , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Postura , Locomoção , Marcha
8.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair ; 37(1): 27-36, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In people with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), reduced gait adaptability is common and disabling. Gait impairments result from lower extremity spasticity, muscle weakness, and impaired proprioception. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a 5-week gait-adaptability training in people with pure HSP. METHOD: We conducted a randomized clinical trial with a cross-over design for the control group, and a 15-week follow-up period after training. Thirty-six people with pure HSP were randomized to 5 weeks of (i) gait-adaptability training (10 hours of C-Mill training-a treadmill equipped with augmented reality) or (ii) a waiting-list control period followed by 5 weeks gait-adaptability training. Both groups continued to receive usual care. The primary outcome was the obstacle subtask of the Emory Functional Ambulation Profile. Secondary outcome measures consisted of clinical balance and gait assessments, fall rates, and spatiotemporal gait parameters assessed via 3D motion analysis. RESULTS: The gait-adaptability training group (n = 18) did not significantly decrease the time required to perform the obstacle subtask compared to the waiting-list control group (n = 18) after adjusting for baseline differences (mean: -0.33 seconds, 95% CI: -1.3, 0.6). Similar, non-significant results were found for most secondary outcomes. After merging both groups (n = 36), the required time to perform the obstacle subtask significantly decreased by 1.3 seconds (95% CI: -2.1, -0.4) directly following 5 weeks of gait-adaptability training, and this effect was retained at the 15-week follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: We found insufficient evidence to conclude that 5 weeks of gait-adaptability training leads to greater improvement of gait adaptability in people with pure HSP.


Assuntos
Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária , Humanos , Caminhada/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Marcha/fisiologia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia
9.
J Vis ; 23(1): 7, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633872

RESUMO

Many activities in daily life do not impose strict requirements on gaze. We investigated gaze when walking up and down staircases within one's own house. We anticipated that using a variety of staircases in different environments and not informing participants that stair climbing was the focus of investigation might provide a description of gaze behavior that is closer to that used in our daily life than doing so under circumstances in which the focus is explicitly and exclusively directed at the stairs. We analyzed several measures, including the order in which participants fixated the steps. We confirmed that people often look at the steps sequentially, but found that they often made fixations back to steps they had already fixated. They also regularly skipped looking at several steps to fixate further ahead. On average, they directed their gaze at about half the steps. They looked further ahead when ascending than when descending staircases. Overall, the results are similar to those found under highly constrained laboratory conditions, although we do report some differences. One such difference is a tendency to fixate fewer steps. Another is that participants fixated steps that were less far ahead when descending staircases. We also introduced some new analyses that may help understand gaze behavior during stair climbing.


Assuntos
Caminhada , Humanos
10.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 7(1): 32-41, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604550

RESUMO

The longitudinal arch of the human foot is viewed as a pivotal adaptation for bipedal walking and running. Fossil footprints from Laetoli, Tanzania, and Ileret, Kenya, are believed to provide direct evidence of longitudinally arched feet in hominins from the Pliocene and Pleistocene, respectively. We studied the dynamics of track formation using biplanar X-ray, three-dimensional animation and discrete element particle simulation. Here, we demonstrate that longitudinally arched footprints are false indicators of foot anatomy; instead they are generated through a specific pattern of foot kinematics that is characteristic of human walking. Analyses of fossil hominin tracks from Laetoli show only partial evidence of this walking style, with a similar heel strike but a different pattern of propulsion. The earliest known evidence for fully modern human-like bipedal kinematics comes from the early Pleistocene Ileret tracks, which were presumably made by members of the genus Homo. This result signals important differences in the foot kinematics recorded at Laetoli and Ileret and underscores an emerging picture of locomotor diversity within the hominin clade.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Animais , Humanos , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , Marcha , Pé/anatomia & histologia , Caminhada
11.
BMC Geriatr ; 23(1): 28, 2023 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Southwest China is facing a serious aging problem across the country, but the status of cognitive function in middle-aged and elderly people in this region is superior to the national average. This study intends to reveal the leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) pattern in this region and explore whether this pattern is beneficial for cognitive function. METHODS: The data came from the 2019-2021 baseline survey on cognitive function of a natural population cohort conducted by West China Hospital of Sichuan University. A structured questionnaire was used to investigate the LTPA status of the participants, and the Mini-Mental State Examination was used to evaluate their cognitive function. Then, we used multiple linear regression to analyze the association between LTPA and cognitive level, and further subgroup analysis was carried out according to sex, age and waist-to-hip ratio. RESULTS: A total of 2697 participants were enrolled, with an average age of 66.19 ± 6.68 years. The average cognitive function score was 27.23 ± 2.72, of which 8.60% indicated mild cognitive impairment. Their median LTPA level was 24.50 MET-hours per week, of which 70.37% reached the activity level recommended by WHO, with the main types being walking (1340 cases, 49.68%), square dancing (270 cases, 10.01%), or walking + square dancing (172 cases, 6.38%). Multiple linear regression showed that cognitive function increased with the amount of LTPA from 11.25 MET-hours/week to 36.40 MET-hours/week (ß 0.09 for 11.25 ~ 24.50 MET-hours/week, ß 0.38 for 24.50 ~ 36.40 MET-hours/week) but stabilized at more (ß 0.39 for ≥36.40 MET-hours/week). The positive association persisted even for those who only walked (ß 0.37 for 24.50 ~ 36.40 MET-hours/week, P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Middle-aged and elderly people in Southwest China hold a relatively high level of LTPA status, and walking and square dancing-oriented LTPA are positively correlated with cognitive function.


Assuntos
Dança , Exercício Físico , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Caminhada , Cognição
12.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 23(2): 103-110, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608686

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the effects of high-intensity interval exercise training on microvascular endothelial function among community-dwelling older people. METHODS: We analyzed the data from a nonrandomized controlled trial. This study's participants were 48 men (aged 75 ± 5 years; exercise training group, n = 24; control group, n = 24) and 83 women (aged 75 ± 4 years; exercise training group, n = 36; control group, n = 47). The exercise training group underwent a high-intensity interval walking training for 5 months. RESULTS: In the exercise group, 100% and 91.7% of men and women, respectively, achieved brisk walking times ≥50 min/week. The change in the reactive hyperemia index significantly differed between the groups of men, whereas that in the control group was not significant; however, a significant increase was observed in the exercise training group. Among women, changes in the reactive hyperemia index were not significant in either group; however, for women in the exercise training group, these changes negatively and positively correlated with the change in body mass index (Spearman's rho = -0.342; P = 0.041) and baseline body mass index (rho = 0.362, P = 0.030), respectively. Additionally, the distribution of body mass index was broader in women than in men. CONCLUSIONS: Interval walking training increased the reactive hyperemia index in men rather than in women. A higher variation in baseline body mass index may be associated with no statistical increase in reactive hyperemia index in women. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2023; 23: 103-110.


Assuntos
Hiperemia , Vida Independente , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Caminhada , Exercício Físico , Endotélio
13.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 20(1): 1, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence examining trends in active school commuting among adolescents are mainly single-country studies, and principally focused on high-income countries. Thus, the present study aims to examine temporal trends in adolescents' active school commuting and to examine if there are differences in such trends by sex. We used nationally representative samples of 28 countries, which were predominantly low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), covering 5 different WHO regions. METHODS: Data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey 2004-2017 were analyzed in 177,616 adolescents [mean (SD) age: 13.7 (1.0) years; 50.7% girls]. Active school commuting was self-reported (frequency of walking or riding a bike to and from school in the past 7 days). The prevalence and 95%CI of active school commuting (i.e., ≥ 3 days/week) was calculated for the overall sample and by sex for each survey. Crude linear trends in active school commuting were assessed by linear regression models. Interaction analyses were conducted to examine differing trends among boys and girls. RESULTS: Trends in active school commuting were heterogeneous across countries, with results showing stable patterns for the majority (16/28), decreasing trends for some (7/28) and increasing trends over time for a few (5/28). The majority of countries showed no differences in active school commuting trends between girls and boys. CONCLUSIONS: The quantification of changes in adolescents' active school commuting over time, together with a deeper understanding of local determinants for such behaviors will provide valuable evidence to inform the development of tailored and context-specific actions.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Caminhada , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Ásia , África , Meios de Transporte
14.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 24(1): 2, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal alignment in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) changes between rest and during gait. However, it remains unclear at which point the compensated walking posture breaks down and how muscles respond. This study used time-synchronized electromyography (EMG) to investigate the relationship between dynamic spinal alignment and muscle activity during maximum walking duration to reveal compensation mechanisms. METHODS: This study collected preoperative three-dimensional gait analysis data from patients who were candidates for corrective surgery for ASD from April 2015 to May 2019. We preoperatively obtained dynamic spinal alignment parameters from initiation to cessation of gait using a motion capture system with time-synchronized surface integrated EMG (iEMG). We compared chronological changes in dynamic spinal alignment parameters and iEMG values 1) immediately after gait initiation (first trial), 2) half of the distance walked (half trial), and 3) immediately before cessation (last trial). RESULTS: This study included 26 patients (22 women, four men) with ASD. Spinal sagittal vertical axis distance during gait (SpSVA) increased over time (first vs. half vs. last, 172.4 ± 74.8 mm vs. 179.9 ± 76.8 mm vs. 201.6 ± 83.1 mm; P < 0.001). Cervical paravertebral muscle (PVM) and gluteus maximus activity significantly increased (P < 0.01), but thoracic and lumbar PVM activity did not change. Dynamic spinal alignment showed significant correlation with all muscle activity (cervical PVM, r = 0.41-0.54; thoracic PVM, r = 0.49-0.66; gluteus maximus, r = 0.54-0.69; quadriceps, r = 0.46-0.55) except lumbar PVM activity. CONCLUSION: Spinal balance exacerbation occurred continuously in patients with ASD over maximum walking distance and not at specific points. To maintain horizontal gaze, cervical PVM and gluteus maximus were activated to compensate for a dynamic spinal alignment change. All muscle activities, except lumbar PVM, increased to compensate for the spinal malalignment over time.


Assuntos
Marcha , Coluna Vertebral , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Marcha/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(1)2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36617154

RESUMO

The inertial measurement unit (IMU) has become more prevalent in gait analysis. However, it can only measure the kinematics of the body segment it is attached to. Muscle behaviour is an important part of gait analysis and provides a more comprehensive overview of gait quality. Muscle behaviour can be estimated using musculoskeletal modelling or measured using an electromyogram (EMG). However, both methods can be tasking and resource intensive. A combination of IMU and neural networks (NN) has the potential to overcome this limitation. Therefore, this study proposes using NN and IMU data to estimate nine lower extremity muscle activities. Two NN were developed and investigated, namely feedforward neural network (FNN) and long short-term memory neural network (LSTM). The results show that, although both networks were able to predict muscle activities well, LSTM outperformed the conventional FNN. This study confirms the feasibility of estimating muscle activity using IMU data and NN. It also indicates the possibility of this method enabling the gait analysis to be performed outside the laboratory environment with a limited number of devices.


Assuntos
Marcha , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Marcha/fisiologia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Extremidade Inferior , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Músculos , Caminhada/fisiologia
16.
Health Promot Int ; 38(1)2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36617292

RESUMO

Self-efficacy is the key factor for promoting physical activity. Older adults with low self-efficacy tend to be physical inactive than those with high self-efficacy, and an approach is needed to promote physical activity. Among several approaches, increasing the perception of green space may be an effective approach for low self-efficacy not high self-efficacy, but no study has investigated. This study investigated the association between walking and perception of green space among older adults with high and low self-efficacy, respectively. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 204 community-dwelling older adults (mean age = 78.3 years, 62.3% females). Using the median split, the participants were divided into high and low self-efficacy groups based on the median score of 12. Walking was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and 'more walking' was defined as ≥150 min of walking time per week. Perception of green space was measured using an 8-item questionnaire. We performed logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between walking and perception of green space adjusted for age, gender, years of education, living with someone and income level. For all participants, 94 participants (46.1%) fell under low self-efficacy. After adjustment, higher perception of green space is associated with more walking among older adults with low self-efficacy [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.00-1.15], but not among those with high self-efficacy (aOR = 1.09, 95% CI= 0.99-1.20). To increase perception of green space, experts should design/improve green spaces considering beneficiaries' characteristics.


Low self-efficacy has a negative effect on Activities of Daily Living and Quality of Life through physical inactivity among older adults. Encouraging physical activity among those with low self-efficacy can help solve the problem, but individual intervention towards low self-efficacy requires great effort. Therefore, we focused on environmental factors as they affect more people, and investigated the association between perception of green space and walking among older adults with high and low self-efficacy, respectively. This cross-sectional study was conducted among community-dwelling older adults in Japan, the variables used in this study were asked by a questionnaire. We examined whether older people who have higher perception of green space do more walking. As a result of the analysis, high perception of green space was associated with more walking among community-dwelling older adults with low self-efficacy, but not among older adults with high self-efficacy. This result may lead to solves the problem of physical inactivity in older adults with low self-efficacy from the perspective of environmental factors. To increase perception of green space, experts such as urban planners and policy makers should design/improve green spaces considering beneficiaries' characteristics such as quantity, quality and accessibility.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos , Autoeficácia , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Japão , Características de Residência , Caminhada , Percepção
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(1)2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36617135

RESUMO

Examination of gait patterns has been used to determine severity, intervention triage and prognostic measures for many health conditions. Methods that generate detailed gait data for clinical use are typically logistically constrained to a formal gait laboratory setting. This has led to an interest in portable analysis systems for near clinical or community-based assessments. The following study assessed with the wearable accelerometer/gyroscopic, gait analysis system (LEGSYS+TM) and the standard of static motion capture camera (MOCAP) analysis during a treadmill walk at three different walking speeds in healthy participants (n = 15). To compare each speed, 20 strides were selected from the MOCAP data and compared with the LEGSYS+ strides at the same time point. Both scatter and bland-Altman plots with accompanying linear regression analysis for each of the parameters. Each stride parameter showed minimal or a consistent difference between the LEGSYS+ and MOCAP, with the phase parameters showing inconsistencies between the systems. Overall, LEGSYS+ stride parameters can be used in the clinical setting, with the utility of phase parameters needing to be taken with caution.


Assuntos
Análise da Marcha , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Humanos , Acelerometria , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Marcha , Caminhada
18.
BMC Pulm Med ; 23(1): 17, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise intolerance is among the most common symptoms experienced by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is associated with lung dynamic hyperinflation (DH). There was evidence that positive expiratory pressure (PEP), which could be offered by less costly devices, could reduce DH. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term domiciliary use of PEP device in subjects with COPD. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted and 25 Pre-COPD or mild-to-very severe subjects with COPD were randomized to intervention group (PEP device, PEP = 5 cmH2O, n = 13) and control group (Sham-PEP device, PEP = 0 cmH2O, n = 12). PEP device was a spring-loaded resistor face mask. Subjects were treated 4 h per day for a total of 2 months. Six-minute walk test (6MWT), pulmonary function, the Modified British Medical Research Council score, and partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide were evaluated at baseline and after two months. RESULTS: The 6MWD (- 71.67 ± 8.70 m, P < 0.001), end-dyspnea (P = 0.002), and end-fatigue (P = 0.022) improved significantly in the intervention group when compared with the control group. All subjects in the intervention group reported that 4 h of daily use of the PEP device was well tolerated and accepted and there were no adverse events. CONCLUSION: Regular daily use of PEP device is safe and may improve exercise capacity in subjects with COPD or pre-COPD. PEP device could be used as an add-on to pulmonary rehabilitation programs due to its efficacy, safety, and low cost. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was prospectively registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04742114).


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Pulmão , Dispneia , Caminhada , Tolerância ao Exercício
19.
Sci Robot ; 8(74): eadd1053, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652505

RESUMO

Bioengineering approaches that combine living cellular components with three-dimensional scaffolds to generate motion can be used to develop a new generation of miniature robots. Integrating on-board electronics and remote control in these biological machines will enable various applications across engineering, biology, and medicine. Here, we present hybrid bioelectronic robots equipped with battery-free and microinorganic light-emitting diodes for wireless control and real-time communication. Centimeter-scale walking robots were computationally designed and optimized to host on-board optoelectronics with independent stimulation of multiple optogenetic skeletal muscles, achieving remote command of walking, turning, plowing, and transport functions both at individual and collective levels. This work paves the way toward a class of biohybrid machines able to combine biological actuation and sensing with on-board computing.


Assuntos
Robótica , Robótica/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Eletrônica , Caminhada
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679366

RESUMO

Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) are prescribed to children with cerebral palsy (CP) in hopes of improving their gait and gross motor activities. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine if clinically significant changes in gross motor function occur with the use of AFOs in children and adolescents diagnosed with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I and II). Data from 124 clinical assessments were analyzed. Based on minimum clinically important difference (MCID), 77% of subjects demonstrated an increase in stride length, 45% of subjects demonstrated an increase in walking velocity, and 30% demonstrated a decrease in cadence. Additionally, 27% of the subjects demonstrated increase in gait deviation index (GDI). Deterioration in gait was evident by decreases in walking speed (5% of subjects), increases in cadence (11% of subjects), and 15% of subjects demonstrated decreases in gait deviation index. Twenty-two percent of subjects demonstrated no change in stride lengths and one participant demonstrated a decrease in stride length. However, AFOs improved Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) scores for a minority (10%) of children with mild CP (GMFCS level I and II), with 82-85% of subjects demonstrating no change in GMFM scores and 5-7% demonstrating decrease in GMFM scores.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Marcha , Caminhada , Aparelhos Ortopédicos
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