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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679366

RESUMO

Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) are prescribed to children with cerebral palsy (CP) in hopes of improving their gait and gross motor activities. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine if clinically significant changes in gross motor function occur with the use of AFOs in children and adolescents diagnosed with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I and II). Data from 124 clinical assessments were analyzed. Based on minimum clinically important difference (MCID), 77% of subjects demonstrated an increase in stride length, 45% of subjects demonstrated an increase in walking velocity, and 30% demonstrated a decrease in cadence. Additionally, 27% of the subjects demonstrated increase in gait deviation index (GDI). Deterioration in gait was evident by decreases in walking speed (5% of subjects), increases in cadence (11% of subjects), and 15% of subjects demonstrated decreases in gait deviation index. Twenty-two percent of subjects demonstrated no change in stride lengths and one participant demonstrated a decrease in stride length. However, AFOs improved Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) scores for a minority (10%) of children with mild CP (GMFCS level I and II), with 82-85% of subjects demonstrating no change in GMFM scores and 5-7% demonstrating decrease in GMFM scores.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Marcha , Caminhada , Aparelhos Ortopédicos
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679378

RESUMO

Recently, remote meetings and work-from-home have become more common, reducing the opportunities for face-to-face communication. To facilitate communication among remote workers, researchers have focused on virtual space technology and spatial augmented reality technology. Although these technologies can enhance immersiveness in collaborative work, they face the challenge of fostering a sense of physical contact. In this work, we aimed to foster a sense of presence through haptic stimulation using pneumatic actuators. Specifically, we developed a choker-type wearable device that presents various pressure patterns around the neck; the pattern presented depends on the message the device must convey. Various combinations of haptic presentation are achieved by pumping air to the multiple pneumatic actuators attached to the choker. In addition, we conducted experiments involving actuators of different shapes to optimize the haptic presentation. When linked with a smartphone, the proposed device can present pressure patterns to indicate incoming calls and notifications, to give warning about an obstacle that one who is texting might miss while walking, and to provide direction to a pedestrian. Furthermore, the device can be used in a wide range of applications, from those necessary in daily living to those that enhance one's experience in the realm of entertainment. For example, haptic feedback that synchronizes with the presence of a singer or with the rhythm of a song one listens to or with a performer's movements during a stage performance will immerse users in an enjoyable experience.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Háptica , Tato , Humanos , Interface Usuário-Computador , Caminhada , Tecnologia
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679405

RESUMO

Load carriage and uphill walking are conditions that either individually or in combination can compromise postural control and gait eliciting several musculoskeletal low back and lower limb injuries. The objectives of this study were to investigate postural control responses and spatiotemporal parameters of gait during level and uphill unloaded (UL), back-loaded (BL), and front-loaded (FL) walking. Postural control was assessed in 30 asymptomatic individuals by simultaneously recording (i) EMG activity of neck, thoracic and lumbar erector spinae, and rectus abdominis, (ii) projected 95% ellipse area as well as the anteroposterior and mediolateral trunk displacement, and (iii) spatiotemporal gait parameters (stride/step length and cadence). Measurements were performed during level (0%) and uphill (5, 10, and 15%) walking at a speed of 5 km h-1 without and with a suspended front pack or a backpack weighing 15% of each participant's body weight. The results of our study showed that postural control, as indicated by increased erector spinae EMG activity and changes in spatiotemporal parameters of gait that manifested with decreased stride/step length and increased cadence, is compromised particularly during level and uphill FL walking as opposed to BL or UL walking, potentially increasing the risk of musculoskeletal and fall-related injuries.


Assuntos
Marcha , Caminhada , Humanos , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679424

RESUMO

The restoration of gait and mobility after stroke is an important and challenging therapy goal due to the complexity of the potentially impaired functions. As a result, precise and clinically feasible assessment methods are required for personalized gait rehabilitation after stroke. The aim of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of a sensor-based gait analysis system in stroke survivors with different severities of gait deficits. For this purpose, 28 chronic stroke survivors (9 women, ages: 62.04 ± 11.68 years) with mild to moderate walking impairments performed a set of ambulatory assessments (3× 10MWT, 1× 6MWT per session) twice while being equipped with a sensor suit. The derived gait reports provided information about speed, step length, step width, swing and stance phases, as well as joint angles of the hip, knee, and ankle, which we analyzed for test-retest reliability and hypothesis testing. Further, test-retest reliability resulted in a mean ICC of 0.78 (range: 0.46-0.88) for walking 10 m and a mean ICC of 0.90 (range: 0.63-0.99) for walking 6 min. Additionally, all gait parameters showed moderate-to-strong correlations with clinical scales reflecting lower limb function. These results support the applicability of this sensor-based gait analysis system for individuals with stroke-related walking impairments.


Assuntos
Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Análise da Marcha , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Marcha , Caminhada
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679471

RESUMO

Walking ability of elderly individuals, who suffer from walking difficulties, is limited, which restricts their mobility independence. The physical health and well-being of the elderly population are affected by their level of physical activity. Therefore, monitoring daily activities can help improve the quality of life. This becomes especially a huge challenge for those, who suffer from dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Thus, it is of great importance for personnel in care homes/rehabilitation centers to monitor their daily activities and progress. Unlike normal subjects, it is required to place the sensor on the back of this group of patients, which makes it even more challenging to detect walking from other activities. With the latest advancements in the field of health sensing and sensor technology, a huge amount of accelerometer data can be easily collected. In this study, a Machine Learning (ML) based algorithm was developed to analyze the accelerometer data collected from patients with walking difficulties, who live in one of the municipalities in Denmark. The ML algorithm is capable of accurately classifying the walking activity of these individuals with different walking abnormalities. Various statistical, temporal, and spectral features were extracted from the time series data collected using an accelerometer sensor placed on the back of the participants. The back sensor placement is desirable in patients with dementia and Alzheimer's disease since they may remove visible sensors to them due to the nature of their diseases. Then, an evolutionary optimization algorithm called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) was used to select a subset of features to be used in the classification step. Four different ML classifiers such as k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN), Random Forest (RF), Stacking Classifier (Stack), and Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGB) were trained and compared on an accelerometry dataset consisting of 20 participants. These models were evaluated using the leave-one-group-out cross-validation (LOGO-CV) technique. The Stack model achieved the best performance with average sensitivity, positive predictive values (precision), F1-score, and accuracy of 86.85%, 93.25%, 88.81%, and 93.32%, respectively, to classify walking episodes. In general, the empirical results confirmed that the proposed models are capable of classifying the walking episodes despite the challenging sensor placement on the back of the patients, who suffer from walking disabilities.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Humanos , Idoso , Qualidade de Vida , Caminhada , Marcha , Aprendizado de Máquina
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679484

RESUMO

Few studies have dealt with lower-limb kinematics during the timed up and go (TUG) test in subjects with locomotive syndrome (LS). This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of lower-limb kinematics during the TUG test in subjects with LS using the wearable sensor-based H-Gait system. A total of 140 participants were divided into the non-LS (n = 28), the LS-stage 1 (n = 78), and LS-stage 2 (n = 34) groups based on the LS risk test. Compared with the non-LS group, the LS-stage 1 and LS-stage 2 groups showed significantly smaller angular velocity of hip and knee extension during the sit-to-stand phase. The LS-stage 2 group showed significantly smaller peak angles of hip extension and flexion during the walking-out phase compared to the non-LS group. These findings indicate that the evaluation of the lower-limb kinematics during the TUG test using the H-Gait system is highly sensitive to detect LS, compared with the evaluation of the lower-limb kinematics when simply walking.


Assuntos
Marcha , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Humanos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Caminhada , Extremidade Inferior
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679627

RESUMO

(1) Background: Duchenne (DMD) is a rare neuromuscular disease that progressively weakens muscles, which severely impairs gait capacity. The Six Minute-Walk Test (6MWT), which is commonly used to evaluate and monitor the disease's evolution, presents significant variability due to extrinsic factors such as patient motivation, fatigue, and learning effects. Therefore, there is a clear need for the establishment of precise clinical endpoints to measure patient mobility. (2) Methods: A novel score (6M+ and 2M+) is proposed, which is derived from the use of a new portable monitoring system capable of carrying out a complete gait analysis. The system includes several biomechanical sensors: a heart rate band, inertial measurement units, electromyography shorts, and plantar pressure insoles. The scores were obtained by processing the sensor signals and via gaussian-mixture clustering. (3) Results: The 6M+ and 2M+ scores were evaluated against the North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA), the gold-standard for measuring DMD, and six- and two-minute distances. The 6M+ and 2M+ tests led to superior distances when tested against the NSAA. The 6M+ test and the 2M+ test in particular were the most correlated with age, suggesting that these scores better characterize the gait regressions in DMD. Additionally, the 2M+ test demonstrated an accuracy and stability similar to the 6M+ test. (4) Conclusions: The novel monitoring system described herein exhibited good usability with respect to functional testing in a clinical environment and demonstrated an improvement in the objectivity and reliability of monitoring the evolution of neuromuscular diseases.


Assuntos
Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne , Humanos , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/diagnóstico , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Caminhada , Progressão da Doença
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679734

RESUMO

Measurement of prosthesis structural load, as an important way to quantify the interaction of the amputee user with the environment, may serve important purposes in the control of smart lower-limb prosthetic devices. However, the majority of existing force sensors used in protheses are developed based on strain measurement and thus may suffer from multiple issues such as weak signals and signal drifting. To address these limitations, this paper presents a novel Force-Moment Prosthesis Load Sensor (FM-PLS) to measure the axial force and bending moment in the structure of a lower-limb prosthesis. Unlike strain gauge-based force sensors, the FM-PLS is developed based on the magnetic sensing of small (millimeter-scale) deflection of an elastic element, and it may provide stronger signals that are more robust against interferences and drifting since such physical deflection is several orders of magnitude greater than the strain of a typical load-bearing structure. The design of the sensor incorporates uniquely curved supporting surfaces such that the measurement is sensitive to light load but the sensor structure is robust enough to withstand heavy load without damage. To validate the sensor performance, benchtop testing of the FM-PLS and walking experiments of a FM-PLS-embedded robotic lower-limb prosthesis were conducted. Benchtop testing results displayed good linearity and a good match to the numerical simulation results. Results from the prosthesis walking experiments showed that the sensor signals can be used to detect important gaits events such as heel strike and toe-off, facilitating the reliable motion control of lower-limb prostheses.


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais , Marcha , Caminhada , Implantação de Prótese , Extremidade Inferior , Desenho de Prótese
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679587

RESUMO

Nowadays, robotic technology for gait training is becoming a common tool in rehabilitation hospitals. However, its effectiveness is still controversial. Traditional control strategies do not adequately integrate human intention and interaction and little is known regarding the impact of exoskeleton control strategies on muscle coordination, physical effort, and user acceptance. In this article, we benchmarked three types of exoskeleton control strategies in a sample of seven healthy volunteers: trajectory assistance (TC), compliant assistance (AC), and compliant assistance with EMG-Onset stepping control (OC), which allows the user to decide when to take a step during the walking cycle. This exploratory study was conducted within the EUROBENCH project facility. Experimental procedures and data analysis were conducted following EUROBENCH's protocols. Specifically, exoskeleton kinematics, muscle activation, heart and breathing rates, skin conductance, as well as user-perceived effort were analyzed. Our results show that the OC controller showed robust performance in detecting stepping intention even using a corrupt EMG acquisition channel. The AC and OC controllers resulted in similar kinematic alterations compared to the TC controller. Muscle synergies remained similar to the synergies found in the literature, although some changes in muscle contribution were found, as well as an overall increase in agonist-antagonist co-contraction. The OC condition led to the decreased mean duration of activation of synergies. These differences were not reflected in the overall physiological impact of walking or subjective perception. We conclude that, although the AC and OC walking conditions allowed the users to modulate their walking pattern, the application of these two controllers did not translate into significant changes in the overall physiological cost of walking nor the perceived experience of use. Nonetheless, results suggest that both AC and OC controllers are potentially interesting approaches that can be explored as gait rehabilitation tools. Furthermore, the INTENTION project is, to our knowledge, the first study to benchmark the effects on human-exoskeleton interaction of three different exoskeleton controllers, including a new EMG-based controller designed by us and never tested in previous studies, which has made it possible to provide valuable third-party feedback on the use of the EUROBENCH facility and testbed, enriching the apprenticeship of the project consortium and contributing to the scientific community.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Humanos , Benchmarking , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Eletromiografia/métodos , Caminhada/fisiologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674096

RESUMO

As our cities grow, it is important to develop policies and streetscape designs that provide pedestrians with safe comfortable walking conditions and acknowledge the challenges involved in making urban places feel liveable and safe while understanding the critical role of streets around busy destinations. To understand these challenges at a nuanced, human level, new methods of citizen engagement are needed. This paper outlines the development and application of a new citizen perception collection method, using immersive virtual environments (IVE), coupled with an interactive emoji affective activation-pleasure grid and digital slider elements, embedded within an online e-participation survey to quantify, and rank the impact of individual (single-variable) urban design elements and safe system treatments on pedestrians' perceptions of safety and place. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method for providing detailed, interrogable, scalable citizen perception data of a variety of urban street design elements and safe system treatments, which allows a statistical analysis of responses and prioritization of the most effective pedestrian-oriented interventions for maintaining or enhancing street vibrancy and liveability. Our IVE e-participation approach is an important contribution to forming a better understanding of streetscapes and provides a valuable method for urban designers and transport planners to prioritise different streetscape place and safety approaches.


Assuntos
Pedestres , Caminhada , Humanos , Cidades , Inquéritos e Questionários , Políticas , Segurança , Acidentes de Trânsito , Planejamento Ambiental
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recreational activities show benefits for diabetes prevention, but work-related activity and the total amount of individual physical activity is rarely discussed. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the participation in five typical physical activities (vigorous work activity, vigorous recreational activities, moderate work activity, moderate recreational activities, and walk/bicycle for transportation), as well as the weekly distribution of total physical activity intensity, and to explore the relationships between physical activity types, physical activity levels, and risk of diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: The self-reported physical activity data on specific domains of physical activity were acquired from individuals in the 2007-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) using the Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). Diabetes status was assessed by self-reported medical diagnosis or medication usage, or a fasting glucose concentration ≥ 126 mg/dL (fasting is defined as no caloric intake for at least 8 h) or HbA1c ≥ 6.5%. Weighted logistic regression was used to investigate the associations between physical activity types, physical activity levels, and risk of diabetes. RESULTS: Diabetes was less prevalent in people who participated in physical activity and the risk of diabetes reduced progressively as total physical activity levels increased. Younger adults (20-44 years) and males reported a higher proportion of high-intensity physical activity participation. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the importance of a physically active lifestyle for preventing diabetes. Distinct types of physical activity had different effects on the risk of diabetes. A greater total physical activity level was related to a substantial reduction in diabetes risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Caminhada
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674155

RESUMO

There is empirical evidence that neighborhood environment characteristics influence individuals' self-reported affective walking experiences. However, much of the research investigates residents' affective walking experiences at the neighborhood level using revealed-preference methodologies, making it difficult to identify the separate impacts of characteristics. In addition, empirical studies have not shown enough evidence that individuals from different sociodemographic backgrounds have distinct affective walking experiences. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to explain how different groups of people perceive the characteristics of a neighborhood differently. To do this, this study conducts a conjoint experiment employing videos of virtual environments involving a sample of 295 respondents. Using a latent-class regression model and a multinomial logit model, we are able to determine how individuals and groups perceive neighborhood characteristics differently based on their different emotions. The results somewhat confirmed the findings of the empirical research, indicating that land use mix, connectivity, road size, open space, and greenery are related to a positive walking experience. The level of affective walking experience that individuals associate with neighborhood environmental characteristics is, however, considerably variable. Therefore, our results show that open space and road width are crucial for a walkable neighborhood since they are most helpful to individuals' subjective well-being.


Assuntos
Características de Residência , Caminhada , Humanos , Caminhada/psicologia , Autorrelato , Análise por Conglomerados , Características da Vizinhança , Planejamento Ambiental
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674319

RESUMO

Older people are limited by the pedestrian environment in human settlements and are prone to travel difficulties, falls, and stumbles. Furthermore, we still lack systematic knowledge of the pedestrian environment affecting the gait of older people. The purpose of this review is to synthesize current evidence of effective human settlement pedestrian environments interfering with gait in older people. The systematic effects of the human settlement pedestrian environment on gait in older people are discussed. Databases such as Web of Science, Medline (via PubMed), Scopus, and Embase were searched for relevant studies up to June 2022. The literature was screened to extract relevant evidence from the included literature, assess the quality of the evidence, and analyze the systematic effects of the pedestrian environment on gait in older people. From the 4297 studies identified in the initial search, 11 systematic reviews or meta-analysis studies were screened, from which 18 environmental factors and 60 gait changes were extracted. After removing duplicate elements and merging synonymous features, a total of 53 relationships between environmental factors and gait change in older people were extracted: the main human settlement pedestrian environmental factors affecting gait change in older people in existing studies were indoor and outdoor stairs/steps, uneven and irregular ground, obstacles, walking path turns, vibration interventions, mechanical perturbation during gait, and auditory sound cues. Under the influence of these factors, older people may experience changes in the degree of cautiousness and conservatism of gait and stability, and their body posture performance and control, and muscle activation may also be affected. Factors such as ground texture or material, mechanical perturbations during gait, and vibration interventions stimulate older people's understanding and perception of their environment, but there is controversy over the results of specific gait parameters. The results support that human settlements' pedestrian environment affects the gait changes of older people in a positive or negative way. This review may likely contribute evidence-based information to aid communication among practitioners in public health, healthcare, and environmental construction. The above findings are expected to provide useful preference for associated interdisciplinary researchers to understand the interactions among pedestrian environments, human behavior, and physiological characteristics.


Assuntos
Pedestres , Humanos , Idoso , Marcha/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Vibração
14.
BMC Pulm Med ; 23(1): 17, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise intolerance is among the most common symptoms experienced by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is associated with lung dynamic hyperinflation (DH). There was evidence that positive expiratory pressure (PEP), which could be offered by less costly devices, could reduce DH. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term domiciliary use of PEP device in subjects with COPD. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted and 25 Pre-COPD or mild-to-very severe subjects with COPD were randomized to intervention group (PEP device, PEP = 5 cmH2O, n = 13) and control group (Sham-PEP device, PEP = 0 cmH2O, n = 12). PEP device was a spring-loaded resistor face mask. Subjects were treated 4 h per day for a total of 2 months. Six-minute walk test (6MWT), pulmonary function, the Modified British Medical Research Council score, and partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide were evaluated at baseline and after two months. RESULTS: The 6MWD (- 71.67 ± 8.70 m, P < 0.001), end-dyspnea (P = 0.002), and end-fatigue (P = 0.022) improved significantly in the intervention group when compared with the control group. All subjects in the intervention group reported that 4 h of daily use of the PEP device was well tolerated and accepted and there were no adverse events. CONCLUSION: Regular daily use of PEP device is safe and may improve exercise capacity in subjects with COPD or pre-COPD. PEP device could be used as an add-on to pulmonary rehabilitation programs due to its efficacy, safety, and low cost. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was prospectively registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04742114).


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Pulmão , Dispneia , Caminhada , Tolerância ao Exercício
15.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 108, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a significant public health concern, with limited signs of improvement despite a global commitment to achieving the World Health Organization's target of 15% reduction by 2030. A systems approach is required to tackle this issue, involving the creation of environments that are conducive to physical activity. Laws represent an important tool for regulating the built environment for physical activity, are a mechanism for systems change, and have the capacity to reorient the goals and rules of a system. However, they are understudied and potentially underutilised for physical activity. Scientific legal mapping is a first step towards understanding how laws could impact the built environment to facilitate greater population physical activity. METHOD: We conducted a legal assessment of state and territory laws in Australia, to systematically characterise how they address built environment considerations with specific relevance to walking and cycling. An interdisciplinary team of researchers with public health, law and urban planning expertise was formed to complete the multistage process. Key steps included a systematic search of laws using a combination of original legal research, consultation of secondary sources, and review and verification by an urban planning expert; development of a coding scheme; and completion of coding and quality control procedures. RESULTS: Most jurisdictions in Australia do not currently embed objectives in primary legislation that would promote physical activity and support an integrated approach to land use and transport planning that encourages active and sustainable lifestyles. Only two jurisdictions addressed the large majority of evidence-based standards that promote active living. Of the standards addressed in law, few fully met evidence-based recommendations. While most jurisdictions legislated responsibility for enforcement of planning law, few legislated obligations for monitoring implementation. CONCLUSION: Increasing physical activity is a systems issue, requiring actions across multiple sectors. An in-depth examination of the legal environment is an important step towards understanding and influencing the existing physical activity system, why it may not be generating desired outcomes, and potential opportunities for improvement. Our findings reveal opportunities where laws could be strengthened to promote more active environments. Updating this dataset periodically will generate longitudinal data that could be used to evaluate the impact of these laws on the built environment and physical activity behaviours.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Caminhada , Humanos , Exercício Físico , Ambiente Construído , Austrália
16.
PeerJ ; 11: e14619, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36643634

RESUMO

Background: Plantar vibration has been widely used to strengthen the sensation of the somatosensory system, further enhancing balance during walking on a level surface in patients with stroke. However, previous studies with plantar vibration only involved the level surface, which neglected the importance of inclined/declined walking in daily life. Thus, combining the plantar vibration and inclined/declined walking might answer a critical research question: whether different types of plantar vibration had different effects on gait characteristics during walking on different inclines. Methods: Eighteen healthy young adults were recruited. Fifteen walking conditions were assigned randomly to these healthy adults (no, sub-, and supra-threshold plantar vibration × five different inclines: +15%, +8%, 0%, -8%, -15% grade). A motion capture system with eight cameras captured 12 retro-reflective markers and measured the stride time, stride length, step width, and respective variabilities. Results: A significant interaction between vibration and inclination was observed in the stride time (p < 0.0001) and step width (p = 0.015). Post hoc comparisons found that supra-threshold vibration significantly decreased the stride time (-8%: p < 0.001; -15%: p < 0.001) while the sub-threshold vibration significantly increased the step width (-8%: p = 0.036) in comparison with no plantar vibration. Conclusions: When walking downhill, any perceivable (supra-threshold) vibration on the plantar area decreased the stride time. Also, the increase in step width was observed by non-perceivable (sub-threshold) plantar vibration while walking uphill. These observations were crucial as follows: (1) applying sub-threshold plantar vibrations during uphill walking could increase the base of support, and (2) for those who may need challenges in locomotor training, applying supra-threshold vibration during downhill walking could reach this specific training goal.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Vibração , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Marcha , Caminhada , Modalidades de Fisioterapia
17.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 60, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593305

RESUMO

Biped robots have attracted increasing attention because of their flexible movement and strong adaptability to the surroundings. However, the small output torque and the weak impact resistance of the motor drive, as well as the large energy consumption of the hydraulic drive limit the performance of the biped robot drive system. Aiming at these shortcomings, an electric-hydraulic hybrid drive system of biped robot was proposed in this paper. The robot platform was designed based on the prototype of the Zhejiang Lab biped robot. The model of the hydraulic drive system and mechanical structure was established to analyze the dynamic characteristic and the load force during walking. The value function reflecting the energy consumption of the hydraulic drive system was proposed. The pressure of the accumulator in the hydraulic power unit was selected as the control parameter. In order to get the minimum value of the value function, so as to reduce the energy consumption of the hydraulic driving system, the control parameters were optimized by using the genetic algorithm. From the simulation results, the proposed optimization algorithm can improve efficiency by 3.49%.


Assuntos
Robótica , Robótica/métodos , Caminhada , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador
18.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1363, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36693935

RESUMO

Squatting is an intensive activity routinely performed in the workplace to lift and lower loads. The effort to perform a squat can decrease using an exoskeleton that considers individual worker's differences and assists them with a customized solution, namely, personalized assistance. Designing such an exoskeleton could be improved by understanding how the user's muscle activity changes when assistance is provided. This study investigated the change in the muscle recruitment and activation pattern when personalized assistance was provided. The personalized assistance was provided by an ankle-foot exoskeleton during squatting and we compared its effect with that of the no-device and unpowered exoskeleton conditions using previously collected data. We identified four main muscle recruitment strategies across ten participants. One of the strategies mainly used quadriceps muscles, and the activation level corresponding to the strategy was reduced under exoskeleton assistance compared to the no-device and unpowered conditions. These quadriceps dominant synergy and rectus femoris activations showed reasonable correlations (r = 0.65, 0.59) to the metabolic cost of squatting. These results indicate that the assistance helped reduce quadriceps activation, and thus, the metabolic cost of squatting. These outcomes suggest that the muscle recruitment and activation patterns could be used to design an exoskeleton and training methods.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Humanos , Tornozelo/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Marcha/fisiologia
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(1)2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36617154

RESUMO

The inertial measurement unit (IMU) has become more prevalent in gait analysis. However, it can only measure the kinematics of the body segment it is attached to. Muscle behaviour is an important part of gait analysis and provides a more comprehensive overview of gait quality. Muscle behaviour can be estimated using musculoskeletal modelling or measured using an electromyogram (EMG). However, both methods can be tasking and resource intensive. A combination of IMU and neural networks (NN) has the potential to overcome this limitation. Therefore, this study proposes using NN and IMU data to estimate nine lower extremity muscle activities. Two NN were developed and investigated, namely feedforward neural network (FNN) and long short-term memory neural network (LSTM). The results show that, although both networks were able to predict muscle activities well, LSTM outperformed the conventional FNN. This study confirms the feasibility of estimating muscle activity using IMU data and NN. It also indicates the possibility of this method enabling the gait analysis to be performed outside the laboratory environment with a limited number of devices.


Assuntos
Marcha , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Marcha/fisiologia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Extremidade Inferior , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Músculos , Caminhada/fisiologia
20.
Health Promot Int ; 38(1)2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36617292

RESUMO

Self-efficacy is the key factor for promoting physical activity. Older adults with low self-efficacy tend to be physical inactive than those with high self-efficacy, and an approach is needed to promote physical activity. Among several approaches, increasing the perception of green space may be an effective approach for low self-efficacy not high self-efficacy, but no study has investigated. This study investigated the association between walking and perception of green space among older adults with high and low self-efficacy, respectively. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 204 community-dwelling older adults (mean age = 78.3 years, 62.3% females). Using the median split, the participants were divided into high and low self-efficacy groups based on the median score of 12. Walking was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and 'more walking' was defined as ≥150 min of walking time per week. Perception of green space was measured using an 8-item questionnaire. We performed logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between walking and perception of green space adjusted for age, gender, years of education, living with someone and income level. For all participants, 94 participants (46.1%) fell under low self-efficacy. After adjustment, higher perception of green space is associated with more walking among older adults with low self-efficacy [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.00-1.15], but not among those with high self-efficacy (aOR = 1.09, 95% CI= 0.99-1.20). To increase perception of green space, experts should design/improve green spaces considering beneficiaries' characteristics.


Low self-efficacy has a negative effect on Activities of Daily Living and Quality of Life through physical inactivity among older adults. Encouraging physical activity among those with low self-efficacy can help solve the problem, but individual intervention towards low self-efficacy requires great effort. Therefore, we focused on environmental factors as they affect more people, and investigated the association between perception of green space and walking among older adults with high and low self-efficacy, respectively. This cross-sectional study was conducted among community-dwelling older adults in Japan, the variables used in this study were asked by a questionnaire. We examined whether older people who have higher perception of green space do more walking. As a result of the analysis, high perception of green space was associated with more walking among community-dwelling older adults with low self-efficacy, but not among older adults with high self-efficacy. This result may lead to solves the problem of physical inactivity in older adults with low self-efficacy from the perspective of environmental factors. To increase perception of green space, experts such as urban planners and policy makers should design/improve green spaces considering beneficiaries' characteristics such as quantity, quality and accessibility.


Assuntos
Parques Recreativos , Autoeficácia , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Japão , Características de Residência , Caminhada , Percepção
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