Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 620
Filtrar
1.
Eur J Protistol ; 81: 125828, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487957

RESUMO

Southern Spain is currently under threat of desertification as a consequence of global climate change, which pressures on fragile ecosystems such as caves. The organisms living in these extremely stable environments are particularly sensitive and prone to extinction, therefore they can be used as bioindicators for climate change. Cyanobacterial mats form peculiar and vulnerable micro-ecosystems at the entrance of caves and house a diversity of protists. Amongst them, Arcellinida testate amoebae have been traditionally used as bioindicators for environmental quality, notably because their narrow ecological tolerance and their key ecological position as top predators of the microbial foodwebs. We report here two new species of Arcellinida found in the cyanobacterial mats of cave Hundidero, in Sierra de Grazalema, Malaga province, whose traits suggest a narrow tolerance for changes in humidity. We provide a formal description for Difflugia alhadiqa sp. nov. and Heleopera baetica sp. nov. based on morphometrics and 18S rRNA gene data, and propose using the presence of these species to indicate the good health of the cyanobacterial mats, like miner's canaries for local climate.


Assuntos
Amoeba , Lobosea , Animais , Canários , Ecossistema , Espanha
2.
Clin Cardiol ; 44(9): 1296-1304, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Accurate ascertainment of comorbidities is paramount in clinical research. While manual adjudication is labor-intensive and expensive, the adoption of electronic health records enables computational analysis of free-text documentation using natural language processing (NLP) tools. HYPOTHESIS: We sought to develop highly accurate NLP modules to assess for the presence of five key cardiovascular comorbidities in a large electronic health record system. METHODS: One-thousand clinical notes were randomly selected from a cardiovascular registry at Mass General Brigham. Trained physicians manually adjudicated these notes for the following five diagnostic comorbidities: hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and stroke/transient ischemic attack. Using the open-source Canary NLP system, five separate NLP modules were designed based on 800 "training-set" notes and validated on 200 "test-set" notes. RESULTS: Across the five NLP modules, the sentence-level and note-level sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value was always greater than 85% and was most often greater than 90%. Accuracy tended to be highest for conditions with greater diagnostic clarity (e.g. diabetes and hypertension) and slightly lower for conditions whose greater diagnostic challenges (e.g. myocardial infarction and embolic stroke) may lead to less definitive documentation. CONCLUSION: We designed five open-source and highly accurate NLP modules that can be used to assess for the presence of important cardiovascular comorbidities in free-text health records. These modules have been placed in the public domain and can be used for clinical research, trial recruitment and population management at any institution as well as serve as the basis for further development of cardiovascular NLP tools.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Algoritmos , Animais , Canários , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos
3.
Biol Lett ; 17(6): 20210125, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102069

RESUMO

While avoidance of sick conspecifics is common among animals, little is known about how detecting diseased conspecifics influences an organism's physiological state, despite its implications for disease transmission dynamics. The avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) causes obvious visual signs of infection in domestic canaries (Serinus canaria domestica), including lethargy and conjunctivitis, making this system a useful tool for investigating how the perception of cues from sick individuals shapes immunity in healthy individuals. We tested whether disease-related social information can stimulate immune responses in canaries housed in visual contact with either healthy or MG-infected conspecifics. We found higher complement activity and higher heterophil counts in healthy birds viewing MG-infected individuals around 6-12 days post-inoculation, which corresponded with the greatest degree of disease pathology in infected stimulus birds. However, we did not detect the effects of disease-related social cues on the expression of two proinflammatory cytokines in the blood. These data indicate that social cues of infection can alter immune responses in healthy individuals and suggest that public information about the disease can shape how individuals respond to infection.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Infecções por Mycoplasma , Mycoplasma gallisepticum , Aves Canoras , Animais , Canários , Sinais (Psicologia) , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Percepção
4.
Parasitol Res ; 120(7): 2343-2350, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110501

RESUMO

Arthropod vectors are frequently exposed to a diverse assemblage of parasites, but the consequence of these infections on their biology and behavior are poorly understood. We experimentally evaluated whether the ingestion of a common protozoan parasite of avian hosts (Haemoproteus spp.; Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) impacted the survivorship of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae). Blood was collected from wild northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) in College Station, Texas, and screened for the presence of Haemoproteus spp. parasites using microscopic and molecular methods. Experimental groups of Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were offered Haemoproteus-positive cardinal blood through an artificial feeding apparatus, while control groups received Haemoproteus-negative cardinal blood or domestic canary (Serinus canaria domestica) blood. Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes exposed to Haemoproteus infected cardinal blood survived significantly fewer days than mosquitoes that ingested Haemoproteus-negative cardinal blood. The survival of mosquitoes fed on positive cardinal blood had a median survival time of 18 days post-exposure and the survival of mosquitoes fed on negative cardinal blood exceeded 50% across the 30 day observation period. Additionally, mosquitoes that fed on canary controls survived significantly fewer days than cardinal negative controls, with canary control mosquitoes having a median survival time of 17 days. This study further supports prior observations that Haemoproteus parasites can be pathogenic to bird-biting mosquitoes, and suggests that Haemoproteus parasites may indirectly suppress the transmission of co-circulating vector-borne pathogens by modulating vector survivorship. Our results also suggest that even in the absence of parasite infection, bloodmeals from different bird species can influence mosquito survivorship.


Assuntos
Culex/fisiologia , Culex/parasitologia , Haemosporida/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Passeriformes/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/transmissão , Canários/sangue , Canários/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/sangue , Passeriformes/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Probabilidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/transmissão , Texas
5.
Braz J Microbiol ; 52(2): 1005-1012, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566322

RESUMO

The canary (Serinus canaria) is appreciated for its beautiful song, colors, and docile temperament and drives a lucrative business. However, diseases caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) compromise the health of canaries, and the inadequate antimicrobial treatment can lead to the emergence of resistant strains. This study aimed to characterize 21 isolates of E. coli obtained from canaries infected with colibacillosis during an outbreak in northern Paraná State, Brazil. APEC and diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) virulence genes were screened for by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All isolates were positive for the hlyF, iss, and ompT genes, which are characteristic of APEC. The iroN gene was found in 95.2% of isolates, and none had the iutA gene. The ipaH gene, characteristic of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), was found in 71.4% of isolates, all belonging to the phylogenetic group B1. High genetic similarity (>95%) was found using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR). The isolates belonged to serotypes O117:H4 (71.4%) and O1:H20 (23.8%). This is the first report of a clonal colibacillosis outbreak in canaries caused by APEC. All isolates were resistant to ampicillin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, and tetracycline. The high rate of multidrug resistance in our study shows the importance of avoiding the inadequate antibiotic treatment. We suggest that further studies should be conducted to contribute to the understanding of colibacillosis in canaries since the health of animals is linked to human and environmental health, as defined by the concept of One Health.


Assuntos
Canários/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Genótipo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Sorogrupo , Fatores de Virulência/genética
7.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 22: 100461, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308722

RESUMO

Feather mites are the most numerous group of symbionts permanently associated to birds. They are highly specialized to particular microhabitats on their hosts and most of them may be considered as commensals, but several species are parasites. This manuscript documents for the first time a combined infestation by quill mites Dermoglyphus passerinusGaud, 1974 (Analgoidea: Dermoglyphidae) and feather mites Strelkoviacarus sp.(Analgidae: Anomalginae), in domestic canaries (Serinus canaria domestica) (Linnaeus, 1758) (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) in Mexico City, Mexico. Description of the case, the feather and skin lesions, and findings associated with the infection are presented. This manuscript aims to contribute to the knowledge of mite species that can affect the plumage of Serinus canaria domestica; as well as to the diagnosis and control of these infestations.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Canários , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , México , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Ácaros
8.
J Mol Neurosci ; 70(11): 1671-1683, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926339

RESUMO

The activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) syndrome is an autistic-like disorder, instigated by mutations in ADNP. This syndrome is characterized by developmental delays, impairments in speech, motor function, abnormal hearing, and intellectual disabilities. In the Adnp-haploinsufficient mouse model, many of these impediments are evident, appearing in a sex-dependent manner. In zebra finch songbird (ZF; Taeniopygia guttata), an animal model used for song/language studies, ADNP mRNA most robust expression is observed in the cerebrum of young males, potentially corroborating with male ZF exclusive singing behavior and developed cerebral song system. Herein, we report a similar sex-dependent ADNP expression profile, with the highest expression in the cerebrum (qRT-PCR) in the brain of another songbird, the domesticated canary (Serinus canaria domestica). Additional analyses for the mRNA transcripts of the ADNP regulator, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), sister gene ADNP2, and speech-related Forkhead box protein P2 (FoxP2) revealed multiple sex and brain region-dependent positive correlations between the genes (including ADNP). Parallel transcript expression patterns for FoxP2 and VIP were observed alongside specific FoxP2 increase in males compared with females as well as VIP/ADNP2 correlations. In spatial view, a sexually independent extensive form of expression was found for ADNP in the canary cerebrum (RNA in situ hybridization). The songbird cerebral mesopallium area stood out as a potentially high-expressing ADNP tissue, further strengthening the association of ADNP with sense integration and auditory memory formation, previously implicated in mouse and human.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Canários/genética , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Canários/fisiologia , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Fatores Sexuais , Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/genética , Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/metabolismo
9.
eNeuro ; 7(4)2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737183

RESUMO

Male canaries (Serinus canaria) display seasonal changes in the motivation to sing which have been found to be dependent on the action of testosterone (T). During the breeding season when T is high, males sing at a higher rate compared with males with low T. The effect of T on song rate is known to be mediated by the medial preoptic nucleus (POM); however, it is unclear how T signaling in POM impacts song production. One potential mechanism is via modulation of dopaminergic input into song control nuclei by the periaqueductal gray (PAG). In order to test the role of PAG in T-mediated song production, we treated male canaries with peripheral T implants and implanted a guide cannula targeting the PAG. Through this guide cannula, we transiently inactivated PAG with injections of the GABAA agonist, muscimol. Each bird received multiple infusions of both muscimol and saline with a 48-h washout period between treatments. The order of injection type was randomized and counterbalanced between individuals. Muscimol infusion into the PAG, but not nearby regions, increased the latency to sing post-injection. These results support the hypothesis that PAG is involved in the production of song, potentially mediating the motivation to sing or alternatively interfering with the pre-motor activity of nucleus RA. Other song features were however not affected.


Assuntos
Canários , Testosterona , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Substância Cinzenta Periaquedutal , Área Pré-Óptica , Vocalização Animal
11.
Emerg Med Australas ; 32(4): 706-708, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633053

RESUMO

Addressing and limiting burnout and its significant impacts on emergency physicians is an important and ongoing challenge, requiring much more than a focus on individual resilience. This is a key understanding which guides and informs the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine's holistic approach and advocacy efforts when it comes to the wellness of emergency physicians and the health systems in which they operate.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Médicos , Animais , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Canários , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos
12.
Nat Rev Neurosci ; 21(9): 450-451, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669661
13.
Chaos ; 30(5): 053134, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491906

RESUMO

Vocal production in songbirds is a key topic regarding the motor control of a complex, learned behavior. Birdsong is the result of the interaction between the activity of an intricate set of neural nuclei specifically dedicated to song production and learning (known as the "song system"), the respiratory system and the vocal organ. These systems interact and give rise to precise biomechanical motor gestures which result in song production. Telencephalic neural nuclei play a key role in the production of motor commands that drive the periphery, and while several attempts have been made to understand their coding strategy, difficulties arise when trying to understand neural activity in the frame of the song system as a whole. In this work, we report neural additive models embedded in an architecture compatible with the song system to provide a tool to reduce the dimensionality of the problem by considering the global activity of the units in each neural nucleus. This model is capable of generating outputs compatible with measurements of air sac pressure during song production in canaries (Serinus canaria). In this work, we show that the activity in a telencephalic nucleus required by the model to reproduce the observed respiratory gestures is compatible with electrophysiological recordings of single neuron activity in freely behaving animals.


Assuntos
Canários , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Rede Nervosa
14.
Nature ; 582(7813): 539-544, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555461

RESUMO

Coordinated skills such as speech or dance involve sequences of actions that follow syntactic rules in which transitions between elements depend on the identities and order of past actions. Canary songs consist of repeated syllables called phrases, and the ordering of these phrases follows long-range rules1 in which the choice of what to sing depends on the song structure many seconds prior. The neural substrates that support these long-range correlations are unknown. Here, using miniature head-mounted microscopes and cell-type-specific genetic tools, we observed neural activity in the premotor nucleus HVC2-4 as canaries explored various phrase sequences in their repertoire. We identified neurons that encode past transitions, extending over four phrases and spanning up to four seconds and forty syllables. These neurons preferentially encode past actions rather than future actions, can reflect more than one song history, and are active mostly during the rare phrases that involve history-dependent transitions in song. These findings demonstrate that the dynamics of HVC include 'hidden states' that are not reflected in ongoing behaviour but rather carry information about prior actions. These states provide a possible substrate for the control of syntax transitions governed by long-range rules.


Assuntos
Canários/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Canto/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Canários/anatomia & histologia , Canários/genética , Masculino , Modelos Neurológicos , Psicolinguística , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10183, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576924

RESUMO

Malaria, a vector-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp., remains a major global cause of mortality. Optimization of disease control strategies requires a thorough understanding of the processes underlying parasite transmission. While the number of transmissible stages (gametocytes) of Plasmodium in blood is frequently used as an indicator of host-to-mosquito transmission potential, this relationship is not always clear. Significant effort has been made in developing molecular tools that improve gametocyte density estimation and therefore prediction of mosquito infection rates. However a significant level of uncertainty around estimates remains. The weakness in the relationship between gametocyte burden, measured from a blood sample, and the mosquito infection rate could be explained by a non-homogeneous distribution of gametocytes in the bloodstream. The estimated gametocyte density would then only be a single snapshot that does not reflect the host infectivity. This aspect of Plasmodium infection, however, remains largely neglected. In both humans and birds, we found here that the gametocyte densities differed depending on which side of the body the sample was taken, suggesting that gametocytes are not homogeneously distributed within the vertebrate host. We observed a fluctuating asymmetry, in other words, the extremity of the body with the highest density of parasites is not always the same from one individual to another. An estimation of gametocyte density from only one blood sample, as is commonly measured, could, therefore, over- or underestimated the infectivity of gametocyte carriers. This might have important consequences on the epidemiology of the disease since we show that this variation influences host-to-mosquito transmission. Vectors fed on the least infected body part had a lower parasite burden than those fed on the most infected part. The heterogeneous distribution of gametocytes in bloodstream should be considered to improve diagnosis and test new malaria control strategies.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Vertebrados/parasitologia , Animais , Canários/parasitologia , Portador Sadio/parasitologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Culex/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium/patogenicidade
16.
Science ; 368(6496): 1270-1274, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527835

RESUMO

Sexual dichromatism, a difference in coloration between males and females, may be due to sexual selection for ornamentation and mate choice. Here, we show that carotenoid-based dichromatism in mosaic canaries, a hybrid phenotype that arises in offspring of the sexually dichromatic red siskin and monochromatic canaries, is controlled by the gene that encodes the carotenoid-cleaving enzyme ß-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2). Dichromatism in mosaic canaries is explained by differential carotenoid degradation in the integument, rather than sex-specific variation in physiological functions such as pigment uptake or transport. Transcriptome analyses suggest that carotenoid degradation in the integument might be a common mechanism contributing to sexual dichromatism across finches. These results suggest that differences in ornamental coloration between sexes can evolve through simple molecular mechanisms controlled by genes of major effect.


Assuntos
Canários/fisiologia , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/genética , Tentilhões/fisiologia , Pigmentação/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Canários/anatomia & histologia , Canários/genética , Feminino , Tentilhões/anatomia & histologia , Tentilhões/genética , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Transcriptoma
17.
Evolution ; 74(6): 1170-1185, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352570

RESUMO

The diversity and the motor performance of birdsongs can both be sexually selected. In wood warblers, most species with high motor performance sing a greater proportion of trills, presumably to advertise performance, and thus have lower syllable diversity. We tested if this trade-off between motor performance and syllable diversity extends to canaries, goldfinches and allies, a clade with much longer and more varied songs. We assembled a molecular phylogeny and inferred song motor performance based on the speed of frequency modulation either in trills or in within-song intervals. The two metrics of performance were positively, but only mildly, related across species. While performance evaluated in intervals had high phylogenetic signal, performance evaluated in trills changed independently of phylogeny and was constrained by body size. Species in densely vegetated habitats sang fewer trills, but did not differ in motor performance. Contrary to wood warblers, song motor performance did not predict the proportion of trilled syllables nor within-song syllable diversity, perhaps because large differences in the song duration of canaries, goldfinches and allies prevent trills from severely compromising syllable diversity. Opposed results in wood warblers and in these finches indicate the existence of clade-specific trade-offs in the evolution of birdsong.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Canários/genética , Desempenho Psicomotor , Vocalização Animal , Animais
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7848, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398864

RESUMO

Statistical learning of transition patterns between sounds-a striking capability of the auditory system-plays an essential role in animals' survival (e.g., detect deviant sounds that signal danger). However, the neural mechanisms underlying this capability are still not fully understood. We recorded extracellular multi-unit and single-unit activity in the auditory forebrain of awake male zebra finches while presenting rare repetitions of a single sound in a long sequence of sounds (canary and zebra finch song syllables) patterned in either an alternating or random order at different inter-stimulus intervals (ISI). When preceding stimuli were regularly alternating (alternating condition), a repeated stimulus violated the preceding transition pattern and was a deviant. When preceding stimuli were in random order (control condition), a repeated stimulus did not violate any regularities and was not a deviant. At all ISIs tested (1 s, 3 s, or jittered at 0.8-1.2 s), deviant repetition enhanced neural responses in the alternating condition in a secondary auditory area (caudomedial nidopallium, NCM) but not in the primary auditory area (Field L2); in contrast, repetition suppressed responses in the control condition in both Field L2 and NCM. When stimuli were presented in the classical oddball paradigm at jittered ISI (0.8-1.2 s), neural responses in both NCM and Field L2 were stronger when a stimulus occurred as deviant with low probability than when the same stimulus occurred as standard with high probability. Together, these results demonstrate: (1) classical oddball effect exists even when ISI is jittered and the onset of a stimulus is not fully predictable; (2) neurons in NCM can learn transition patterns between sounds at multiple ISIs and detect violation of these transition patterns; (3) sensitivity to deviant sounds increases from Field L2 to NCM in the songbird auditory forebrain. Further studies using the current paradigms may help us understand the neural substrate of statistical learning and even speech comprehension.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Canários/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Prosencéfalo/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia
19.
J Evol Biol ; 33(7): 899-910, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236996

RESUMO

Parental care involves elaborate behavioural interactions between parents and their offspring, with offspring stimulating their parents via begging to provision resources. Thus, begging has direct fitness benefits as it enhances offspring growth and survival. It is nevertheless subject to a complex evolutionary trajectory, because begging may serve as a means for the offspring to manipulate parents in the context of evolutionary conflicts of interest. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that begging is coadapted and potentially genetically correlated with parental care traits as a result of social selection. Further experiments on the causal processes that shape the evolution of begging are therefore essential. We applied bidirectional artificial selection on begging behaviour, using canaries (Serinus canaria) as a model species. We measured the response to selection, the consequences for offspring development, changes in parental care traits, here the rate of parental provisioning, as well as the effects on reproductive success. After three generations of selection, offspring differed in begging behaviour according to our artificial selection regime: nestlings of the high begging line begged significantly more than nestlings of the low begging line. Intriguingly, begging less benefitted the nestlings, as reflected by on average significantly higher growth rates, and increased reproductive success in terms of a higher number of fledglings in the low selected line. Begging could thus represent an exaggerated trait, possibly because parent-offspring conflict enhanced the selection on begging. We did not find evidence that we co-selected on parental provisioning, which may be due to the lack of power, but may also suggest that the evolution of begging is probably not constrained by a genetic correlation between parental provisioning and offspring begging.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Canários/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Comportamento de Nidação , Seleção Genética , Animais , Tamanho da Ninhada , Feminino , Masculino
20.
eNeuro ; 7(2)2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169884

RESUMO

Songbirds are a powerful model to study vocal learning given that aspects of the underlying behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms are analogous in many ways to mechanisms involved in speech learning. Perineuronal nets (PNNs) represent one of the mechanisms controlling the closing of sensitive periods for vocal learning in the songbird brain. In zebra finches, PNN develop around parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons in selected song control nuclei during ontogeny and their development is delayed if juveniles are deprived of a tutor. However, song learning in zebra finches takes place during a relatively short period of development, and it is difficult to determine whether PNN development correlates with the end of the sensory or the sensorimotor learning period. Canaries have a longer period of sensorimotor vocal learning, spanning over their first year of life so that it should be easier to test whether PNN development correlates with the end of sensory or sensorimotor vocal learning. Here, we quantified PNN around PV-interneurons in the brain of male canaries from hatching until the first breeding season and analyzed in parallel the development of their song. PNN development around PV-interneurons specifically took place and their number reached its maximum around the end of the sensorimotor learning stage, well after the end of sensory vocal learning, and correlated with song development. This suggests that PNN are specifically involved in the termination of the sensitive period for sensorimotor vocal learning.


Assuntos
Tentilhões , Aves Canoras , Animais , Canários , Masculino , Plasticidade Neuronal , Parvalbuminas , Vocalização Animal
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...