Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 511
Filtrar
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 143, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Capillaria aerophila and Capillaria boehmi parasitize the respiratory system of wild and domestic carnivores. Capillaria aerophila inhabits the trachea and bronchi of dogs and cats, while C. boehmi affects the nasal cavities and sinuses of dogs. In dogs the infection may be subclinical or characterized by varying respiratory distress. METHODS: The present study evaluated the efficacy of an oral formulation containing milbemycin oxime and afoxolaner (NEXGARD SPECTRA®) in dogs naturally infected with C. aerophila and/or C. boehmi from three enzootic areas of Italy. Dogs were enrolled pending fecal examination and molecular confirmation of respiratory capillarioses. Dogs were allocated in two groups: Group 1 (G1, 25 dogs), treated with a negative control product with no anthelmintic activity (afoxolaner, NEXGARD®), and Group 2 (G2, 26 dogs), treated with NEXGARD SPECTRA®. At the day of treatment administration (Day 0), all dogs were clinically examined. Dogs were again subjected to clinical and fecal examinations at Days 28 (± 4) and 56 (± 2). The primary criterion for treatment efficacy was the reduction of fecal Capillaria egg counts in G2 compared with G1. The regression of/recovery from baseline clinical signs was considered as a further efficacy criterion. RESULTS: Percentage reduction of fecal Capillaria egg counts in the NEXGARD SPECTRA® group compared to the control group was > 97% on Day 28 and 100% on Day 56, respectively (p < 0.05 for both time points). Twelve of the 13 dogs in the NEXGARD SPECTRA® group with respiratory signs prior to treatment were free of clinical signs at the end of the study. Conversely, the six control group dogs with respiratory signs prior to treatment remained symptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the present study showed that NEXGARD SPECTRA® was safe and highly efficacious in the reduction of C. aerophila and C. boehmi eggs after one treatment with a complete reduction of the egg output after the second administration associated with a recovery from respiratory signs.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Capillaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Enoplida/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Enoplida/veterinária , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Naftalenos/uso terapêutico , Comprimidos/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Capillaria/classificação , Capillaria/genética , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Naftalenos/administração & dosagem
3.
Parasitol Res ; 120(4): 1489-1491, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479780

RESUMO

Capillaria hepatica (syn. Calodium hepaticum) is a globally distributed nematode with a high affinity to the liver of a wide range of mammalian hosts, including humans. Documented reports of the nematode in cats and associated histopathology are rare. Here, we describe a case of C. hepatica infection in a 5-year-old male stray cat from Iran. At post-car accident necropsy, all body parts appeared normal except for the liver, in which a few yellowish-white granulomatous nodules were observed through the capsule and in the organ. Histopathological examination of the tissue revealed a large number of clustered parasite eggs in the parenchyma. The barrel-shaped, un-embryonated eggs (55.19 × 28.37 µm), with inconspicuous caps at both ends, were covered with striated shells. The presence of ova in the liver tissue had resulted in the development of hepatic inflammation with hepatocellular necrosis associated with the development of multifocal granulomas. As predators of small rodents, the cats might have a significant role in the epidemiology of C. hepatica. Infection of hosts through ingestion of embryonated eggs in contaminated water, food, or soil is of major importance in the epidemiology of C. hepatica. Since the rare reports of feline infection have come mainly from accidental detection of the parasite, any hepatic disease presenting difficulties to find an etiological agent may virtually be associated with the infection with this little-known nematode.


Assuntos
Capillaria/patogenicidade , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Infecções por Enoplida/veterinária , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Fígado/patologia , Animais , Capillaria/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Infecções por Enoplida/parasitologia , Infecções por Enoplida/patologia , Irã (Geográfico) , Fígado/parasitologia , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/patologia , Masculino
4.
Acta Parasitol ; 65(4): 954-962, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601819

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the presence of C. plica in red foxes and to point out the possibilities of different diagnostic methods, that could be used for diagnosis of urinary capillariosis in domestic carnivores. METHODS: Seventeen red foxes from hunting grounds in the Kolubara District, Republic of Serbia, were examined in February 2019. Animals to be shot were selected based on the criteria of gamekeepers and the permission of the competent Ministry. After hunting, the foxes were examined by ultrasound and autopsied. After the necropsy, biochemical and sediment analysis of urine morphological identification of isolated adult parasites, and macroscopic/microscopic examination of the urinary bladder and kidney tissue were performed. RESULTS: Adults of C. plica were detected in 3/17 foxes (17.6%) by ultrasound imaging and in 6/17 foxes (35.3%) by necropsy examination. Parasite eggs were found in the urinary sediment of 9/17 foxes (52.9%). The predominant histopathologic changes were amyloid degeneration of the renal glomeruli and proximal tubules (8/17 foxes-47%) as well as acute cystitis (7/17 foxes-41.2%). The occurrence of C. plica was determined in 12/17 (70.6%) of the examined foxes. DISCUSSION: This study is the first record of the C. plica in red foxes in the Republic of Serbia. Diagnostic methods used in this study could make possible the early revealing of capillariosis in domestic carnivores and could provide reliable clinical and parasitological screening of suspect animals. CONCLUSION: The study presents the first report of urinary capillariosis in a fox population in Serbia. The established high prevalence of C. plica in foxes could presume its higher prevalence in domestic and wild carnivores in the future.


Assuntos
Capillaria , Infecções por Enoplida , Animais , Infecções por Enoplida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Enoplida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enoplida/veterinária , Raposas , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Bexiga Urinária
5.
J Parasitol ; 106(4): 439-443, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615595

RESUMO

Age-related dynamics of protozoan and helminth infections in the red-legged partridge, Alectoris rufa, were studied in an intensive breeding aviary in the Czech Republic before releasing birds for hunting purposes. Pooled fecal samples (n = 900) were examined over 3 rearing seasons (2012-2014). A total of 4 protozoan species, Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, Eimeria kofoidi, and Eimeria legionensis, and 4 helminths, Capillaria phasianina, Eucoleus perforans, Heterakis gallinarum, and Syngamus trachea, was found. The most common parasite was S. trachea (prevalence 20-26%) in dead birds (n = 99), which represents a high risk for breeders. Co-occurrence of protozoans and helminths indicated similarities in infection dynamics throughout the 3 breeding seasons. Mixed infections of Cryptosporidium baileyi and C. meleagridis with other parasitic species are reported for the first time. Our findings provide new insights into breeding of A. rufa and may help to improve the efficacy of disease control strategies and prevention, especially with the potential for spreading of parasitic infections to wildlife through released birds into open areas.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Galliformes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/transmissão , Capillaria/classificação , Capillaria/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Eimeria/classificação , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/transmissão , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/transmissão , Fatores de Risco , Espirurídios/classificação , Espirurídios/isolamento & purificação , Strongyloidea/classificação , Strongyloidea/isolamento & purificação
6.
Acta Parasitol ; 65(4): 899-905, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of intestinal capillariasis depending on microscopic detection of parasitic stages is of low sensitivity, especially in cases with low worm burden. There is a necessity to develop sensitive and specific diagnostic tools of capillariasis for early treatment to avoid complications. Western blot (WB) technique showed promising results for antigen recognition patterns in several parasitic infections. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study is directed to identify and evaluate relevant proteins of intestinal capillariasis crude worm antigens using WB immunodiagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Capillaria crude worm antigens were extracted and analyzed using SDS-PAGE. Sixty serum samples belonging to 3 groups (20 individuals each) were included; Group I (shedding Capillaria in feces), Group II (infected with other parasites) and Group III (negative parasitological results). Reactivity of the resulting bands of Capillaria with serum samples was analyzed using WB technique. RESULTS: Thirty-two immunoreactive bands were detected in WB analysis representing recognition of proteins with molecular weights (MW) varying from 19 to 110 kDa. Immunodominant proteins of 23.5, 31, 36.5, 40.5 and 44 kDa were recognized, respectively, in 35%, 30%, 85%, 95% and 75% of sera from patients with confirmed capillariasis and in 30%, 25%, 35%, 25%, and 20% of sera from those infected with other parasitic infections. One serum sample from group III gave reaction with 31 kDa band. CONCLUSION: Immunodiagnosis of intestinal capillariasis using WB proved that 23.5, 31, 36.5, 40.5 and 44 kDa bands could be considered useful tools for diagnosis of capillariasis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enoplida , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos , Western Blotting , Capillaria , Infecções por Enoplida/diagnóstico , Humanos , Testes Sorológicos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234746, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555632

RESUMO

Intestinal capillariasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by the tiny nematode parasite Capillaria philippinensis. It is a major health problem that may lead to death if not diagnosed and treated appropriately. The difficulties in the diagnosis of C. philippinensis highlight the importance of developing accurate, sensitive, and specific methods for early diagnosis. This study aimed to detect the presence of C. philippinensis infection among 42 clinically suspected patients with certain criteria that are highly suggestive of capillariasis and to compare the diagnostic yield of microscopy, copro-ELISA, and PCR for the detection of copro-DNA. Sociodemographic characteristics and clinical data were also described for the infected group. Out of 42 patients, 10 were microscopically positive, 40 samples were positive by copro-ELISA, nested PCR detected 35 positive cases, with total detection rates of 23.8%, 95.2%, and 83.3% using direct microscopic examination, copro-ELISA, and PCR, respectively. The majority of positive cases were females, middle-aged people, and people from rural areas. The real number of cases infected with C. philippinensis may far exceed those estimated using microscopy. The diagnosis by copro-ELISA for the detection of C. philippinensis coproantigen and by nested PCR to identify parasite DNA revealed a higher number of positive cases. Using ELISA for the detection of coproantigen is a sensitive test that identifies the infection, yet it is not specific. Copro-DNA offers a satisfactory sensitive and specific method for the detection of infection in clinically suspected patients. The most susceptible individuals to C. philippinensis infection are females, middle-aged people, and people of low social standards. Intestinal capillariasis needs to be considered in patients who present with symptoms of chronic diarrhea and hypoalbuminemia because if these cases are left undiagnosed and untreated, they may suffer from lethal complications.


Assuntos
Capillaria/fisiologia , Infecções por Enoplida/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Microscopia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Adulto , Animais , Infecções por Enoplida/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Enoplida/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Coelhos , Ratos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 20: 100409, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448522

RESUMO

Capillaria spp. infections of the urinary tract of domestic carnivores are uncommon worldwide. Infections are rarely diagnosed and are typically asymptomatic. This study aimed to evaluate a case of capillariosis in a cat from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A seven-year-old female cat with apathy and reduced appetite was presented. Urine analysis revealed C. plica eggs in urine sediment, and cystitis was evidenced by the presence of bacteria, pyuria, proteinuria and hematuria. The subject was treated with 50 mg/kg fenbendazole for five days. Urine samples were frozen for molecular analysis and species confirmation. Polymerase chain reaction for amplification of the 18S rRNA gene followed by sequencing confirmed the occurrence of Capillaria sp. There has been limited phylogenetic study of Capillaria spp. in cats, so further studies are needed to identify the species present in different locations and associated with feline pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Capillaria/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Infecções por Enoplida/veterinária , Infecções Urinárias/veterinária , Animais , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Brasil , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Infecções por Enoplida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Enoplida/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Enoplida/parasitologia , Feminino , Fenbendazol/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/parasitologia
9.
Parasitology ; 147(10): 1094-1099, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423514

RESUMO

Wildlife species are often host to a diversity of parasites, but our knowledge of their diversity and ecology is extremely limited, especially for reptiles. Little is known about the host-parasite ecology of the Australian lizard, the King's skink (Egernia kingii). In spring of 2015, we carried out a field-based study of a population of King's skinks on Penguin Island (Western Australia). We documented five species of parasites, including two ectoparasitic mites (an undescribed laelapid mite and Mesolaelaps australiensis), an undescribed coccidia species, and two nematode species (Pharyngodon tiliquae and Capillaria sp.). The laelapid mite was the most abundant parasite, infesting 46.9% of the 113 captured lizards. This mite species increased in prevalence and abundance over the course of the study. Infection patterns of both mites varied with lizard life-stage; sub-adults were more commonly infested with laelapid mites than adults or juveniles, and sub-adults and adults were infested by more laelapid mites than juveniles. By contrast, adults had a higher prevalence of M. australiensis than juveniles or sub-adults. Among the gastrointestinal parasites, P. tiliquae was relatively common among the sampled lizards (35.3%). These results give new important information about reptiles as parasite hosts and what factors influence infection patterns.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Infecções por Enoplida/veterinária , Lagartos , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Oxiuríase/veterinária , Animais , Capillaria/isolamento & purificação , Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Infecções por Enoplida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enoplida/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Infestações por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Ácaros/fisiologia , Oxiuríase/epidemiologia , Oxiuríase/parasitologia , Oxyuroidea/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
10.
Parasitol Int ; 78: 102133, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407938

RESUMO

Calodium hepaticum (Bancroft, 1893) Moravec, 1982 (Syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a zoonotic nematode that causes hepatic capillariosis, an uncommon zoonotic infection. The nematode is globally distributed and parasitizes the liver of mammals, mainly Muroidea. Cricetulus migratorius Pallas, 1773 (Cricetinae) was rarely reported as a host for C. hepaticum. In Turkey, C. hepaticum was recorded in three rodent species; Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus, and Apodemus flavicollis. In this study, C. migratorius (grey dwarf hamster) has been identified as a new host species for C. hepaticum in Turkey. The parasite was identified by morphological, histological, and molecular methods and the phylogenetic relationships of C. hepaticum collected from different hosts were revealed. This is the first molecular characterization of C. hepaticum from a grey dwarf hamster.


Assuntos
Capillaria/isolamento & purificação , Cricetulus , Infecções por Enoplida/veterinária , Animais , Capillaria/anatomia & histologia , Capillaria/classificação , Capillaria/genética , Infecções por Enoplida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enoplida/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Turquia/epidemiologia
11.
Vet Parasitol ; 281: 109103, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299042

RESUMO

Despite morphological differences of eggs and adults, Capillaria boehmi infections have been occasionally misdiagnosed as C. aerophila infections in the past. Capillaria boehmi is found in the nasal and paranasal sinuses of wild canids and dogs, which may suffer from nasal discharge, sneezing, epistaxis and, importantly, their scent can be impaired. In this study we present three challenging cases of nasal capillariosis in dogs, report and review the variable success of anthelmintic treatments and investigate C. boehmi prevalence in Swiss red foxes, considered as potential wild life reservoir. Out of two females and one male dog (all scent hounds, aged 3-9 years and weighing 19-31 kg), two dogs were previously coproscopically misdiagnosed with Trichuris infections. Two dogs showed clinical signs such as sneezing, coughing and impaired scent. From one dog adult living C. boehmi were obtained by nasal lavage. The identity of worms and eggs of all three dogs were genetically confirmed (18S rRNA, 100 % identity in 578 base pairs). Dogs 1-3 were followed-up for overall 54, 8, and 67 months, respectively. All dogs repeatedly excreted C. boehmi eggs in faecal samples despite treatments with the following compounds, in various dosage and retreatment protocols: fenbendazole, milbemycin oxime (orally), moxidectin/imidacloprid/ (spot-on) and levamisole (intramuscularly). The different anthelmintic compounds showed variable success regarding their effect on clinical outcome and on stopping egg excretion. Reinfections due to a contaminated environment could not be fully excluded. In winter 2016 and 2017, 218 foxes from the canton of Zurich, Switzerland, were examined. Tissues of nasal and paranasal sinuses were investigated for adult Capillaria specimens and eggs. We describe for the first time C. boehmi infections in Switzerland, observing a high prevalence (190/218, 87.2 %). Overall, 107 of 126 adults (84.9 %, 95 % Confidence Interval, CI: 77.5-90.7 %) and 83 of 92 youngsters (90.2 %, CI: 82.2-95.4 %) were infected. The presence of C. boehmi did not correlate with age (P = 0.209), but correlated significantly with sex: male foxes (102 of 107, 95.3 %, CI: 89.4-98.5 %) were significantly (P = 0.001) more often infected than females (88 of 111, 79.3 %, CI: 70.5-86.4 %). Worm burden ranged from 1 to 72 adult specimens (geometric mean: 5.7). In conclusion, C. boehmi infections can be mis- and/or underdiagnosed in dogs. Appropriate anthelmintic treatments, preventing coprophagia and egg contamination of the surroundings and performing coproscopic controls after treatments are fundamental aspects. Potentially, nasal washing may represent an auxiliary alternative. However, the successful elimination of C. boehmi infections in dogs remains challenging.


Assuntos
Capillaria/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enoplida/veterinária , Raposas/parasitologia , Nariz/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Infecções por Enoplida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Enoplida/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Masculino , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Prevalência , Suíça/epidemiologia
12.
Parasitol Res ; 119(3): 957-972, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811424

RESUMO

Morphological and genetic analyses were performed on seven species of the family Capillariidae (Nematoda: Trichocephalida: Trichinelloidea), viz. Eucoleus perforans, Eucoleus contortus, Aonchotheca bursata, Baruscapillaria obsignata, Capillaria anatis, Capillaria phasianina, and Capillaria spinulosa, detected in poultry from Japan and Indonesia. Two Eucoleus spp., perforating the esophageal mucosa of the Japanese green pheasant farmed in Japan (E. perforans) and domestic goose in Indonesia (E. contortus), were morphologically characterized. Furthermore, we observed substantial nucleotide differences between their 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA), revealing maximum identity (97.27%) over the 1797-bp length. Similarly, B. obsignata in the small intestine of Japanese green pheasants in Japan, a chicken, geese, domestic pigeons, and a turkey in Indonesia, and C. anatis in the ceca of chickens in Indonesia were morphologically and molecular-genetically compared with previously reported isolates of these species in Japan. Aonchotheca bursata collected from the small intestine of the Japanese green pheasant was also molecular-genetically characterized for the first time; however, sequencing of the 18S rDNA of C. phasianina from the cecum of the same bird was unsuccessful. Capillaria worms in the ceca of a domestic duck and geese in Indonesia were identified as C. spinulosa, which had only previously been recorded in wild birds of the Anseriformes in the Palaearctic region. Morphologically, this species was closest to Capillaria pudendotecta recorded from the ceca of wild and captive swans, except for the lack of vaginal appendages in female worms and shorter esophagi relative to the body length in both male and female worms. Phylogenetically, these two species were closely related, although substantial nucleotide changes were noted. The 18S rDNA nucleotide sequences of the species isolated here were consistent with the recent taxonomic system established for Capillariidae based primarily on the morphology of male caudal ends.


Assuntos
Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/genética , Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Sequência de Bases , Capillaria/classificação , Galinhas/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Patos/parasitologia , Feminino , Gansos/parasitologia , Indonésia , Japão , Masculino , Filogenia , Perus/parasitologia
13.
Parasitology ; 147(4): 471-477, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852557

RESUMO

This study provides insights about the diversity, prevalence and distribution of alpine wild galliformes gastrointestinal parasite community, trying to fill a gap in the scientific information currently available in scientific literature. The analysis included three host species: 77 rock partridge (Alectoris graeca saxatilis), 83 black grouse (Tetrao tetrix tetrix) and 26 rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta helveticus) shot during the hunting seasons 2008-2015. Parasites isolated were Ascaridia compar, Capillaria caudinflata and cestodes. The rock ptarmigan was free from gastrointestinal parasites, whereas the most prevalent helminth (37%) was A. compar in both black grouse and rock partridge. C. caudinflata occurrence was significantly higher in black grouse (prevalence = 10%, mean abundance = 0.6 parasites/sampled animal) than in rock partridge (prevalence = 1.20%, mean abundance = 0.01 parasites/sampled animal). Significant differences were detected among hunting districts. A. compar was found with a significant higher degree of infestation in the hunting districts in the northern part of the study area whereas cestodes abundance was higher in Lanzo Valley. Quantitative analysis of risk factors was carried out using a generalized linear model (GLM) only on the most common parasite (A. compar). Latitude was the only factors associated with infestation risk (OR = 52.4). This study provides information on the composition and variability of the parasite community in the alpine Galliformes species.


Assuntos
Ascaridíase/veterinária , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Infecções por Enoplida/veterinária , Galliformes , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Animais , Ascaridia/isolamento & purificação , Ascaridíase/epidemiologia , Ascaridíase/parasitologia , Biodiversidade , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Capillaria/isolamento & purificação , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Enoplida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enoplida/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Prevalência
14.
J Gen Virol ; 100(10): 1350-1362, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513008

RESUMO

Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technology have led to a rapid expansion in the number of viral sequences associated with samples from vertebrates, invertebrates and environmental samples. Accurate host identification can be difficult in assays of complex samples that contain more than one potential host. Using unbiased metagenomic sequencing, we investigated wild house mice (Mus musculus) and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) from New York City to determine the aetiology of liver disease. Light microscopy was used to characterize liver disease, and fluorescent microscopy with in situ hybridization was employed to identify viral cell tropism. Sequences representing two novel negative-sense RNA viruses were identified in homogenates of wild house mouse liver tissue: Amsterdam virus and Fulton virus. In situ hybridization localized viral RNA to Capillaria hepatica, a parasitic nematode that had infected the mouse liver. RNA from either virus was found within nematode adults and unembryonated eggs. Expanded PCR screening identified brown rats as a second rodent host for C. hepatica as well as both nematode-associated viruses. Our findings indicate that the current diversity of nematode-associated viruses may be underappreciated and that anatomical imaging offers an alternative to computational host assignment approaches.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Capillaria/virologia , Infecções por Enoplida/veterinária , Vírus de RNA/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Animais , Capillaria/fisiologia , Infecções por Enoplida/parasitologia , Evolução Molecular , Fígado/parasitologia , Camundongos , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Filogenia , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Vírus de RNA/genética , Ratos
15.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 16: 100277, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027604

RESUMO

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) host numerous parasites. Although there is a general knowledge about parasite diversity in reindeer, detailed baseline information about parasitic infections is limited. Detailed knowledge of parasite prevalence and diversity provide a pathway for more targeted parasite control, an increasing need expected in the future. The main aim of our cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in semidomesticated reindeer calves. The 480 reindeer calves included in our study were aged 6-7 months, originated from 9 reindeer herding cooperatives in Finland and 1 in Norway, and were slaughtered during September-November 2015 in 10 reindeer slaughterhouses. All the reindeer calves passed meat inspection, and the detected parasitic infections were subclinical. As the reindeer included in this study were young animals intended for slaughter, they had never been administrated any antiparasitic treatment. Assessments of gastrointestinal parasitism among these reindeer calves were based on fecal examination and morphological identification of coccidian oocysts or helminth eggs. Individual fecal samples collected from the rectum of each of the reindeer were examined using a modified McMaster method. Most (78.3%) of the reindeer calves had eggs or oocysts of at least one parasite species in their feces, and more than half (53.5%) had a mixed infection. Strongylid eggs were detected in 75.6%, Eimeria sp. oocysts in 50.6%, Moniezia sp. eggs in 28.1%, Nematodirus sp. eggs in 22.1%, Capillaria sp. eggs in 9.4%, and Trichuris sp. eggs in 0.6% of the samples. The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was similar or higher relative to previous estimates from the region; the proportion of reindeer calves shedding strongylid eggs and the proportion of reindeer calves shedding Moniezia sp. eggs had increased. Prevalence varied by geographical region, which may reflect different herding practices or environmental parameters. Higher reindeer density was a risk factor for testing positive for Eimeria sp. oocysts, and the odds of testing positive for Nematodirus sp. eggs were higher if a peroral route was used for antiparasitic treatment in the reindeer herding cooperative. The mean proportion of reindeer estimated to receive antiparasitic treatment in Finland was 86% in 2004-2005 and 91% in 2014-2015. During the historical time frames of current management practices, this routine annual antiparasitic treatment of breeding reindeer has not decreased the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in reindeer calves, which can be seen as sentinels or indicators of the infection pressure.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Rena/parasitologia , Matadouros , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Capillaria/isolamento & purificação , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enoplida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enoplida/parasitologia , Infecções por Enoplida/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Inspeção de Alimentos , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Carne/normas , Moniezíase/epidemiologia , Moniezíase/parasitologia , Nematodirus/isolamento & purificação , Noruega/epidemiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estrongilídios/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária
16.
Acta Trop ; 193: 227-235, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857861

RESUMO

Extra-intestinal nematodes of companion animals are of growing concern in veterinary medicine for their pathogenic potential and the current expansion throughout Europe. The present study has evaluated the occurrence of major canine and feline extra-intestinal nematodes in regions of Italy having epidemiological relevance. Associations of various recorded parameters related to the examined animals have been statistically evaluated, along with a comparative analysis with the most recent epidemiological data. Overall, 1055 dogs and 1000 cats were tested. Among extra-intestinal nematodes Angiostrongylus vasorum was the most common in dogs followed by Capillaria aerophila and Dirofilaria spp.; Aelurostrongylus abstrusus was the most recorded parasite in cats, followed by C. aerophila and Troglostrongylus brevior. The statistical analysis revealed that outdoor access is associated with A. vasorum, A. abstrusus and T. brevior infections, that were also more prevalent in animals with cardio-respiratory signs. Moreover, cats aged less than 12 months had more chances to be infected by lungworms. The data herein presented confirm the occurrence and the possible risk of expansion of different extra-intestinal parasitoses of dogs and cats in Italy, underlining the importance of a constant epidemiologic vigilance and of appropriate control methods.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enoplida/veterinária , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Angiostrongylus , Animais , Capillaria , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Dirofilaria , Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Infecções por Enoplida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enoplida/parasitologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
17.
Acta Trop ; 193: 206-210, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710532

RESUMO

Hepatic capillariasis is a rare and neglected parasitic disease caused by infection with Capillaria hepatica in human liver. The disease is not well described and the information for the disease's clinical manifestation, laboratory findings and disease management strategy is not well reported. The limited information for this neglected infection often results in the delay of diagnosis or misdiagnosed to other diseases, therefore the real prevalence or severity of the infection may be underestimated. More case report with systemic analysis and features summary of this disease is needed to better understand the serious zoonotic disease. This study included systemic analysis of 16 patients infected with hepatic capillariasis in China between 2011-2017, including clinical manifestations, laboratory/radiative image findings and treatment results. Clinical manifestation included sustained fever (56.25%), respiratory disorder (37.5%), abdominal pain (37.5%), diarrhea (25%), leukocytosis (93.75%) and eosinophilia (100%). No egg was detected in feces of all patients. Over 60% patients showed elevated level of hepatic enzymes and proteins related to liver fibrosis in sera. Ultrasound and MRI examinations displayed scattered parasitic granuloma leisure in affected liver. Liver biopsy revealed parasite eggs, necrotized parasitic granulomas and septal fibrosis. Treatment with albendazole combined with corticoids for several treatment courses cured all patients with capillariasis. The difficulty of diagnosis, apparent damage of liver functions and potential fibrosis make the disease's prevalence and severity underestimated.


Assuntos
Capillaria , Infecções por Enoplida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Enoplida/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Abdominal/parasitologia , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/parasitologia , Infecções por Enoplida/sangue , Infecções por Enoplida/complicações , Eosinofilia/parasitologia , Feminino , Febre/parasitologia , Humanos , Lactente , Leucocitose/parasitologia , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática/parasitologia , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/sangue , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Respiratórias/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 24(8): 1551-1554, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016245

RESUMO

We examined human stool samples from Liberia for soil-transmitted helminth ova by Kato-Katz smear and by quantitative PCR. Twenty-five samples were positive for Trichuris trichiura by smear but negative by quantitative PCR. Reexamination of samples showed that they contained Capillaria eggs that resemble T. trichiura in Kato-Katz smears.


Assuntos
Ascaríase/diagnóstico , Capillaria/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enoplida/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose mansoni/diagnóstico , Tricuríase/diagnóstico , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Ascaríase/parasitologia , Ascaris lumbricoides/anatomia & histologia , Ascaris lumbricoides/classificação , Ascaris lumbricoides/genética , Ascaris lumbricoides/isolamento & purificação , Capillaria/anatomia & histologia , Capillaria/classificação , Capillaria/genética , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Infecções por Enoplida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enoplida/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Libéria/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Schistosoma mansoni/anatomia & histologia , Schistosoma mansoni/classificação , Schistosoma mansoni/genética , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Tricuríase/parasitologia , Trichuris/anatomia & histologia , Trichuris/classificação , Trichuris/genética
20.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 27(2): 226-231, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898198

RESUMO

Although sheep farming has grown in the state of Acre over the past four decades, little is known about occurrences of helminthiases in the herds of this region. The objective of the study was to assess the occurrences of non-intestinal helminthiasis among sheep slaughtered in Rio Branco. A total of 110 sheep livers were inspected from two slaughter batches (july 2014 and march 2015) in a slaughterhouse in Rio Branco. Livers with macroscopic lesions were photographed and were then subjected to histopathological analysis under an optical microscope. The macroscopic lesions showed small nodes with inflammatory characteristics and areas of fibrosis, which appeared to be calcified, thus suggesting a granulomatous reaction. Of the 110 evaluated livers, we noticed 110 nodules in total; these nodules have an average size of 0.5 cm. The histopathological analysis showed alterations to the architecture of the hepatic lobe, with multiple foci of necrosis and polymorphonuclear cells. Two samples revealed the presence of helminths from Nematode class and Capillaria sp. eggs identified by the typical morphology and morphometry. This seems to be the first report of Capillaria sp. in sheep livers in Brazil, and it serves as an important alert regarding animal health surveillance and control and regarding the Capillaria sp. zoonotic role in humans.


Assuntos
Capillaria/isolamento & purificação , Ovinos/parasitologia , Matadouros , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Fígado/parasitologia , Masculino
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...