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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769781

RESUMO

This study examined the association between neighborhood-based social capital (NSC) and depressive symptoms in the context of urban neighborhoods in China, with special attention given to the association heterogeneity across socioeconomic groups. Drawing on cross-sectional data collected from 39 neighborhoods in Guangzhou, this research demonstrated that adults' depressive symptoms were higher among those with lower cognitive (trustworthiness, reciprocity, and cohesion within a neighborhood) and structural (social network and participation) dimensions of NSC. Further analysis showed that the negative association between NSC and depressive symptoms was significantly heterogeneous across socioeconomic groups. Specifically, this negative relationship was more prominent in the lower socioeconomic classes than in the upper socioeconomic classes, indicating that the lower accumulation of NSC among disadvantaged groups may aggravate depression unequally across social classes. In addition, the negative association between social participation and depressive symptoms was stronger for people who are older or unemployed. The findings of this study not only provide new evidence concerning the significance of the beneficial effects of NSC in the Chinese context, but also, more importantly, highlight that NSC plays a crucial role in creating mental health inequality across social classes. Thus, the relevant social interventions including fostering neighborhood relationships and social activities should be carefully tailored against the backdrop of community building during the urbanization process. The implications of our study for urban governance to promote healthy cities are discussed.


Assuntos
Depressão , Capital Social , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Características de Residência , Apoio Social
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769798

RESUMO

Mental health promotion of economically disadvantaged youths is a popular issue in current China. Economically disadvantaged youths are at greater risk of depression. Ostracism may be an important predictor of depression for them. However, no consensus has been reached on the underlying mechanism between ostracism and depression. A total of 1207 economically disadvantaged youths were recruited from six universities in China. These youths were asked to complete questionnaires measuring depression, ostracism, psychological capital, and perceived social support. A moderated mediation model was examined by using IBM SPSS STATISTICS 27macro program PROCESS version 3.5, in which psychological capital was a mediating variable, and perceived social support was a moderating variable. Lack of causal inferences and self-report bias due to the cross-sectional and self-report survey need to be considered when interpreting results. The results revealed that ostracism was positively associated with depression among economically disadvantaged youths. Psychological capital partially mediated the association. Perceived social support moderated the indirect association between ostracism and depression via psychological capital among economically disadvantaged females. Training and intentional practice of psychological capital could be the core to develop the depression interventions targeting economically disadvantaged youths with experience of ostracism. Gender and perceived social support need to be considered in developing the interventions.


Assuntos
Capital Social , Isolamento Social , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Apoio Social , Populações Vulneráveis
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769861

RESUMO

The current study examined how neighborhood environments are related to older adults' perceived control over time. A longitudinal study design was employed using data sampled from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) 2014 and 2018. In total, 3170 older adults, whose age ranged between 60 and 99 years at the baseline, were followed up with a 4-year lag. Measures included two domains of neighborhood characteristics: social cohesion and physical disorder (at baseline and follow-up) and perceived control (at follow-up). Path coefficients between the latent factors were examined using structural equation modeling. Results showed that there was a significant cross-sectional and longitudinal association between neighborhood social cohesion and older adults' perceived control, while neighborhood physical disorder was cross-sectionally associated with perceived control. Study findings provide evidence for promoting social integration and social capital in their neighborhood that might contribute to older adults' perceived competence and beliefs in control.


Assuntos
Aposentadoria , Capital Social , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Longitudinais , Características de Residência
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 763246, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790646

RESUMO

Background: Leisure provides opportunities for urban and rural residents to relax, recover their vitality, and improve their personal growth, development, and well-being. However, the impact of the leisure participation process, types, obstacles, participation motivation, and satisfaction on health is not very clear, especially the impact of leisure behavior on health, and is worthy of in-depth discussion. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the impact of social capital and leisure participation on the self-rated health of urban residents in China so as to provide an important reference for national health promotion activities. Methods: the questionnaire on the relationship between social capital, leisure behavior, and self-rated health was compiled by ourselves. The residents participating in leisure and fitness in 25 residential fitness centers in Chengdu were investigated in the morning and evening, and the obtained data were processed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Results: (1) Social capital had no direct influence on leisure hindrance; leisure motivation and leisure participation had no direct influence on self-rated health. (2) Leisure satisfaction has a direct positive impact on self-rated health, while leisure hindrance has a significant negative impact on self-rated health. (3) Social capital has a direct positive impact on leisure satisfaction, and social capital has a direct positive impact on self-rated health. Leisure satisfaction plays an intermediary role in the path of social capital affecting self-rated health, and the intermediary force exceeds the direct impact of social capital on self-rated health. Conclusion: The effect of leisure satisfaction on self-rated health is higher than that of social capital, and it plays an intermediary role in the impact path of social capital on self-rated health. Therefore, how to make urban community residents with different backgrounds obtain leisure satisfaction through leisure activities is an important topic of national health promotion.


Assuntos
Capital Social , China , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , População Urbana
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769674

RESUMO

Social distancing restrictions for COVID-19 epidemic prevention have substantially changed the field of youths' social activities. Many studies have focused on the impact of epidemic-preventative social distancing on individual physical and mental health. However, in the field of social distancing for epidemic prevention, what are the changes in youth anti-epidemic action and states caused by their interpersonal resources and interactions? Responding to this question by studying the impact of the elements of social capital in youths' anti-epidemic actions and anti-epidemic states could help identify an effective mechanism for balancing social distancing for effective epidemic prevention and sustainable social-participation development among youth. Bourdieu's field theory holds that the elements of social capital change with a change in the field. Therefore, we introduced the specific elements of social capital as independent variables and used a multinomal logistic model to analyze and predict the levels of youth anti-epidemic action through an empirical investigation of 1043 young people in Guangdong Province, China. The results show that, first, level of social distancing for epidemic prevention shows differences by occupation status and income level and correlates with social support. Second, social support and social norms play positive roles in promoting youth participation in anti-epidemic activities when social distance is certain. Third, social capital has a significant positive effect on youth social satisfaction and core relationships; however, social trust has a significant negative effect on youth physical and mental health. This study emphasized that social distancing for epidemic prevention is a special social situational state, which is a field where social capital has an impact on the differential changes in the public-participating actions and habitus of youth.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Capital Social , Adolescente , China/epidemiologia , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 4919-4932, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787186

RESUMO

The scope of this study was to analyze the association between social capital and bullying among adolescents aged 15 to 19 years, in high schools in the Greater Vitória Metropolitan Area in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was carried out at the school base, with a sample of 2293 students, stratified by municipality of school location. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using two instruments: Integrated Questionnaire to Measure Social Capital of the World Bank and adapted versions of the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. The results showed that victims of bullying were more likely to present low level of cognitive social capital (p = 0.001; OR = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.29-2.68), underlying (p = 0.002; OR = 1.7, 95%CI = 1.20-2.38) and total (p < 0.001; OR = 1.80, 95%CI = 1.32-2.59). Bullying offenders were associated with low levels of cognitive social capital (p < 0.001; OR = 3.2, 95%CI = 2.34-4.44) and total (p = 0.042; OR = 1.7, 95%CI = 1.24-2.27). High levels of social capital are related to the reduction of bullying and victimization behaviors. Therefore, healthy social relationships should be promoted in the spaces of mutual coexistence of adolescents to stimulate other positive reactions in school environments.


Assuntos
Bullying , Capital Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Meio Social , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1036, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The commitment of hospital managers plays a key role in decisions regarding investments in quality improvement (QI) and the implementation of quality improvement systems (QIS). With regard to the concept of social capital, successful cooperation and coordination among hospital management board members is strongly influenced by commonly shared values and mutual trust. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of a survey scale designed to assess Social Capital within hospital management boards (SOCAPO-B) in European hospitals. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the EU funded mixed-method project "Deepening our understanding of quality improvement in Europe (DUQuE)" from 210 hospitals in 7 European countries (France, Poland, Czech Republic, Germany, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey). The Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) completed the SOCAPO-B scale (six-item survey, numeric scale, 1='strongly disagree' to 4='strongly agree') regarding their perceptions of social capital within the hospital management board. We investigated the factor structure of the social capital scale using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha, while construct validity was assessed through Pearson's correlation coefficients between the scale items. RESULTS: A total of 188 hospitals participated in the DUQuE-study. Of these, 177 CEOs completed the questionnaire(172 observations for social capital) Hospital CEOs perceive relatively high social capital among hospital management boards (average SOCAPO-B mean of 3.2, SD = 0.61). The exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 1-factor-model with Cronbach's alpha of 0.91. Pearson's correlation coefficients between the single scale items ranged from 0.48 to 0.68. CONCLUSIONS: The SOCAPO-B-scale can be used to obtain reliable and valid measurements of social capital in European hospital management boards, at least from the CEO's point of view. The brevity of the scale enables it to be a cost-effective and tool for measuring social capital in hospital management boards. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This validation study was not registered.


Assuntos
Capital Social , Hospitais , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 778-782, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622592

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the influence of social capital on the quality of life of patients with chronic non-communicable diseases. Methods: A multi-phase stratified cluster sampling method was adopted to select the survey respondents. Professionally trained surveyors made home visits in order to conduct face-to-face questionnaire surveys in person. European Quality of Life Five Dimension Five Level Scale (EQ-5D-5L) and a self-developed social capital scale were used to investigate the quality of life and social capital of the respondents. Factor analysis and Cronbach's α coefficient test were done to verify the reliability and validity of the self-developed social capital scale. The χ 2 test and robust Tobit regression model were used to analyze the impact of social capital on the quality of life of patients with chronic non-communicable diseases. Results: The self-developed social capital scale showed excellent performance. The Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.728, the KMO value was 0.716, and the result of Bartlett's test of sphericity was statistically significant ( P<0.001), indicating that the data were well suited for factor analysis. The four common factors cumulatively explained 68.27% of the total variation. The health utility value of the survey respondents was 0.869±0.181. Those who could walk around, shower and dress themselves, and perform usual activities without any problem accounted for 75.70%, 80.10%, and 74.1% of the respondents, respectively. Those who had pain or discomfort and anxiety or depression, with no self-perceived problem were 43.40% and 58.90%, respectively. In the EQ-5D-5L scale, the self-rated health influencing factors of the physical health dimension were community safety and interpersonal network relationships. The influencing factors of social function health was community safety and mental health was affected by community safety, community trust and interpersonal network relationships. When community safety improved by one level, the health utility value of patients with chronic non-communicable diseases increased by 0.046, and when interpersonal network relationships improved by an additional level, their health utility value increased by 0.037. Conclusion: The main problem of the quality of life of patients with chronic non-communicable diseases was found in the mental health dimension. In the process of treating chronic non-communicable diseases, attention should also be given to psychological counseling. Community safety and interpersonal network relationships are the protective factors for self-rated health status. Providing a safe community environment and expanding interpersonal networks help improve the health of patients.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Capital Social , Doença Crônica , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 584916, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616240

RESUMO

Objective: Much of the extensive quantitative research linking socio-economic position (SEP) and health utilizes three common indicators: income, occupation and education. Existing survey data may enable researchers to include indicators of additional forms of capital in their analyses, permitting more nuanced consideration of the relationship between SEP and health. Our objective was to identify the breadth of survey questions related to economic, cultural, and social capital available through Statistics Canada surveys, and the extent to which those surveys also include health measures. Methods: We compiled a list of all population-based Statistics Canada surveys, and developed a broad list of potential indicators of forms of capital. We systematically searched the surveys for those indicators and health measures, analyzing their co-occurrence. Results: Traditional SEP indicators were present in 73% of surveys containing health measures, while additional indicators of social and cultural capital were available in 57%. Conclusion: Existing national survey data represent an under-exploited opportunity for research examining the relationship between various forms of capital and health in Canada. Future empirical explorations of these data could enrich our theoretical understanding of health inequities.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Canadá , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Capital Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1918, 2021 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social capital, the potential for individuals to access resources through group memberships, is linked to a constellation of health outcomes. We modified a previously evaluated Constructed Family Social Capital Scale for gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men who belong to constructed families to create a new measure of social capital within sexual minority men and gender minority individuals' social networks. METHODS: Participants were recruited from a Pride festival in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 2018 to complete a cross-sectional survey. This analysis is restricted to 383 participants who identified as sexual minority men or gender minority individuals and completed nine items measuring social capital within their social networks. We conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to assess factor structure. Internal consistency was measured using Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS: Reliability was high, indicating the scale's utility to assess Network Social Capital among sexual minority men and gender minority individuals. A single-factor solution with high factor loadings was found for the nine-item scale. CONCLUSIONS: This study extended the psychometric properties of a preliminary social capital instrument modified from a prior study in a different population and context. The modified measure has implications for use among sexual minority men and gender minority individuals to measure social capital within social networks. Previous studies suggest that interventions to enhance social capital among sexual minority men and gender minority individuals may be beneficial for HIV prevention interventions. This tool may be relevant for the evaluation of social capital interventions within networks of sexual minority men and gender minority individuals.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Capital Social , Estudos Transversais , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comportamento Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682727

RESUMO

Social contextual factors could determine mortality by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with social capital as a potential determinant. This study aimed to examine the association between prefecture-level social capital and COVID-19 deaths in Japan. Data on the cumulative number of COVID-19 deaths per 100,000 individuals between 1 October 2020 and 30 June 2021 in 47 prefectures were obtained from the government open-access database. Prefecture-level social capital was collected from a large-scale web-based nationwide survey conducted between August and September 2020. We included trust in neighbors, norm of reciprocity in the neighborhood, and trust in the national government as cognitive social capital, and neighborhood ties and social participation as structural social capital. The cumulative COVID-19 deaths per 100,000 individuals (1 October 2020 to 30 June 2021) ranged from 0.15 to 27.98 in 47 prefectures. A multiple regression analysis after adjusting for covariates showed that a greater norm of reciprocity and government trust were associated with fewer COVID-19 deaths during the first and second 3-month periods of observation. In the third 3-month period, the association between COVID-19 deaths and government trust became nonsignificant. Trust in neighbors, neighborhood ties, and social participation were not related to COVID-19 deaths during any time period. The disparity of COVID-19 deaths by prefecture in Japan can be explained by cognitive social capital. This study suggests that the association between social capital and COVID-19 deaths may vary according to the dimension of social capital and time period.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Capital Social , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoio Social , Confiança
12.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-10-14.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54991

RESUMO

The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) have produced this second joint report to update the situation on the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic and its implications for health, society and the economy. This report defines potential scenarios for control of the pandemic in the short term as well as long-term action recommended to strengthen the response capacity of countries with regard to the health needs of their populations and determinants in the context of a transformative recovery.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Economia , Economia e Organizações de Saúde , Problemas Sociais , Seguridade Social , Capital Social
13.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-10-14.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54990

RESUMO

Más de un año después del inicio de la pandemia de COVID-19, América Latina y el Caribe acumula un número desproporcionado de casos y muertes respecto de otras regiones del mundo y sufre la mayor contracción económica de los últimos 120 años. En este segundo informe conjunto de la Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe y la Organización Panamericana de la Salud se actualizan la situación de la evolución de la pandemia y sus implicaciones sociales, económicas y para la salud. Para ello se abordan los principales impactos económicos y sociales de la pandemia en la región, junto con el papel central de la protección social y el Estado, y la necesidad de incrementar la inversión pública en salud y fortalecer la institucionalidad del sector de la salud. Por último, se analizan los posibles escenarios de supresión de la pandemia en el corto plazo y un conjunto de condiciones contextuales que inciden de forma directa en este objetivo. El informe se cierra con un apartado de recomendaciones que enfatizan la importancia de adoptar un abordaje integral para poner fin a la crisis de salud en el corto plazo, avanzar hacia una recuperación económica sostenible y con igualdad, y promover la salud universal mediante sistemas de salud resilientes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Sistemas de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Economia , Economia e Organizações de Saúde , Problemas Sociais , Seguridade Social , Capital Social
14.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(7): 3103-3113, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618277

RESUMO

Social capital has been positively associated with reduced HIV risk. However, few studies have investigated if associations vary between men who have sex with men (MSM) or heterosexual alters (possessors of actual resources embedded within social capital networks) and HIV risk-taking behaviors. In a cross-sectional survey of 1564 MSM in Greater Tokyo, we investigated whether social capital ascertained from MSM or heterosexual alters influenced HIV risk-taking behaviors (i.e., consistent condom use and lifetime HIV testing). Multiple logistic regression revealed that MSM with high levels of social capital from heterosexual networks were twice as likely to report consistent condom use with casual male partners, while MSM who reported high levels of social capital from MSM networks were over twice as likely to have tested for HIV yet were half as likely to use condoms consistently with regular male partners. Associations between MSM, social capital, and HIV testing indicate the potential for integrating social capital enhancement programs into current HIV interventions.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Capital Social , Preservativos , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639278

RESUMO

Promoting physical activity (PA) is a long-standing public health initiative to improve overall health and wellbeing. Innovative strategies such as Play Streets, temporary activation of public spaces to provide safe places for active play, are being adopted in urban and rural communities to increase PA among children. As part of these strategies, aspects of social and community connectedness may be strengthened. This study analyzes focus groups and interviews from rural Play Street implementation team members (n = 14) as well as adults (n = 7) and children (n = 25) who attended Play Streets hosted in rural North Carolina, Maryland, Oklahoma, and Texas to better understand the added benefits of Play Streets in community connectedness. Overall, elements of social support and social cohesion are mentioned most frequently with instrumental and conditional support; however, concepts of social capital, collective-efficacy, and social identification are also presented. Participants expressed that Play Streets provided more than just PA; they provided opportunities to access and share resources, build perceptions of safety and trust in the community, and develop relationships with others. Fostering community connection through Play Streets may reduce health inequities in rural communities by building community resilience. Community-based PA programming that enhance and capitalize on community connectedness could be effective ways to improving the overall health and wellbeing of residents.


Assuntos
População Rural , Capital Social , Adulto , Criança , Exercício Físico , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Oklahoma
16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1142, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social capital has become an important concept in the field of public health, and is associated with improved health services uptake. This study aimed to systematically review the available literature on the role of social capital on the utilization of maternal and child health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: Mixed-methods research review and synthesis using three databases PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct for peer-reviewed literature and Google Scholar and Google search engines for gray literature were performed. Both quantitative and qualitative studies conducted in LMICs, published in English and in grey literature were considered. Prior to inclusion in the review methodological quality was assessed using a standardized critical appraisal instrument. RESULTS: A total of 1,545 studies were identified, of which 13 records were included after exclusions of studies due to duplicates, reading titles, abstracts, and full-text reviews. Of these eligible studies, six studies were included for quantitative synthesis, and seven were included for qualitative synthesis. Of the six quantitative studies, five of them addressed the association between social capital and health facility delivery. Women who lived in communities with higher membership in groups that helps to form intergroup bridging ties had higher odds of using antenatal care services. Synthesized qualitative findings revealed that women received some form of emotional, informational, and instrumental support from their network members. Receiving health information from trusted people and socio-cultural factors influenced the use of maternal and child health services. CONCLUSIONS: Social capital has a great contribution to improve maternal and child health services. Countries aiming at improving maternal and child health services can be benefited from adapting existing context-specific social networks in the community. This review identified limited available evidence examining the role of social capital on maternal and child health services uptake and future studies may be required for an in-depth understanding of how social capital could improve maternal and child health services. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021226923.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Capital Social , Criança , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Pobreza , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa
17.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 207, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The importance of social and economic capital as predictors of health is widely documented, yet the complexity of interactions between them and effects on older people's health is still unclear. Combining the material and psychosocial explanations of health, this study explores the potential interactions between social and economic capital in influencing older adults' health in urban and rural China. METHODS: Using data from the China Family Panel Survey, physical and mental health in 2018 were regressed on social and economic capital indicators in 2016, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics of 3535 respondents aged 65 and older. Rothman's synergy index was calculated to investigate potential interaction effects. RESULTS: Economic hardships were significantly related to both self-reported health and mental health. Neighborhood cohesion and social participation were significantly associated with mental health for all, bonding trust was significantly associated with mental health for urban older people. We found no significant associations between social capital components and self-reported health. There was an interaction effect between low neighborhood cohesion and economic hardships, and between low social participation and economic hardships, creating an increased burden of poor mental health. The interaction effect between low bonding trust and economic hardships on mental health was apparent only among urban older people. CONCLUSIONS: Geographical settings are important factors in the complexity between social and economic capital in affecting older health. Intervention efforts directed towards reducing simultaneously multiple dimensions of deprivation, such as poverty, social exclusion, social isolation, could be helpful in improving older people's health. In materially deprived places, policies to promote health equity by improving social capital but without eliminating poverty may be less effective.


Assuntos
Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Saúde Mental , Pobreza , Capital Social , Idoso , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/psicologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Soc Sci Med ; 287: 114361, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530221

RESUMO

This paper explores the role of social capital in mitigating the mental health harms of social/mobility restrictions instigated in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. We test whether: (a) social capital continued to predict lower mental distress during the pandemic; and (b) whether social capital buffered (moderated) the harm of social/mobility restrictions on psychological distress. In addition, we test the level at which social capital mitigation effects operated, i.e., at the individual- and/or contextual-level. To do so, we apply multilevel models to three waves of the COVID-19 Household Impact Survey consisting of probability samples of U.S. adults (with the average interview completion rate of 93%). In a novel approach, we explore two modes of capturing contextual social capital: aggregated individual-level survey responses and independently measured social capital indices (SCIs). Findings show that at the individual level social capital was associated with lower psychological distress. It also buffered the harm of restrictions: increasing restrictions had a weaker effect on distress among individuals interacting with neighbors more frequently. Importantly, mitigating processes of contextual social capital appeared conditional on how it was measured. Using aggregated survey responses, contextual social capital had no direct effect on distress but exerted an additional buffering role: individuals in counties with higher average neighbor-interaction experienced a weaker impact of restrictions. Using the independent SCI measures, we found county social capital reduced distress. However, its negative effect on distress becomes increasingly weaker the more restrictions an individual reported: where individuals reported lower restrictions, higher county SCI reduced distress; however, where individuals reported higher restrictions, higher county SCI had no effect on distress. More restrictive environments thus cut individuals off from the benefits of higher county social capital as measured using the SCI.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Angústia Psicológica , Capital Social , Adulto , Humanos , Análise Multinível , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
20.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 331, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on factors affecting self-care is scarce. The social factors, in particular, have not been yet investigated in Iran. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the relationship between self-care and social capital among women. METHODS: The participants were 737 women who were living in the marginal, middle and upper areas in the city of Yazd, Iran. Data were collected using a researcher-made self-care questionnaire and Harper's (Off Natl Stat 11:2019, 2019) Social Capital Scale. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling by SPSS and Amos v24. RESULTS: The results showed that the social capital had significant positive effects on the general self-care behavior of the participants (ß = 0.56, p < 0.001). It also had significant positive effects on the self-care behavior of women living in the marginal (ß = 0.58), middle (ß = 0.49) and upper (ß = 0.62) parts of the city (p < 0.001). Besides, the women living in the marginal parts had relatively lower levels of self-care compared to those living in the middle and upper parts of the city. The examination of the fit indices indicated that the model has a good fit (CMIN/DF = 2.087, NFI = 0.921, RMSEA = 0.027, CFI = 0.956, TLI = 0.940, GFI = 0.956, IFI = 0.957). CONCLUSION: The findings of this study demonstrated that social capital has significant positive effects on the general self-care behavior of women. Therefore, improving their self-care can be achieved through promoting their social capital.


Assuntos
Capital Social , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Autocuidado , Inquéritos e Questionários
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