Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.062
Filtrar
1.
Recenti Prog Med ; 113(12): 755, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36420853
2.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0275113, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36137112

RESUMO

Islamic and capitalist economies have several differences, the most fundamental being that the Islamic economy is characterized by the prohibition of interest (riba) and speculation (gharar) and the enforcement of Shariah-compliant profit-loss sharing (mudaraba, murabaha, salam, etc.) and wealth redistribution (waqf, sadaqah, and zakat). In this study, I apply new econophysics models of wealth exchange and redistribution to quantitatively compare these characteristics to those of capitalism and evaluate wealth distribution and disparity using a simulation. Specifically, regarding exchange, I propose a loan interest model representing finance capitalism and riba and a joint venture model representing shareholder capitalism and mudaraba of an Islamic profit-loss sharing system; regarding redistribution, I create a transfer model representing inheritance tax and waqf of an Islamic wealth redistribution system. As exchanges are repeated from an initial uniform distribution of wealth, wealth distribution approaches a power-law distribution more quickly for the loan interest than the joint venture model; and the Gini index, representing disparity, rapidly increases. The joint venture model's Gini index increases more slowly, but eventually, the wealth distribution in both models becomes a delta distribution, and the Gini index gradually approaches 1. Next, when both models are combined with the transfer model to redistribute wealth in every given period, the loan interest model has a larger Gini index than the joint venture model, but both converge to a Gini index of less than 1. These results quantitatively reveal that in the Islamic economy, disparity is restrained by prohibiting riba and promoting reciprocal exchange in mudaraba and redistribution through waqf. Comparing Islamic and capitalist economies provides insights into the benefits of economically embracing the ethical practice of mutual aid and suggests guidelines for an alternative to capitalism.


Assuntos
Capitalismo , Islamismo , Princípios Morais
6.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38Suppl 2(Suppl 2): e00325020, 2022.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36043631

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil has highlighted the importance of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and the limitations of the country's prevailing health system, consisting of the public and private sectors, in the context of financialized capitalism in which typical instabilities and crises are structurally determined. The article discusses the Brazilian health system under the aegis of financialized capitalism and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The article contends that financialization as a systemic pattern of wealth increases the process of commodification of socioeconomic relations which is inherent to this system, making the State's provision of health services indispensable.


A pandemia de COVID-19 no Brasil explicitou a importância do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e as limitações do sistema de saúde vigente no país, composto pelos setores público e privado, no contexto do capitalismo financeirizado em que instabilidades e crises típicas são estruturalmente determinadas. Nesse sentido, o artigo discute o sistema de saúde no Brasil sob a égide do capitalismo financeirizado e à luz da pandemia de COVID-19. Sustenta-se que a financeirização enquanto padrão sistêmico de riqueza potencializa processo de coisificação das relações socioeconômicas que é imanente a esse sistema, tornando indispensável o provimento dos serviços de saúde pelo Estado.


La pandemia de COVID-19 en Brasil explicitó la importancia del Sistema Único de Salud (SUS) y las limitaciones del sistema de salud vigente en el país, compuesto por los sectores público y privado, en el contexto del capitalismo financiarizado, donde las inestabilidades y crisis típicas están determinadas estructuralmente. En ese sentido, el artículo discute el sistema de salud en Brasil bajo la égida del capitalismo financiarizado y a la luz de la pandemia de COVID-19. Se sostiene que la financiarización, como patrón sistémico de riqueza, potencia el proceso de cosificación de las relaciones socioeconómicas que es inmanente a este sistema, convirtiendo en indispensable la provisión de los servicios de salud por parte del Estado.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Capitalismo , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Pandemias
7.
Br J Hist Sci ; 55(3): 389-409, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35718941

RESUMO

This article situates the collecting practices of museums of natural history in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in dialogue with similar practices amongst societies in the Pacific by focusing on how European curators, dealers in natural history and Pacific Islanders shared a common fascination with Spondylus shells. In particular, this article examines the processes for turning Spondylus shells into unique or duplicate specimens. Spondylus shells were crucial for regulating gift and commercial exchanges in the societies of both regions. Famously, the anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski claimed that these shells were an essential element of the gift-based kula exchange, which helped him distinguish Western capitalist society from less developed societies without commercial trade. Yet Spondylus shells were also collected and exchanged as gifts amongst British and European naturalists in this period, performing the same roles as in Melanesia. In addition, such gift exchanges could only come into being thanks to the actions of commercially motivated dealers, located both in the Pacific and in Europe, who were the suppliers of these shells both to Melanesian participants in the kula and to Western natural historians and collectors. These observations call into question earlier arguments that equate modernity with the rise of commercial capitalism. It is instead claimed that commercial and gift exchanges were intricately connected and reliant on each other throughout the period, whether in the worlds of Western museums or in Pacific archipelagos. The act of turning Spondylus shells into unique or duplicate specimens was the key tool for regulating these exchanges.


Assuntos
Doações , História Natural , Capitalismo , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Masculino , Museus
8.
Lancet ; 399(10338): 1863, 2022 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569460
9.
Br J Sociol ; 73(3): 643-653, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35325469

RESUMO

Time and temporality are common themes in the social sciences and sociology. The sociological literature on time remains solipsistically empirical, while theoretical elaborations are focused on modernity, capitalism, and technology, through notions of speed and acceleration. Although existing studies on time are imbued with political issues and processes, as the subfield that studies relations of power and politics, political sociology has yet to consolidate a temporal lexicon for studying structures of power and political phenomena. This review situates three recent books on time and politics within a broader sociological literature on time and calls for a political sociology of time. I argue that developing a conceptual apparatus that takes time as an element of power is fundamental to building dialogue across the empirical material and across disciplines. I conclude by offering three avenues for the development of a political sociology of time.


Assuntos
Ciências Sociais , Sociologia , Capitalismo , Humanos , Política
10.
Med Anthropol ; 41(5): 546-559, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35324361

RESUMO

Using two plays written by girls and boys, I discuss how children from low-income urban neighborhoods in Honduras reflected on the slow process of privatization of the Honduran national health system. The children peppered their narratives with motifs suggestive of ongoing processes of material and social deterioration under capitalism, while paying attention to the different social mechanisms through which care could be mobilized. The plays speak to the value of incorporating children's perspectives on topics of health-disease processes that circle political, economic, and social tensions, and the importance of incorporating new ways of producing knowledge through artistic mediums.


Assuntos
Capitalismo , Pobreza , Antropologia Médica , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Narração , Características de Residência
11.
Licere (Online) ; 25(1): 487-501, mar.2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-1372880

RESUMO

As leis trabalhistas vêm sendo usurpadas continuamente pelo sistema capitalista neoliberal que modifica o ordenamento empregatício e o sistema de lazer no país, especialmente com o avanço da tecnologia. Observa-se o avanço de diversas modalidades de labor que crescem como oposição ao contrato CLT e aos direitos trabalhistas. Essa quebra de direitos e dissolução do lazer têm reflexos diretos na saúde dos indivíduos. É necessária a mudança do lazer no momento atual, trazendo um lazer popular, por meio de políticas públicas que alterem a visão consumista s obre direitos, ao mesmo tempo é importante saber que apenas com a superação do sistema capitalista será possível realmente a emancipação da classe trabalhadora, para que a vida seja mais que uma obrigação.


Labor laws are being usurped by the neoliberal capitalist system that modifies the employment system and the leisure system in the country, especially with the advancement of technology. There is an advance in labor modalities that grow as opposed to the CLT and labor rights. This breach of rights and the dissolution of leisure have a direct impact on the health of individuals. Because it, it is necessary to change leisure at the present time, bringing a popular leisure, through public policies that alter the consumerist view of rights; at the same time it is important to know that only with the overcoming of the capitalist system the emancipation of the worker class will really be possible, so that the life may be more than an obligation.


Assuntos
Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência , Legislação Trabalhista , Capitalismo , Política de Saúde , Atividades de Lazer
12.
Med Humanit ; 48(2): 221-229, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35296541

RESUMO

This paper brings together fifth-wave public health theory and a decolonised approach to the human informed by the Caribbean thinker, Sylvia Wynter, and the primary exponent of African Humanism, Es'kia Mpahlele. Sub-Saharan indigenous ways of thinking the human as co-constitutive in a subject we might call human-animal-'environment', in conjunction with the subcontinent's experiences of colonial damage in disease 'prevention' and 'treatment', demonstrate the lack of genuine engagement with Indigenous wisdom in Western medical practice.The paper offers a decolonial reading of pandemic history, focused primarily on the human immunodefiency virus (HIV), the severe acute respiratory syndrome of 2003 caused by the SARS Covid 1 virus (SARS-CoV1) and COVID-19, caused by the SARS COVID 2 virus (SARS-CoV2) to demonstrate the importance of the co-constitutive subject in understanding the genesis of these pandemics as driven by colonial-capitalism. I emphasise that prevention will indeed take the kinds of massive changes proposed by fifth-wave public health theory. However, I differ from the proponents of that theory in an insistence that the new kind of thinking of the human Hanlon et al call for, has already been conceived: just not within the confines of the normative human of Western culture.I illustrate that Western Global Health approaches remain constitutionally 'deaf' to approaches that, although the West may not understand this to be the case, arise from fundamentally different-and extra-anthropocentric-notions of the human. In this context, Man as Wynter names Him is a subject ripe for decolonisation, rather than a premier site of capitalist development, including that of healthcare provision.Recognising that most of us are not individually able to change the structural violence of the colonial capitalist system in which Global Health practices are embedded, I conclude with implications drawn from my argument for quotidian practices that enable healthcare providers see their actions within a harm reduction paradigm, in the context of communities experiencing intergenerational impoverishment consequent on colonial violence.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Capitalismo , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Environ Manage ; 307: 114465, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35091246

RESUMO

This article considers impacts from innovation, defined in terms of research and development expenditure, on carbon emissions. We relate our study to scholarship about the Environmental Kuznets Curve and the Pollution Haven Hypothesis, situating this analysis within literature about the compatibility of broadly capitalist systems and combating climate change. We thus incorporate scholarship surrounding themes such as climate capitalism and ecological modernization. There are three main research questions. First, what is the impact of increasing levels of innovation on emissions? Second, how does the level of economic development affect impacts from greater innovation on emissions? Third, does this analysis generate evidence to support the Pollution Haven Hypothesis? To test these questions, and three parallel hypotheses, we initially deployed a panel data model, based on World Bank data, incorporating control variables covering economic, spatial and environmental factors. We then split the country sample into two GDP-based cohorts to test for variations in effects related to economic development. Subsequently, a multi-input regional-output model was deployed to incorporate analysis of a pollution haven effect. Our analysis suggests that whilst greater innovation diminished carbon dioxide emissions for high-income countries, this effect could not be identified elsewhere. Furthermore, the multi-input regional-output model implied that explanations for these contrasting results might lie in a pollution haven effect. Overall, this study implied some acutely limited support for climate capitalism and ecological modernization, constructed on data from high-income countries alone.


Assuntos
Capitalismo , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Mudança Climática , Poluição Ambiental/análise
14.
Technol Cult ; 63(1): 31-60, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000958

RESUMO

This article encourages historians of technology to elevate the history of capitalism from a subsidiary theme to a research agenda. It studies the United States's early telegraphs to exemplify the inseparability of technology and capitalism. Entrepreneurs were able to innovate technologically (build telegraph systems) thanks to innovating financially. After trying and failing to sell large amounts of stock to a few investors in big cities for funding construction, entrepreneurs succeeded by selling small amounts of stock to many investors spread across the country. Financial innovators turned technology users into investors. Conversely, entrepreneurs were able to innovate financially because of their technological innovation. They built telegraphs to sell stock. Corporate charters made a company's capital a multiple of its line mileage, so the only way to increase capital was to build lines.


Assuntos
Capitalismo , Invenções , Organizações
15.
Rev. Psicol., Divers. Saúde ; 11(1)jan. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397725

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: Partindo das perspectivas freudianas, entende-se que as formas de mal-estar estão diretamente ligadas à cultura. Sendo assim, a presente pesquisa toma como objeto de investigação o sujeito contemporâneo, considerando os novos modos de subjetivação decorrentes do discurso capitalista. Se na época freudiana a lei totêmica orientava a constituição dos sujeitos, restringindo sua satisfação pulsional e dando origem ao mal-estar, atualmente, a queda desse ideal promove a ascensão do objeto a ao zênite social. OBJETIVO: Analisar os efeitos da nova lógica discursiva do mestre contemporâneo na relação do sujeito com o seu mal-estar, elucidando as regulações contemporâneas utilizadas para dar tratamento ao gozo. MÉTODO: O estudo baseia-se em uma abordagem qualitativa dos dados, configurando-se como uma pesquisa de revisão bibliográfica. RESULTADOS: Compreende-se que o discurso capitalista determina novas formas de relação com a satisfação, conquistando os sujeitos a partir da promessa de tamponamento da falta. CONCLUSÃO: a satisfação na contemporaneidade apresenta-se como efêmera, intensificando o sofrimento e dando origem a novos sintomas.


INTRODUCTION: From the Freudian perspective, it is understood that the ways of discontent are directly linked to the culture. Thus, this research takes the contemporary subject as an object of investigation, considering the new modes of subjectivation arising from the capitalist discourse. If in Freudian times the totemic law guided the constitution of subjects, restricting their instinctual satisfaction and giving rise to discomfort, currently, the fall of this ideal promotes the rise of object a to the social zenith. OBJECTIVE: Analyze the effects of the contemporary master's new discursive logic in the subject's relationship with his discomfort, elucidating the contemporary regulations used to give treatment to delight. METHOD: The study is based on a qualitative approach to data, configuring itself as a literature review research. RESULTS: It is understood that the capitalist discourse determines new forms of relationship with satisfaction, conquering the subjects based on the promise of buffering anguish. CONCLUSION: Satisfaction in contemporary times presents itself as ephemeral, intensifying the suffering and giving rise to new symptoms.


INTRODUCCIÓN: A partir de las perspectivas freudianas, se entiende que las formas de malestar están directamente ligadas a la cultura. Así, la presente investigación toma como objeto de investigación el sujeto contemporáneo, considerando los nuevos modos de subjetivación surgidos del discurso capitalista. Si en la época freudiana la ley totémica guiaba la constitución de los sujetos, restringiendo su satisfacción instintiva y dando lugar al malestar, actualmente, la caída de este ideal promueve el ascenso del objeto a a su cenit social. OBJETIVO: Analizar los efectos de la nueva lógica discursiva del maestro contemporáneo en la relación del sujeto con su malestar, dilucidando las regulaciones contemporáneas utilizadas para tratar el goce. MÉTODO: El estudio se basa en un abordaje cualitativo de los datos, configurándose como una investigación de revisión de la literatura. RESULTADOS: Se entiende que el discurso capitalista determina nuevas formas de relación con la satisfacción, conquistando a los sujetos a partir de la promesa de suplir la carencia. CONCLUSIÓN: la satisfacción en la actualidad es efímera, intensifica el sufrimiento y da lugar a nuevos síntomas


Assuntos
Psicanálise , Discurso , Capitalismo
16.
J Hist Behav Sci ; 58(3): 291-301, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35060118

RESUMO

This article sets out to investigate Weber's major sources of interest in his American journey, namely, rampant capitalism as most evident in some large cities, the presence of Calvinism and of a bourgeois ethos in some Northern areas of the United States, and the persisting relevance of a precapitalist status order in the South. As Weber argued, in these distinct settings different status groups and anthropological types were all connected, each in its own way, with modern formally rational capitalism. The significance of Weber's journey in the Unites States lied in the opportunity this journey offered him to delineate in ideal-typical terms a number of status groups and anthropological types to which he paid attention in the course of this travel.


Assuntos
Capitalismo , Sociologia , Humanos , Masculino , Protestantismo , Relações Raciais , Estados Unidos
17.
Rev. psicol. (Fortaleza, Online) ; 13(1): 72-80, 01/01/2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1357840

RESUMO

Este artigo propõe refletir sobre o filme "Eles Vivem" (Carpenter, 1988), do diretor John Carpenter, considerando as formulações de Freud e Lacan sobre a constituição do sujeito e o desenvolvimento lacaniano sobre o discurso do capitalista. Carpenter, em sua obra cinematográfica, nos apresenta o capitalismo sobre a ótica da classe trabalhadora que sofre com os efeitos causados pelo sistema. Busca-se, neste estudo, abordar, a partir da teoria psicanalítica em articulação com o cinema, a relação do sujeito com os objetos de consumo.


This article proposes to reflect on the film "They Live" (Carpenter, 1988), by director John Carpenter, considering the formulations of Freud and Lacan on the constitution of the subject and the Lacanian development on the discourse of the capitalist. Carpenter, in his cinematographic work, presents the capitalism from the perspective of the working class that suffers from the effects caused by the system. The aim of this study is to approach, based on psychoanalytic theory in conjunction with cinema, the subject's relation with consumer objects.


Assuntos
Psicanálise , Capitalismo , Economia , Filmes Cinematográficos
18.
Rev. Psicol., Divers. Saúde ; 11(1)jan. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377591

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: Partindo das perspectivas freudianas, entende-se que as formas de mal-estar estão diretamente liga das à cultura. Sendo assim, a presente pesquisa toma como objeto de investigação o sujeito contemporâneo, considerando os no vos modos de subjetivação decorrentes do discurso capitalista. Se na época freudiana a lei totêmica orientava a constituição dos sujeitos, restringindo sua satisfação pulsional e dando origem ao mal-estar, atualmente, a queda desse ideal promove a ascensão do objeto a ao zênite social. OBJETIVO: Analisar os efeitos da nova lógica discursiva do mestre contemporâneo na relação do sujeito com o seu mal-estar, elucidando as regulações contemporâneas utilizadas para dar tratamento ao gozo. MÉTODO: O estudo baseia-se em uma abordagem qualitativa dos dados, configurando-se como uma pesquisa de revisão bibliográfica. RESULTADOS: Compreende-se que o discurso capitalista determina novas formas de relação com a satisfação, conquistando os sujeitos a partir da promessa de tamponamento da falta. CONCLUSÃO: a satisfação na contemporaneidade apresenta-se como efêmera, intensificando o sofrimento e dando origem a novos sintomas.


INTRODUCTION: From the Freudian perspective, it is understood that the ways of discontent are directly linked to the culture. Thus, this research takes the contemporary subject as an object of investigation, considering the new modes of subjectivation arising from the capitalist discourse. If in Freudian times the totemic law guided the constitution of subjects, restricting their instinctual satisfaction and giving rise to discomfort, currently, the fall of this ideal promotes the rise of object a to the social zenith. OBJECTIVE: Analyze the effects of the contemporary master's new discursive logic in the subject's relationship with his discomfort, elucidating the contemporary regulations used to give treatment to delight. METHOD: The study is based on a qualitative approach to data, configuring itself as a literature review research. RESULTS: It is understood that the capitalist discourse determines new forms of relationship with satisfaction, conquering the subjects based on the promise of buffering anguish. CONCLUSION: Satisfaction in contemporary times presents itself as ephemeral, intensifying the suffering and giving rise to new symptoms.


INTRODUCCIÓN: A partir de las perspectivas freudianas, se entiende que las formas de malestar están directamente ligadas a la cultura. Así, la presente investigación toma como objeto de investigación el sujeto contemporáneo, considerando los nuevos modos de subjetivación surgidos del discurso capitalista. Si en la época freudiana la ley totémica guiaba la constitución de los sujetos, restringiendo su satisfacción instintiva y dando lugar al malestar, actualmente, la caída de este ideal promueve el ascenso del objeto a a su cenit social. OBJETIVO: Analizar los efectos de la nueva lógica discursiva del maestro contemporáneo en la relación del sujeto con su malestar, dilucidando las regulaciones contemporáneas utilizadas para tratar el goce. MÉTODO: El estudio se basa en un abordaje cualitativo de los datos, configurándose como una investigación de revisión de la literatura. RESULTADOS: Se entiende que el discurso capitalista determina nuevas formas de relación con la satisfacción, conquistando a los sujetos a partir de la promesa de suplir la carencia. CONCLUSIÓN: la satisfacción en la actualidad es efímera, intensifica el sufrimiento y da lugar a nuevos sintomas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Satisfação Pessoal , Comportamento do Consumidor , Capitalismo , Teoria Freudiana
19.
Conserv Biol ; 36(2): e13821, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405455

RESUMO

The unlimited economic growth that fuels capitalism's metabolism has profoundly transformed a large portion of Earth. The resulting environmental destruction has led to an unprecedented rate of biodiversity loss. Following large-scale losses of habitats and species, it was recognized that biodiversity is crucial to maintaining functional ecosystems. We sought to continue the debate on the contradictions between economic growth and biodiversity in the conservation science literature and thus invite scholars to engage in reversing the biodiversity crisis through acknowledging the impacts of economic growth. In the 1970s, a global agenda was set to develop different milestones related to sustainable development, including green-blue economic growth, which despite not specifically addressing biodiversity reinforced the idea that economic development based on profit is compatible with the planet's ecology. Only after biodiversity loss captured the attention of environmental sciences researchers in the early 2000s was a global biodiversity agenda implemented. The agenda highlights biodiversity conservation as a major international challenge and recognizes that the main drivers of biodiversity loss derive from economic activities. The post-2000 biodiversity agendas, including the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the post-2020 Convention on Biological Diversity Global Strategy Framework, do not consider the negative impacts of growth-oriented strategies on biodiversity. As a result, global biodiversity conservation priorities are governed by the economic value of biodiversity and its assumed contribution to people's welfare. A large body of empirical evidence shows that unlimited economic growth is the main driver of biodiversity loss in the Anthropocene; thus, we strongly argue for sustainable degrowth and a fundamental shift in societal values. An equitable downscaling of the physical economy can improve ecological conditions, thus reducing biodiversity loss and consequently enhancing human well-being.


Trascendiendo las Estrategias de Crecimiento Capitalista para la Conservación de la Biodiversidad Resumen El crecimiento económico ilimitado que alimenta el metabolismo del capitalismo ha transformado profundamente una gran parte del planeta Tierra. La destrucción ambiental resultante ha traído como consecuencia una tasa sin precedentes de pérdida de diversidad biológica. Después de la pérdida a gran escala de hábitats y especies, se reconoció que la biodiversidad es crucial para mantener el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas. En este articulo buscamos seguir con el debate sobre las contradicciones entre el crecimiento económico y la biodiversidad en la literatura de las ciencias de la conservación y así invitar a los académicos a participar en la reducción de la crisis de biodiversidad dando a conocer los impactos del crecimiento económico. En la década de 1970, se estableció una agenda global para desarrollar diferentes metas relacionadas con el desarrollo sustentable, incluyendo el crecimiento económico verde y azul, la cual a pesar de no mencionar específicamente la biodiversidad reforzó la idea de que el desarrollo económico basado en ganancias es compatible con la ecología del planeta. Fue solamente después de que la pérdida de biodiversidad captó la atención de los investigadores de las ciencias ambientales a principios de la década de los 2000 que se implementó una agenda para la diversidad biológica. La agenda resalta que la conservación de la biodiversidad es un gran reto internacional y reconoce que las pincipales causas de la pérdida de la diversidad biológica derivan de las actividades económicas. Las agendas para la biodiversidad creadas después del 2000, incluyendo la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sustentable y el Marco de Trabajo de la Estrategia Mundial de la Convención sobre la Diversidad Biológica posterior a 2020, no consideran los impactos negativos de las estrategias para la biodiversidad orientadas por el crecimiento. Como resultado, las prioridades de la conservación mundial de la biodiversidad están gobernadas por el valor económico de la biodiversidad y la supuesta contribución que tiene para el bienestar de las personas. Una gran cantidad de evidencia empírica muestra que el crecimiento económico ilimitado es el principal conductor de la pérdida de diversidad biológica en el Antropoceno; por lo tanto, abogamos fuertemente por un decrecimiento sustentable y un cambio fundamental en los valores sociales. Una reducción equitativa de la economía física puede mejorar las condiciones ecológicas, reduciendo así la pérdida de biodiversidad y mejorando como consecuencia el bienestar humano.


Assuntos
Capitalismo , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Humanos
20.
Community Ment Health J ; 58(2): 205-212, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032963

RESUMO

Rates of mental illness have increased dramatically over the past 15 years in the United States [Products-Data Briefs-Number 283-August 2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db283.htm . Published August 15, 2017]. Additionally, life expectancy has fallen over the past several years due to increases in death from suicide, opioid overdose, and alcoholic liver cirrhosis as reported by Case and Deaton [Deaths of despair and the future of capitalism. Princeton University Press, 2020]. Over the last decade some have questioned whether these changes are due to neoliberal capitalist policies and ideologies. Neoliberal capitalism incorporates theories of eliminating all restrictions on the market and decreasing government assistance programs as reported by Harvey [A brief history of neoliberalism, Oxford University Press, 2005]. Since then these policies have led to income inequality, disempowerment of workers, outsourcing of manufacturing jobs, inadequate social services, mass incarceration and an expensive and ineffective healthcare system as reported by Case and Deaton [Deaths of despair and the future of capitalism. Princeton University Press, 2020] and Nkansah-Amankra et al. [International Journal of Health Services 43(2):217-240, 2013]. Studies have shown that the consequences of these policies and ideologies likely have a role in increasing rates of mental illness. This paper will discuss how these factors increase mental distress and postulate ways that mental health professionals can advocate for change.


Assuntos
Capitalismo , Saúde Mental , Atenção à Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Seguridade Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...