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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150436, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563900

RESUMO

Finland and Poland share similar environmental interests with regard to their wastewater effluents eventually being discharged to the Baltic Sea. However, differences in the influent wastewater characteristics, treatment processes, operational conditions, and carbon intensities of energy mixes in both countries make these two countries interesting for carbon footprint (CF) comparison. This study aimed at proposing a functional unit (FU) which enables a comprehensive comparison of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in terms of their CF. Direct emissions had the highest contribution (70%) to the total CF. Energy consumption dominated the total indirect emissions in both countries by over 30%. Polish WWTPs benefitted more from energy self-sufficiency than Finnish plants as a result of higher electricity emission factors in Poland. The main difference between indirect emissions of both countries were attributed to higher chemical consumption of the Finnish WWTPs. Total pollution equivalent removed (TPErem) FU proposed enabled a better comparison of WWTPs located in different countries in terms of their total CF. High correlations of TPErem with other FUs were found since TPErem could balance out the differences in the removal efficiencies of various pollutants. Offsetting CF was found a proper strategy for the studied WWTPs to move towards low-carbon operation. The studied WWTPs could reduce their CF from up to 27% by different practices, such as selling biofuel, electricity and fertilizers. These findings are applicable widely since the selected WWTPs represent the typical treatment solutions in Poland, Finland and in the Baltic Sea region.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono , Purificação da Água , Carbono , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149993, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482145

RESUMO

The ecological conservation and high-quality development of China's Yellow River Basin is a national strategy proposed in 2019. Under China's goal of achieving a carbon peak by 2030 and carbon neutrality by 2060, clarifying the carbon footprint of each province and the transfer paths of embodied carbon emissions is crucial to the carbon reduction strategy for this region. This paper uses input-output model and multi-regional input-output model to account for the carbon footprint of nine provinces in the Yellow River Basin, and to estimate the amount of embodied carbon transfer between provinces and industrial sectors. Social network analysis is applied to identify the critical industries in the inter-provincial embodied carbon emission transfers from the three major industries. We found that the per capita carbon footprint of the Yellow River Basin decreased by 23.4% in 2017 compared to 2012. Among the sectoral composition of the carbon footprint of each province, "Processing and manufacturing of petroleum, coking, nuclear fuel, and chemical products", "Construction", "Other services", and "Metal processing and metal, non-metallic products" are the four sectors with a higher proportion of emissions. The embodied carbon emission transfer between the provinces in middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River Basin is much higher than that between the upstream provinces. Among carbon emission transfer network of three major industries in nine provinces,the secondary industry in Shaanxi has the highest centrality and is the most critical industry. This study provides a theoretical basis and data support for formulating carbon emission reduction plans in the Yellow River Basin.


Assuntos
Carbono , Rios , Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Pegada de Carbono , China , Indústrias
4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(22): 15323-15332, 2021 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729979

RESUMO

Promoting sustainable food consumption is critical to meet the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals. The existing research using average diets and the individual one-day diet recall data to obtain insights into food carbon footprints (CFs) may neglect the diverse food purchasing patterns in different households (HHs). In this paper, we analyzed detailed grocery shopping records of 57,578 U.S. HHs to evaluate the associated food CFs. The cradle-to-farm-gate CFs of 83 food items were calculated using a process-based life cycle assessment model adapted to the U.S. condition. Using the CF of a healthy and sustainable diet as the benchmark, we quantified the CF reduction potentials for each HH. Our results suggest three key strategies to reduce HH food CFs: (1) lowering the over-purchasing in small (one- or two-person) HHs can achieve two-thirds of the recognized carbon emission reduction potentials; (2) reducing the intake of snacks, ready-made food, and drinks leads to as much as, if not more, carbon emission reduction than changing diets; and (3) more attention needs to be paid to reduce the carbon intensity of food items with large purchased volume.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono , Alimentos , Dieta , Humanos
8.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 163(20): 71-72, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767231
10.
Waste Manag ; 136: 93-103, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653854

RESUMO

Liquid packaging board (LPB) is an integral part of storing and transporting liquid food. In addition to its significant advantages, LPB has been challenging the existing waste management sector since its introduction into the market. In most European countries, LPB waste is either incinerated or recycled in the recycling facilities where fibre is recycled, and the repulping reject is separated for incineration. Mechanical recycling and chemical recycling processes are other options for repulping reject treatment. This study used life cycle assessment (LCA) to compare the environmental impacts of three treatment processes, incineration, mechanical recycling and chemical recycling; each was considered with the functional unit of 1 tonne of repulping reject. Furthermore, two sub-scenarios based on the substituted heat produced by energy from the treatment processes were considered. In substituting biomass-based heat sources, chemical recycling generated the lowest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, about 560 kg CO2 eq. tonne-1 repulping rejects, followed by the mechanical recycling process (approximately 740 kg CO2 eq. tonne-1 repulping reject). The maximum amount of GHG was emitted from the incineration scenario, which was about 1900 kg CO2 eq. tonne-1 repulping rejects. By substituting natural gas-based heat sources, chemical recycling generated about 290 kg CO2 eq. tonne-1 repulping rejects. On the contrary, the mechanical recycling process generated about 430 kg CO2 eq. tonne-1 repulping rejects and incineration process generated 960 kg CO2 eq. tonne-1 repulping rejects. Uncertainty analysis showed that some assumptions significantly impact the results; however, the chemical recycling process had the lowest environmental impact in almost all uncertainty analysis.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Pegada de Carbono , Incineração
12.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113732, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537560

RESUMO

Direct-seeded-cotton (DSC) leads to low crop and water productivity and energy-output with higher carbon-footprints besides impairing system-intensification under conventional cotton-wheat cropping system (CWCS). Hence, we evaluated two methods of Bt-cotton establishment [transplanted cotton (TPC) & DSC)] at three planting geometries/densities in four Bt-cotton based cropping-systems [DSC-wheat (DSC-W), TPC-wheat-mungbean (TPC-W-M), DSC-onion (DSC-O), TPC-onion-fodder cowpea + fodder maize (TPC-O-FC + FM)] in semi-arid region of south Asia. Poly-glass nursery-raised TPC exhibited significantly higher germination (96.5%), seedling-survival (96.1%) and 14.1% higher plant-stand owing to lower seedling-mortality (3.2%). TPC used ∼60% less irrigation-water but exhibited significantly higher seed-cotton, seed and lint yield, net-returns, radiation-use-efficiency and water-productivity by 11.4, 9.9, 14.3, 17.3, 10.7 and 260.6%, respectively over DSC. Planting geometry/density of 60 × 45 cm (37,037 plants ha-1) exhibited significantly higher crop and water productivity and economic-returns. Bt-cotton transplanting led system-intensification enhanced the system-productivity (26.1%), profitability (30.5%), water-productivity (19.3%) and land-use-efficiency (8.5%) over the DSC-based systems with significantly higher values under TPC-O-FC + FM. Energy-use pattern reveled that farm inputs viz. Fertilizers (54-60%), water (15-25%) and diesel (6-10%) consumed bulk of the input-energy in different cropping systems with greatest values under TPC-O-FC + FM. TPC-W-M exhibited highest system energy-output (604.6 × 103 MJ ha-1) and energy-returns (566.2 × 103 MJ ha-1). TPC-O-FC + FM exhibited significantly higher carbon-consumption (668.9 kg CE ha-1) and carbon-output (21431.3 kg CE ha-1) while maintaining significantly higher carbon-efficiency (32.0) and carbon sustainability index (31.0). TPC-O-FC + FM had least carbon-footprints (0.07 kg CE kg-1 SCEY) while conventional-CWCS exhibited 2-folds higher carbon-footprints. Legume-imbedded TPC-based cropping systems markedly increased the soil physical (bulk-density, water-stable-aggregates), chemical (SOC, available-NPK) and biological properties (soil-microbial-biomass-carbon, dehydrogenase and ergosterol activity) over the conventional CWCS and DCS-O systems. Overall, Bt-cotton transplanting led system-intensification upholds great importance in enhancing the system crop and water-productivity, profitability, energy-productivity, resource-use-efficiency and soil-health with minimal carbon-footprints in semi-arid agro-ecosystems of south Asia.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono , Solo , Agricultura , Carbono , Produtos Agrícolas , Ecossistema , Água
13.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113613, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560465

RESUMO

The collection, treatment and disposal of wastewater is estimated to consume more than 2% of the world's electrical energy, whilst some wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) can account for over 20% of electrical consumption within municipalities. To investigate areas to improve wastewater treatment, international benchmarking on energy (electrical) intensity was conducted with the indicator kWh/m3 and a quality control of secondary treatment or better for ≥95% of treated volume. The core sample included 321 companies from 31 countries, however, to analyse regional differences, 11 countries from an external sample made up of various studies of WWTPs was also used in places. The sample displayed a weak-negative size effect with energy intensity, although Kruskal-Wallace analyses showed there was a significant difference between the size of groups (p-value of 0.015), suggesting that as companies get larger; they consume less electricity per cubic metre of wastewater treated. This relationship was not completely linear, as mid to large companies (10,001-100,000 customers) had the largest average consumption of 0.99 kWh/m3. In the regional analysis, EU states had the largest average kWh/m3 with 1.18, which appeared a result of the higher wastewater effluent standards of the region. This was supported by Denmark being the second largest average consuming country (1.35 kWh/m3), since it has some of strictest effluent standards in the world. Along with energy intensity, the associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were calculated enabling the targeting of regions for improvement in response to climate change. Poland had the highest carbon footprint (0.91 kgCO2e/m3) arising from an energy intensity of 0.89 kWh/m3; conversely, a clean electricity grid can affectively mitigate wastewater treatment inefficiencies, exemplified by Norway who emit just 0.013 kgCO2e per cubic meter treated, despite consuming 0.60 kWh/m3. Finally, limitations to available data and the analysis were highlighted from which, it is advised that influent vs. effluent and net energy, as opposed to gross, data be used in future analyses. The large international sample size, energy data with a quality control, GHG analysis, and specific benchmarking recommendations give this study a novelty which could be of use to water industry operators, benchmarking organisations, and regulators.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Purificação da Água , Benchmarking , Pegada de Carbono , Águas Residuárias
14.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113698, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530365

RESUMO

This study aimed to quantify greenhouse gas emissions derived from the production-consumption of rice in Hubei-a major rice-producing province in central China. This research employed primary and secondary data collection methods. Primary data sources included interviews and experimental observations from seven counties in Hubei collected from June 2016 to December 2016. Secondary data sources-including national datasets, inter-governmental reports, and peer-reviewed articles-were used to extract relevant data, such as emission factors, and national and provincial rice output. Life Cycle Assessment was employed to build a comprehensive inventory and map of the rice carbon footprint, including the following five stages: production inputs, farm management, growth period, processing and sale, and consumption. Uncertainty analysis was performed to validate the reliability of carbon footprint estimations. Results showed that the carbon footprint for every 1 ton of polished rice in Hubei ranged between 4.19-6.81 t CO2e/t and was 5.39 t CO2e/t on average. Greenhouse gas emissions were primarily produced from rice fields during the growth stage (over 60% of greenhouse gas emissions of the whole life cycle of rice), followed by the consumption stage, and the production and transportation of agricultural inputs. Uncertainty analysis estimations indicated acceptable levels of reliability. This study's results indicate that the production and consumption of rice is a significant contributor to agricultural carbon emissions in Hubei-consistent with national estimates that place China as the largest carbon dioxide emitter globally. This research provides further insight into future policies and targeted initiatives for the efficient use of low-carbon agricultural inputs for rice production and consumption stages in China.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Pegada de Carbono , Oryza , China , Efeito Estufa , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Incerteza
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501620

RESUMO

Spain is one of the leading wine-producing and -exporting countries and has traditionally been dominant in trade and world production in the sector. In an increasingly changing context, in which worldwide wine exports are growing exponentially, it is essential to study their impact on climate change as the transport of goods generates a significant volume of greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this work, then, was to analyse the variation in the carbon footprint generated by Spanish wine exports between 2011 and 2016. To this end, a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model was used, showing that the emissions associated with wine operations have increased less than exports, which might suggest that sustainable growth has been included as a goal in the wine supply chain. The methodology used has the advantage of allowing the calculation of direct and indirect emissions. At the same time, the results can provide relevant information to practitioners and policymakers due to the expected evolution of European environmental regulations and trades, in terms of carbon footprint.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Vinho , Carbono , Pegada de Carbono , Espanha
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e046200, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580089

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare global warming potential (GWP) of hospitals converting from single-use sharps containers to reusable sharps containers (SSC, RSC). Does conversion to RSC result in GWP reduction? DESIGN: Using BS PAS 2050:2011 principles, a retrospective, before/after intervention quantitative model together with a purpose-designed, attributional 'cradle-to-grave' life-cycle tool, were used to determine the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the two sharps containment systems. Functional unit was total fill line litres (FLL) of sharps containers needed to dispose of sharps for 1-year period in 40 trusts. Scopes 1, 2 and 3 emissions were included. Results were workload-normalised using National Health Service (NHS) national hospital patient-workload indicators. A sensitivity analysis examined areas of data variability. SETTING: Acute care hospital trusts in UK. PARTICIPANTS: 40 NHS hospital Trusts using RSC. INTERVENTION: Conversion from SSC to RSC. SSC and RSC usage details in 17 base line trusts immediately prior to 2018 were applied to the RSC usage details of the 40 trusts using RSC in 2019. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: The comparison of GWP calculated in carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) generated in the manufacture, transport, service and disposal of 12 months, hospital-wide usage of both containment systems in the 40 trusts. RESULTS: The 40 trusts converting to RSC reduced their combined annual GWP by 3267.4 tonnes CO2e (-83.9%); eliminated incineration of 900.8 tonnes of plastic; eliminated disposal/recycling of 132.5 tonnes of cardboard and reduced container exchanges by 61.1%. GHG as kg CO2e/1000 FLL were 313.0 and 50.7 for SSC and RSC systems, respectively. A sensitivity analysis showed substantial GHG reductions within unit processes could be achieved, however, their impact on relevant final GWP comparison varied <5% from base comparison. CONCLUSIONS: Adopting RSC is an example of a sustainable purchasing decision that can assist trusts meet NHS GHG reduction targets and can reduce GWP permanently with minimal staff behavioural change.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Efeito Estufa , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido
17.
N Z Med J ; 134(1541): 13-21, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531593

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Efforts to improve the sustainability of ophthalmic care require methods to measure its environmental impact and a baseline measurement to compare against in the future. We aimed to measure the carbon footprint of cataract surgery in Wellington. METHODS: We used Eyefficiency, an application using established footprinting methods, to estimate the emissions produced by phacoemulsification surgery in two public and two private hospitals. We measured (1) power consumption, (2) procurement of disposable items and pharmaceuticals, (3) waste disposal emissions and (4) travel (other potential sources were excluded). Where possible we used New Zealand emissions coefficients. RESULTS: We recorded data from 142 cataract surgeries. The average emissions produced by cataract surgery in the region was estimated to be 152kg of carbon dioxide equivalent. This is equivalent to 62L of petrol and would take 45m2 of forest one year to absorb. The great majority of emissions were from procurement, mostly disposable materials, and the second greatest contribution was from travel (driving). CONCLUSION: Estimating the carbon footprint of cataract surgery is becoming easier, but improved methods for measuring the footprint of procured supplies are needed. There are significant opportunities for emissions reduction in the most common surgical procedure in New Zealand.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Facoemulsificação , Extração de Catarata , Equipamentos Descartáveis , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Hospitais Privados , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Implante de Lente Intraocular/instrumentação , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Nova Zelândia , Facoemulsificação/instrumentação , Plásticos , Viagem , Emissões de Veículos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 147890, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412413

RESUMO

In recent years, many rotational and integrated rice production systems coupled with several greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation practices have been developed and adopted for demand of low carbon production. However, there have been only few studies about comparisons on the balance between high production and mitigation of GHG emissions in different rice production systems. We therefore aimed to evaluate economic output and carbon footprint of different rice production systems, based on several long-term experiments conducted by our lab. CH4 and N2O emission were measured by the same static chamber/gas chromatogram measurement procedure in different rice production systems, including rice-fallow, rice-rapeseed, rice-wheat, double rice, and integrated rice-crayfish production system. Then, we applied the DeNitrification DeComposition model to simulate CH4 and N2O emission over different years under the same condition for comparison. Carbon footprint was calculated following the process-based life cycle assessment (PLCA) methodology. The economic benefit of rice production systems was assessed by cost-benefit analysis. According to the analysis, the double-rice production system exhibited the highest intensity of carbon footprint (ICF = 4.14 kg CO2-eq yuan-1), rain-fed treatment in the rice-rapeseed system had the lowest (ICF = 0.68 kg CO2-eq yuan-1). The intensity of carbon footprint in different treatments in the integrated rice-crayfish production system was around 0.8 kg CO2-eq yuan-1. Overall, the results of this case study suggest: (1) the proposed practices in different rice production systems are no straw returning (rice-fallow), no-tillage without straw returning (rice-wheat), rain-fed farming (rice-rapeseed), no insect and no inoculation (double rice), and feeding with straw returning (rice-crayfish); (2) rotational and integrated systems can achieve high net output with low carbon emission; (3) reducing the amount of nitrogenous fertilizer application is the most important and effective GHG mitigation practice for rotational systems.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Oryza , Agricultura , Pegada de Carbono , Fertilizantes
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 799: 149446, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426322

RESUMO

The wine industry has faced two significant environmental problems in recent years: productivity is challenged by environmental trends such as global warming, and buyers are becoming more environmentally conscious. From an environmental standpoint, the food industry is one of the most impacting sectors and wine results as one of the most studied agri-food products in the scientific literature. In general, comprehensive studies that consider an application of set of indicators to evaluate the overall sustainability of wine sector are lacking in literature. This paper aims to carry out a sustainable assessment using different indicators for fifteen Italian red wines: Water Footprint (WF), Carbon Footprint (CF), Vineyard Indicator (VI), and Territory Indicator (TI). VI is an indicator of the vineyard's agronomic management's sustainability at plot level with values ranging from 0 (fully sustainable) to 1 (fully not sustainable), while TI covers the socio-economical aspects of sustainability. Considering system boundaries from cradle to grave, at 90% confidence interval, CF results ranged between 0.97 kg CO2 eq./functional unit and 1.97 kg CO2 eq./functional unit, with an average estimated at 1.47 kg CO2 eq./functional unit, while the WF of a 0.75 L bottle of wine from cradle to gate is 666.7 L/functional unit on average, out of which 86.75% is green, 1.92% is blue and 11.34% is grey water. Concerning the VI, at 90% confidence interval VI results were between 0.117 and 0.498 with an average estimated at 0.307. The results of the correlation analyses confirmed that each indicator is not statistically correlated with each other. Concerning the sub-indicators, a positive correlation has been found between the total CF and the sum of blue and grey WF. The application of a multi-criteria analysis for sustainability performances evaluation of the wine sector presented in this study can be used by wine companies' experts to better assess sustainability performances.


Assuntos
Vinho , Pegada de Carbono , Fazendas , Indústria Alimentícia , Itália , Vinho/análise
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