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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674593

RESUMO

Gastric cancer is a common malignant tumor originating from the gastric mucosa epithelium. Studies have shown that bioactive substances such as antimicrobial peptides and cantharidin contained in a variety of insects can exert anti-cancer functions; when compared with chemotherapy drugs, these bioactive substances have less toxicity and reduced side effects. Here, we report the first Bombyx mori carboxypeptidase inhibitor that is specifically and highly expressed in silk glands, which can significantly prevent the proliferation of gastric cancer cells by inhibiting the MAPK/ERK pathway initiated by EGF/EGFR through the promotion of expression of the proto-oncogene c-Myc, thereby affecting the expression of related cyclins. Through molecular docking and virtual screening of silkworm carboxypeptidase inhibitors and epidermal growth factor receptors, we identified a polypeptide that overlapped with existing small-molecule inhibitors of the receptor. In the present work, we explore the medicinal potential and application of silkworm carboxypeptidase inhibitors to promote the development of anti-tumor drugs from insect-derived substances.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Bombyx , Neoplasias Gástricas , Animais , Humanos , Bombyx/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/farmacologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Transdução de Sinais , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células , Carboxipeptidases/metabolismo
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1037504, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36532015

RESUMO

Background: Endometriosis is recognized as an estrogen-dependent inflammation disorder, estimated to affect 8%-15% of women of childbearing age. Currently, the etiology and pathogenesis of endometriosis are not completely clear. Underlying mechanism for endometriosis is still under debate and needs further exploration. The involvement of transcription factors and immune mediations may be involved in the pathophysiological process of endometriosis, but the specific mechanism remains to be explored. This study aims to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms in endometriosis. Methods: The gene expression profile of endometriosis was obtained from the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database. Gene set variation analysis (GSVA) and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) were applied to the endometriosis GSE7305 datasets. Cibersort and MCP-counter were used to explore the immune response gene sets, immune response pathway, and immune environment. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified and screened. Common biological pathways were being investigated using the kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. Transcription factors were from The Human Transcription Factors. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) model identified four differential expressions of transcription factors (AEBP1, HOXB6, KLF2, and RORB). Their diagnostic value was calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and validated in the validation cohort (GSE11691, GSE23339). By constructing the interaction network of crucial transcription factors, weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to search for key module genes. Metascape was used for enrichment analysis of essential module genes and obtained HOXB6, KLF2. The HOXB6 and KLF2 were further verified as the only two intersection genes according to Support Vector Machine Recursive Feature Elimination (SVM-RFE) and random forest models. We constructed ceRNA (lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA) networks with four potential transcription factors. Finally, we performed molecular docking for goserelin and dienogest with four transcription factors (AEBP1, HOXB6, KLF2, and RORB) to screen potential drug targets. Results: Immune and metabolic pathways were enriched in GSVA and GSEA. In single sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA), most immune infiltrating cells, immune response gene sets, and immune response pathways are differentially expressed between endometriosis and non-endometriosis. Twenty-seven transcription factors were screened from differentially expressed genes. Most of the twenty-seven transcription factors were correlated with immune infiltrating cells, immune response gene sets and immune response pathways. Furthermore, Adipocyte enhancer binding protein 1 (AEBP1), Homeobox B6 (HOXB6), Kruppel Like Factor 2 (KLF2) and RAR Related Orphan Receptor B (RORB) were selected out from twenty-seven transcription factors. ROC analysis showed that the four genes had a high diagnostic value for endometriosis. In addition, KLF2 and HOXB6 were found to play particularly important roles in multiple modules (String, WGCNA, SVM-RFE, random forest) on the gene interaction network. Using the ceRNA network, we found that NEAT1 may regulate the expressions of AEBP1, HOXB6 and RORB, while X Inactive Specific Transcript (XIST) may control the expressions of HOXB6, RORB and KLF2. Finally, we found that goserelin and dienogest may be potential drugs to regulate AEBP1, HOXB6, KLF2 and RORB through molecular docking. Conclusions: AEBP1, HOXB6, KLF2, and RORB may be potential biomarkers for endometriosis. Two of them, KLF2 and HOXB6, are critical molecules in the gene interaction network of endometriosis. Discovered by molecular docking, AEBP1, HOXB6, KLF2, and RORB are targets for goserelin and dienogest.


Assuntos
Endometriose , RNA Longo não Codificante , Humanos , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Gosserrelina , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Endometriose/tratamento farmacológico , Endometriose/genética , Carboxipeptidases , Proteínas Repressoras
3.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(12)2022 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36553625

RESUMO

In 2018, a new clinical subtype, caused by biallelic variants in the AEBP1 gene, encoding the ACLP protein, was added to the current nosological classification of the Ehlers-Danlos Syndromes (EDS). This new phenotype, provisionally termed EDS classical-like type 2 (clEDS2), has not yet been fully characterized, as only nine cases have been reported to date. Here we describe a patient, homozygous for a novel AEBP1 pathogenic variant (NM_001129.5 c.2123_2124delTG (p.Val708AlafsTer5)), whose phenotype is reminiscent of classical EDS but also includes previously unreported multiple congenital malformations. Furthermore, we briefly summarize the current principal clinical manifestations of clEDS2 and the molecular evidence surrounding the role of AEBP1 in the context of extracellular matrix homeostasis and connective tissue development. Although a different coexisting etiology for the multiple congenital malformations of our patient cannot be formally excluded, the emerging role of ACLP in TGF-ß and WNT pathways may explain their occurrence and the phenotypical variability of clEDS2.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos , Humanos , Mutação , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/patologia , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Fenótipo , Homozigoto , Carboxipeptidases/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética
4.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 478, 2022 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that excessive iron can lead to an increased incidence of cancer. The role of adipocyte enhancer-binding protein 1 (AEBP1) on ferroptosis is unknown. Thus, we explored the effect of AEBP1 silencing in regulation of ferroptosis in cisplatin-resistant oral cancer cells. METHODS: The functions of AEBP1 silencing and sulfasalazine (SSZ) treatment were determined on oral cancer cell lines and tumor xenograft mouse models. Then we evaluated the functions of AEBP1 on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS), labile iron pool (LIP) and free iron, lipid peroxidation, and expression levels of ferroptosis-related genes. RESULTS: AEBP1 was highly expressed in oral cancer cells and tissues. AEBP1 silencing inhibited oral cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion after SSZ treatment. SSZ-induced ferroptosis is due to enhanced ROS level, free iron, and lipid peroxidation, which were distinctly increased by AEBP1 silencing. Meanwhile, AEBP1 silencing enhanced the effects of SSZ on levels of LIP and Fe2+, lipid peroxidation, as well as the expression levels of ferroptosis-related genes in the tumor xenograft mouse models. Importantly, AEBP1 silencing suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, silencing of AEBP1 might activate the JNK/ P38 /ERK pathway. CONCLUSION: This research suggested that silencing of AEBP1 predisposes cisplatin-resistant oral cancer cells to ferroptosis via the JNK/p38 /ERK pathway.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , Neoplasias Bucais , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Sulfassalazina/farmacologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Carboxipeptidases/genética , Carboxipeptidases/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo
5.
Cancer Biol Ther ; 23(1): 1-10, 2022 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332175

RESUMO

Prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) is a lysosomal serine protease that cleaves peptide substrates when the penultimate amino acid is proline. Previous studies have linked PRCP to blood-pressure and appetite control through its ability to cleave peptide substrates such as angiotensin II and α-MSH. A potential role for PRCP in cancer has to date not been widely appreciated. Endocrine therapy resistance in breast cancer is an enduring clinical problem mediated in part by aberrant receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling. We previously found PRCP overexpression promoted 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) resistance in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer cells. Currently, we tested the potential association between PRCP with breast cancer patient outcome and RTK signaling, and tumor responsiveness to endocrine therapy. We found high PRCP protein levels in ER+ breast tumors associates with worse outcome and earlier recurrence in breast cancer patients, including patients treated with TAM. We found a PRCP specific inhibitor (PRCPi) enhanced the response of ER+ PDX tumors and MCF7 tumors to endoxifen, an active metabolite of TAM in mice. We found PRCP increased IGF1R/HER3 signaling and AKT activation in ER+ breast cancer cells that was blocked by PRCPi. Thus, PRCP is an adverse prognostic marker in breast cancer and a potential target to improve endocrine therapy in ER+ breast cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Receptores de Estrogênio , Animais , Camundongos , Carboxipeptidases/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362314

RESUMO

Prolyl carboxypeptidase (PRCP) is involved in metabolic disorders by hydrolyzing anorexigenic peptides. A link between serum PRCP activity and obesity has been reported, but its origin/source is still unclear. Previously proven correlations between human serum PRCP activity and the amount of adipose tissue may suggest that adipose tissue is an important source of circulating PRCP. We investigated PRCP activity in visceral, subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SCAT), skeletal muscle tissue and serum of lean and obese men with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Correlations between PRCP activity, metabolic and biochemical parameters and immune cell populations were assessed. PRCP activity was the highest in VAT, compared to SCAT, and was very low in skeletal muscle tissue in the overall group. Serum PRCP activity was significantly higher in T2-diabetic obese men, compared to lean and obese non-diabetic men, and was positively correlated with glycemic control. A positive correlation was observed between serum PRCP activity and VAT immune cell populations, which might indicate that circulating PRCP activity is deriving rather from the immune fraction than from adipocytes. In conclusion, PRCP activity was observed in human adipose tissue for the first time and serum PRCP activity is correlated with T2D in obese men.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Masculino , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Carboxipeptidases/metabolismo
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 968981, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36225927

RESUMO

Background: The systemic inflammatory response post-SARS-CoV-2 infection increases pro-inflammatory cytokine production, multi-organ damage, and mortality rates. Mast cells (MC) modulate thrombo-inflammatory disease progression (e.g., deep vein thrombosis) and the inflammatory response post-infection. Objective: To enhance our understanding of the contribution of MC and their proteases in SARS-CoV-2 infection and the pathogenesis of the disease, which might help to identify novel therapeutic targets. Methods: MC proteases chymase (CMA1), carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3), and tryptase beta 2 (TPSB2), as well as cytokine levels, were measured in the serum of 60 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection (30 moderate and 30 severe; severity of the disease assessed by chest CT) and 17 healthy controls by ELISA. MC number and degranulation were quantified by immunofluorescent staining for tryptase in lung autopsies of patients deceased from either SARS-CoV-2 infection or unrelated reasons (control). Immortalized human FcεR1+c-Kit+ LUVA MC were infected with SARS-CoV-2, or treated with its viral proteins, to assess direct MC activation by flow cytometry. Results: The levels of all three proteases were increased in the serum of patients with COVID-19, and strongly correlated with clinical severity. The density of degranulated MC in COVID-19 lung autopsies was increased compared to control lungs. The total number of released granules and the number of granules per each MC were elevated and positively correlated with von Willebrand factor levels in the lung. SARS-CoV-2 or its viral proteins spike and nucleocapsid did not induce activation or degranulation of LUVA MC in vitro. Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 is strongly associated with activation of MC, which likely occurs indirectly, driven by the inflammatory response. The results suggest that plasma MC protease levels could predict the disease course, and that severe COVID-19 patients might benefit from including MC-stabilizing drugs in the treatment scheme.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Carboxipeptidases , Quimases/metabolismo , Citocinas , Humanos , Mastócitos/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Triptases/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais , Fator de von Willebrand
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 421, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serine carboxypeptidase-like protein (SCPL) plays an important role in response to stress in plant. However, our knowledge of the function of the SCPL gene family is limited. RESULTS: In this study, a comprehensive and systematic analysis of SCPL gene family was conducted to explore the phylogeny and evolution of the SCPL gene in Gossypium hirsutum. The phenotype and molecular mechanism of silencing of the Gh_SCPL42 under Verticillium wilt stress was also studied. Our results showed that 96 SCPL genes were observed in genome of G. hirsutum, which distributed on 25 chromosomes and most of them were located in the nucleus. The phylogenetic tree analysis showed that members of SCPL gene family can be divided into three subgroups in G. hirsutum, which are relatively conservative in evolution. SCPL gene has a wide range of tissue expression types in G. hirsutum. Promoter analysis showed that the most cis-acting elements related to MeJA and ABA were contained. Through RNA-seq combined with genotyping, it was found that 11 GhSCPL genes not only had significant expression changes during Verticillium wilt stress but also had differential SNPs in the upstream, downstream, exonic or intronic regions. The expression of these 11 genes in the resistant (Zhongzhimian 2) and susceptible (Junmian 1) materials was further analyzed by qRT-PCR, it was found that 6 genes showed significant expression differences in the two materials. Among them, Gh_SCPL42 has the most obvious expression change. Furthermore, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) showed necrosis and yellowing of leaves and significantly higher disease severity index (DSI) and disease severity rate (DSR) values in VIGS plants than in control silenced Gh_SCPL42 plants. Moreover, the expression levels of genes related to the SA and JA pathways were significantly downregulated. These results show that Gh_SCPL42 might improve resistance to Verticillium wilt through the SA and JA pathways in G. hirsutum. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our findings indicated that Gh_SCPL42 gene plays an important role in resistance to Verticillium wilt in cotton. It was provided an important theoretical basis for further research on the function of SCPL gene family and the molecular mechanism of resistance to Verticillium wilt in cotton.


Assuntos
Verticillium , Carboxipeptidases , Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/metabolismo , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Verticillium/fisiologia
9.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 186: 310-321, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932655

RESUMO

The serine carboxypeptidase-like protein (SCPL) family plays a key part in plant growth, development and stress responses. However, the serine carboxypeptidase-like (SCPL) proteins in Brassica napus L. (B. napus) have not been reported yet. Here, we identified a total of 117 putative SCPL genes in B. napus, which were unevenly distributed on all 19 chromosomes and were divided into three groups (carboxypeptidase Ⅰ to Ⅲ) according to their phylogenetic relationships. Synteny and duplication analysis revealed that the SCPL gene family of B. napus was amplified during allopolyploidization, in which the whole genome triplication and dispersed duplication played critical roles. After the separation of Brassica and Arabidopsis lineages, orthologous gene analysis showed that many SCPL genes were lost during the evolutionary process in B. rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus. Subsequently, the analyses of the gene structure, conserved motifs, cis-element and expression patterns showed that the members in the same group were highly conserved. Furthermore, candidate gene based association study suggested the role of BnSCPL52 in controlling seed number per silique, seed weight and silique length and a CAPS marker was developed to distinguish different haplotypes. Our results provide an overview of rapeseed SCPL genes that enable us for further functional research and benefit the marker-assisted breeding in Brassica napus.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Brassica napus , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Carboxipeptidases/genética , Carboxipeptidases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta/genética , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(16)2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36012196

RESUMO

Mast cells (MCs) produce a variety of mediators, including proteases-tryptase, chymase, and carboxypeptidases-which are important for the immune response. However, a detailed assessment of the mechanisms of biogenesis and excretion of proteases in melanoma has yet to be carried out. In this study, we present data on phenotype and secretory pathways of proteases in MCs in the course of melanoma. The development of melanoma was found to be accompanied by the appearance in the tumor-associated MC population of several pools with a predominant content of one or two specific proteases with a low content or complete absence of others. Elucidation of the molecular and morphological features of the expression of MC proteases in melanoma allows us a fresh perspective of the pathogenesis of the disease, and can be used to clarify MCs classification, the disease prognosis, and evaluate the effectiveness of ongoing antitumor therapy.


Assuntos
Mastócitos , Melanoma , Carboxipeptidases , Quimases/metabolismo , Humanos , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Triptases/metabolismo
11.
Biochemistry ; 61(16): 1643-1664, 2022 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862020

RESUMO

Sedolisin is a proteolytic enzyme, listed in the peptidase database MEROPS as a founding member of clan SB, family S53. This enzyme, although active at low pH, was originally shown not to be inhibited by an aspartic peptidase specific inhibitor, S-PI (pepstatin Ac). In this Perspective, the S53 family is described from the moment of original identification to evolution. The representative enzymes of the family are sedolisin, kumamolisin, and TPP-1. They exhibit the following unique features. (1) The fold of the molecule is similar to that of subtilisin, but the catalytic residues consist of a triad, Ser/Glu/Asp, that is unlike the Ser/His/Asp triad of subtilisin. (2) The molecule is expressed as a pro-form composed of the amino-terminal prosegment and the active domain. Additionally, some members of this family have an additional, carboxy-terminal prosegment. (3) Their optimum pH for activity is in the acidic region, not in the neutral to alkaline region where subtilisin is active. (4) Their distribution in nature is very broad across the three kingdoms of life. (5) Some of these enzymes from fungi and bacteria are pathogens to plants. (6) Some of them have significant potential applications for industry. (7) The lack of a TPP-1 gene in human brain is the cause of incurable juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (Batten's disease).


Assuntos
Serina Endopeptidases , Serina , Carboxipeptidases , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Serina Endopeptidases/química , Subtilisinas
12.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270920, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35867642

RESUMO

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the carboxypeptidase to degrade angiotensin II (Ang II) to angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) and improves the pathologies of cardiovascular disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)/acute lung injury. B38-CAP is a bacteria-derived ACE2-like carboxypeptidase as potent as human ACE2 and ameliorates hypertension, heart failure and SARS-CoV-2-induced lung injury in mice. Recombinant B38-CAP is prepared with E. coli protein expression system more efficiently than recombinant soluble human ACE2. Here we show therapeutic effects of B38-CAP on abdominal sepsis- or acid aspiration-induced acute lung injury. ACE2 expression was downregulated in the lungs of mice with cecal ligation puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis or acid-induced lung injury thereby leading to upregulation of Ang II levels. Intraperitoneal injection of B38-CAP significantly decreased Ang II levels while upregulated angiotensin 1-7 levels. B38-CAP improved survival rate of the mice under sepsis. B38-CAP suppressed the pathologies of lung inflammation, improved lung dysfunction and downregulated elevated cytokine mRNA levels in the mice with acute lung injury. Thus, systemic treatment with an ACE2-like enzyme might be a potential therapeutic strategy for the patients with severe sepsis or ARDS.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , COVID-19 , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Sepse , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Animais , Carboxipeptidases/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/metabolismo
13.
Plant Physiol ; 190(1): 898-919, 2022 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699505

RESUMO

Ubiquitination is a major mechanism of eukaryotic posttranslational protein turnover that has been implicated in abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated drought stress response. Here, we isolated T-DNA insertion mutant lines in which ABA-insensitive RING protein 5 (AtAIRP5) was suppressed, resulting in hyposensitive ABA-mediated germination compared to wild-type Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. A homology search revealed that AtAIRP5 is identical to gibberellin (GA) receptor RING E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase (GARU), which downregulates GA signaling by degrading the GA receptor GID1, and thus AtAIRP5 was renamed AtAIRP5/GARU. The atairp5/garu knockout progeny were impaired in ABA-dependent stomatal closure and were markedly more susceptible to drought stress than wild-type plants, indicating a positive role for AtAIRP5/GARU in the ABA-mediated drought stress response. Yeast two-hybrid, pull-down, target ubiquitination, and in vitro and in planta degradation assays identified serine carboxypeptidase-like1 (AtSCPL1), which belongs to the clade 1A AtSCPL family, as a ubiquitinated target protein of AtAIRP5/GARU. atscpl1 single and atairp5/garu-1 atscpl1-2 double mutant plants were more tolerant to drought stress than wild-type plants in an ABA-dependent manner, suggesting that AtSCPL1 is genetically downstream of AtAIRP5/GARU. After drought treatment, the endogenous ABA levels in atscpl1 and atairp5/garu-1 atscpl1-2 mutant leaves were higher than those in wild-type and atairp5/garu leaves. Overall, our results suggest that AtAIRP5/GARU RING E3 Ub ligase functions as a positive regulator of the ABA-mediated drought response by promoting the degradation of AtSCPL1.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Carboxipeptidases , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
14.
Cancer Lett ; 544: 215802, 2022 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732215

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis. Its fibrotic tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a crucial role in promoting tumor invasion and metastasis, which eventually leads to a dismal 5-year survival rate in PDAC patients. Aortic carboxypeptidase-like protein (ACLP) promotes tissue fibrosis in benign diseases. However, its role in cancer-associated fibrosis remains unelucidated. Here, we show that ACLP was mainly expressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) but not in cancer cells and highly expressed in PDAC tissues. High ACLP expression was correlated with poor overall survival. Moreover, ACLP expression in PDAC patients with liver metastases was higher than that in PDAC patients without liver metastases. By detecting activation marker expression and CAF contractility and motility, we found that ACLP promoted CAF activation in PDAC, leading to TME fibrosis. Furthermore, ACLP-activated CAFs could promote cancer cell invasion in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo. Mechanistically, ACLP promotes the expressions of MMP1 and MMP3 in CAFs, thus promoting PDAC invasion and metastasis. Intriguingly, we identified an ACLP-PPARγ-ACLP feedback loop in PDAC CAFs. Abatement of this feedback loop might be a promising approach in CAF-targeting PDAC treatment.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer , Carboxipeptidases/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Retroalimentação , Fibrose , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral
15.
Exp Dermatol ; 31(10): 1586-1596, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35730251

RESUMO

Fibroblasts in keloids undergo cell identity transition with altered transcriptional characteristics. However, the core transcription factors driving this cellular reprogramming remain largely unknown. Here, we report the results of transcriptional profiling from 48 keloid and 24 control dermal tissues. We identified 1187 upregulated differentially expressed genes (foldchange > 2, false discovery rate < 0.05) in keloids, which were mainly enriched in extracellular matrix organization and bone/cartilage development, with significantly increased expression of bone/cartilage-associated collagens (COL5A1, COL10A1, and COL11A1) and glycoproteins (ACAN, COMP, and SPARC). Deconvolution analysis also revealed significantly increased composition of osteoblasts in keloid dermis. A total of 92 upregulated transcription factors were screened out from differentially expressed genes and mainly enriched in transcription process and skeleton development. Additional sequencing of six keloid individuals with multiple regions and intersection further narrow the list with 10 transcription factors. Finally, AEBP1, CREB3L1, RUNX2, and ZNF469 have been identified as candidate core regulators in promoting the gaining of bone/cartilage-like characteristics in keloids. RNA-sequencing of full-skin keloids consolidated the existence of these four transcription factors. Immunohistochemistry was employed to verify the expression of AEBP1, CREB3L1, RUNX2, and ZNF469 in keloid fibroblasts. In conclusion, we bioinformatically discovered the increased expression of bone/cartilage-associated genes and candidate core transcription factors in keloids. Our findings promise to provide molecular clues to develop novel therapeutic modalities against skin fibrosis.


Assuntos
Queloide , Carboxipeptidases/metabolismo , Cartilagem/metabolismo , Cartilagem/patologia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glicoproteínas/genética , Humanos , Queloide/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol ; 49(4)2022 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648451

RESUMO

D, D-carboxypeptidase DacA plays an important role in the synthesis and stabilization of Escherichia coli cell wall peptidoglycan. The production level of extracellular recombinant proteins in E. coli can be enhanced by high D, D-carboxypeptidase activity. Construction of expression systems under optimal promoters is one of the main strategies to realize high protein production in E. coli. In this study, the promoter PdacA-3 from DacA on the genome of E. coli BL21 (DE3) was verified to be efficient for recombinant green fluorescent protein using the plasmid mutant pET28a-PdacA with PdacA-3. Meanwhile, the promoter PdacA-3 was engineered to increase the production level of proteins via inserting one or two Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequences between the promoter PdacA-3 and the target genes. The expression level of dacA on the genome was increased by the improved transcription of the engineered promoters (especially after inserting one additional SD sequence). The engineered promoters increased cell membrane permeabilities to significantly enhance the secretion production of extracellular recombinant proteins in E. coli. Among them, the extracellular recombinant amylase activities in E. coli BL21::1SD-pET28a-amyK and E. coli BL21::2SD-pET28a-amyK were increased by 2.0- and 1.6-fold that of the control (E. coli BL21-pET28a-amyK), respectively. Promoter engineering also affected the morphology and growth of the E. coli mutants. It was indicated that the engineered promoters enhanced the expression of dacA on the genome to disturb the synthesis and structural stability of cell wall peptidoglycans.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Peptidoglicano , Carboxipeptidases , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
17.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(4): e0173422, 2022 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35758683

RESUMO

Vancomycin and ß-lactams are clinically important antibiotics that inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan cross-links, but their binding targets are different. The binding target of vancomycin is d-alanine-d-alanine (d-Ala-d-Ala), whereas that of ß-lactam is penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). In this study, we revealed the divergent effects of peptidoglycan (PG) carboxypeptidase DacA on vancomycin and ß-lactam resistance in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The deletion of DacA induced sensitivity to most ß-lactams, whereas it induced strong resistance toward vancomycin. Notably, both phenotypes did not have a strong association with ld-transpeptidases, which are necessary for the formation of PG 3-3 cross-links and covalent bonds between PG and an Lpp outer membrane (OM) lipoprotein. Vancomycin resistance was induced by an increased amount of decoy d-Ala-d-Ala residues within PG, whereas ß-lactam sensitivity was associated with physical interactions between DacA and PBPs. The presence of an OM permeability barrier strongly strengthened vancomycin resistance, but it significantly weakened ß-lactam sensitivity. Collectively, our results revealed two distinct functions of DacA, which involved inverse modulation of bacterial resistance to clinically important antibiotics, ß-lactams and vancomycin, and presented evidence for a link between DacA and PBPs. IMPORTANCE Bacterial PG hydrolases play important roles in various aspects of bacterial physiology, including cytokinesis, PG synthesis, quality control of PG, PG recycling, and stress adaptation. Of all the PG hydrolases, the role of PG carboxypeptidases is poorly understood, especially regarding their impacts on antibiotic resistance. We have revealed two distinct functions of PG carboxypeptidase DacA with respect to antibiotic resistance. The deletion of DacA led to sensitivity to most ß-lactams, while it caused strong resistance to vancomycin. Our study provides novel insights into the roles of PG carboxypeptidases in the regulation of antibiotic resistance and a potential clue for the development of a drug to improve the clinical efficacy of ß-lactam antibiotics.


Assuntos
Peptidoglicano , beta-Lactamas , Alanina/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Carboxipeptidases/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo , Vancomicina/metabolismo , Vancomicina/farmacologia , Resistência a Vancomicina , beta-Lactamas/metabolismo , beta-Lactamas/farmacologia
18.
Protein Expr Purif ; 197: 106112, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598696

RESUMO

CCP6 is a member of cytosolic carboxypeptidases (CCPs) family, an eraser of a reversible protein posttranslational modification - polyglutamylation, and represents a potential therapeutic target. Currently, production of CCPs mainly depends on eukaryotic expression system, which is time-consuming and costly. Here, we reported that mouse origin full-length CCP6 can be successfully expressed in the soluble fraction of bacteria ArcticExpress (DE3) strain. However, the recombinant mCCP6 was initially co-purified with Cpn60 in a stoichiometric ratio of roughly 1:7 and exhibited no enzyme activity. When coupled with a step to promote the release of the substrate protein from the chaperonins by treatment with ATP/Mg2+/K+, the recombinant CCP6 with deglutamylation activity was obtained, though still partially associated with Cpn60. This is the first report, to our knowledge, that the successful expression and purification of active recombinant mammalian CCPs using a bacterial system was achieved.


Assuntos
Carboxipeptidases , Escherichia coli , Animais , Carboxipeptidases/genética , Carboxipeptidases/isolamento & purificação , Carboxipeptidases/metabolismo , Chaperonina 60/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Mamíferos , Camundongos , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
19.
J Econ Entomol ; 115(4): 1285-1293, 2022 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35640220

RESUMO

The M14 family metal carboxypeptidase genes play an important role in digestion and pathogenic infections in the gut of insects. However, the roles of these genes in Antheraea pernyi (Guérin-Méneville, 1855) remain to be analyzed. In the present study, we cloned a highly expressed M14 metal carboxypeptidase gene (ApMCP1) found in the gut and discovered that it contained a 1,194 bp open reading frame encoding a 397-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of 45 kDa. Furthermore, 14 members of the M14 family metal carboxypeptidases (ApMCP1-ApMCP14) were identified in the A. pernyi genome, with typical Zn_pept domains and two Zn-anchoring motifs, and were further classified into M14A, M14B, and M14D subfamilies. Expression analysis indicated that ApMCP1 and ApMCP9 were mainly expressed in the gut. Additionally, we observed that ApMCP1 and ApMCP9 displayed opposite expression patterns after starvation, highlighting their functional divergence during digestion. Following natural infection with baculovirus NPV, their expression was significantly upregulated in the gut of A. pernyi. Our results suggest that the M14 family metal carboxypeptidase genes are conservatively digestive enzymes and evolutionarily involved in exogenous pathogenic infections.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos , Mariposas , Animais , Carboxipeptidases/genética , Carboxipeptidases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Insetos , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/metabolismo
20.
Clin. transl. oncol. (Print) ; 24(5): 757-769, mayo 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-203779

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of mortality among cancers. Many aspects of this cancer are under investigation to find established markers of diagnosis, prognosis, and also potential drug targets. In this review article, we are going to discuss the possible solution to all these aims by investigating the literature about cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) involved in CRC. Moreover, we are going to review their interaction with the tumor microenvironment (TME) and vitamin D and their role in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Moreover, we are going to expand more on some markers produced by them or related to them including FAP, a-SMA, CXCL12, TGF- β, POSTN, and β1-Integrin. Some signaling pathways related to CAFs are as follows: FAK, AKT, activin A, and YAP/TAZ. Some genes related to the CAFs which are found to be possible therapeutic targets include COL3A1, JAM3, AEBP1 and, CAF-derived TGFB3, WNT2, and WNT54.


Assuntos
Humanos , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Carboxipeptidases/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Endotelial/metabolismo
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