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1.
Acta Radiol ; 62(11): 1451-1459, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761691

RESUMO

This year, Acta Radiologica marks its 100th anniversary. In this article, the authors present some of the highlights from the close collaboration between Swedish neuroradiology and Acta Radiologica over the last 100 years.


Assuntos
Neurorradiografia/história , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Radiologia/história , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Caricaturas como Assunto , Ventriculografia Cerebral/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Suécia
2.
Neural Netw ; 132: 66-74, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861915

RESUMO

Caricature generation is an interesting yet challenging task. The primary goal is to generate a plausible caricature with reasonable exaggerations given a face image. Conventional caricature generation approaches mainly use low-level geometric transformations such as image warping to generate exaggerated images, which lack richness and diversity in terms of content and style. The recent progress in generative adversarial networks (GANs) makes it possible to learn an image-to-image transformation from data so as to generate diverse images. However, directly applying GAN-based models to this task leads to unsatisfactory results due to the large variance in the caricature distribution. Moreover, conventional models typically require pixel-wisely paired training data which largely limits their usage scenarios. In this paper, we model caricature generation as a weakly paired image-to-image translation task, and propose CariGAN to address these issues. Specifically, to enforce reasonable exaggeration and facial deformation, manually annotated caricature facial landmarks are used as an additional condition to constrain the generated image. Furthermore, an image fusion mechanism is designed to encourage our model to focus on the key facial parts so that more vivid details in these regions can be generated. Finally, a diversity loss is proposed to encourage the model to produce diverse results. Extensive experiments on a large-scale "WebCaricature" dataset show that the proposed CariGAN can generate more visually plausible caricatures with larger diversity compared with the state-of-the-art models.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial Automatizado/métodos , Caricaturas como Assunto , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Face , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 46(7): 1309-1327, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724422

RESUMO

Many studies have demonstrated that we can identify a familiar face on an image much better than an unfamiliar one, especially when various degradations or changes (e.g., image distortions or blurring, new illuminations) have been applied, but few have asked how different types of facial information from familiar faces are stored in memory. Here we investigated how well we remember personally familiar faces in terms of their identity, gender, and race. In 3 experiments, based on the faces personally familiar to our participants, we created sets of face morphs that parametrically varied the faces in terms of identity, sex, or race using a 3-dimensional morphable face model. For each familiar face, we presented those face morphs together with the original face and asked participants to pick the correct "real" face among morph distracters in each set. They were instructed to pick the face that most closely resembled their memory of that familiar person. We found that participants excelled in retrieving the correct familiar faces among the distracters when the faces were manipulated in terms of their idiosyncratic features (their identity information), but they were less sensitive to changes that occurred along the gender and race continuum. Image similarity analyses indicate that the observed difference cannot be attributed to different levels of image similarity between manipulations. These findings demonstrate that idiosyncratic and categorical face information is represented differently in memory, even for the faces of people we are very familiar with. Implications to current models of face recognition are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Adulto , Caricaturas como Assunto , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
4.
Dermatology ; 236(2): 143-144, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473732

RESUMO

A fine and fair depiction of basal cell carcinoma is documented with great fidelity in "Caricature" by Bartolomeo Passerotti (1529-1592). The cancer is pearly white and contains an elevated centre with a sharp and somewhat depressed outline due to ulceration of the lesion. The painting is of essential didactic worth for practicing medical doctors. In addition, the masterpiece contains images of the brown elevated lesions that could turn out to be verrucous melanocytic nevi or pigmented seborrheic keratoses, but it cannot be excluded that these nodules are also basal cell carcinomas covered by a brownish crust. It is standard that microscopic verification is required for all these tumours. However, a pearly white irregular tumour is the most characteristic macroscopic presentation of basal cell carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/história , Caricaturas como Assunto/história , Medicina nas Artes/história , Neoplasias Cutâneas/história , Carcinoma Basocelular/diagnóstico , História do Século XVI , Humanos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico
5.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 345, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578151

RESUMO

The use of pimping as a method of teaching is widespread in the clinical phase of medical education. In this paper we consider pimping's colloquial meanings and discuss how it was introduced into the language of medical education. We posit that such language reflects persistent gendered hierarchies in medicine, and we evaluate pimping's pedagogical value. Finally, we call for an end to the term and the practice, and for a renewed emphasis on pedagogy in medical education.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Ensino/história , Terminologia como Assunto , Caricaturas como Assunto/história , Educação Médica/ética , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Masculino , Ensino/ética
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(3): 806-810, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-954189

RESUMO

This study was intended to evaluate the anatomy comics as learning material for adolescents. For that, both the learning comics and comic strips were shown to 341 junior high school students who subsequently completed a questionnaire. According to the students answers, the anatomy comics were greatly or somewhat helpful in understanding anatomy (learning comics: 87.7 %; comic strips: 86.2 %). The anatomy comics were greatly or somewhat entertaining (learning comics: 66.9 %; comic strips: 77.4 %). According to their free remarks, the anatomy comics enhanced the students' understanding with the simple figures and easy explanations. The students regarded the anatomy comics as entertaining because of the related jokes and comparative daily lives. The students preferred the complimentary anatomy comics presented on the authors' homepage (anatomy.co.kr). This investigation proves the possibility that the anatomy comics contribute to adolescents learning.


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los cómics de anatomía como material de aprendizaje para adolescentes. Para eso, tanto los cómics de aprendizaje como las tiras cómicas se mostraron a 341 estudiantes de secundaria que posteriormente completaron un cuestionario. De acuerdo con las respuestas de los estudiantes, los cómics de anatomía fueron de gran utilidad o algo útiles para comprender la anatomía (cómics de aprendizaje: 87,7 %; historietas: 86,2 %). Los cómics de anatomía fueron muy entretenidos (cómics de aprendizaje: 66,9 %; historietas: 77,4 %). De acuerdo con sus comentarios, los cómics de anatomía mejoraron la comprensión de los estudiantes con figuras simples y explicaciones fáciles. Los estudiantes consideraron los cómics de anatomía como entretenidos debido a los chistes relacionados y la comparación con la vida diaria. Los estudiantes prefirieron los cómics de anatomía complementarios presentados en la página principal de los autores (anatomy.co.kr). Esta investigación demuestra la posibilidad de que los cómics de anatomía contribuyan al aprendizaje de los adolescentes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Estudantes/psicologia , Caricaturas como Assunto , Educação não Profissionalizante/métodos , Anatomia/educação , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Vision Res ; 137: 61-79, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28688907

RESUMO

The visual prosthesis (or "bionic eye") has become a reality but provides a low resolution view of the world. Simulating prosthetic vision in normal-vision observers, previous studies report good face recognition ability using tasks that allow recognition to be achieved on the basis of information that survives low resolution well, including basic category (sex, age) and extra-face information (hairstyle, glasses). Here, we test within-category individuation for face-only information (e.g., distinguishing between multiple Caucasian young men with hair covered). Under these conditions, recognition was poor (although above chance) even for a simulated 40×40 array with all phosphene elements assumed functional, a resolution above the upper end of current-generation prosthetic implants. This indicates that a significant challenge is to develop methods to improve face identity recognition. Inspired by "bionic ear" improvements achieved by altering signal input to match high-level perceptual (speech) requirements, we test a high-level perceptual enhancement of face images, namely face caricaturing (exaggerating identity information away from an average face). Results show caricaturing improved identity recognition in memory and/or perception (degree by which two faces look dissimilar) down to a resolution of 32×32 with 30% phosphene dropout. Findings imply caricaturing may offer benefits for patients at resolutions realistic for some current-generation or in-development implants.


Assuntos
Caricaturas como Assunto , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Próteses Visuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
9.
Ann Sci ; 74(3): 214-239, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28573911

RESUMO

Making use of a source previously unknown to historians, this article sheds new light on the British expedition to the Sandwich Islands to observe the 1874 transit of Venus. This source, a series of caricature drawings that follow the expedition from departure to return, gives insight into expeditionary culture and the experience of a previously unremarked member of this astronomical expedition, Evelyn J.W. Noble, a career officer of the Royal Marine Artillery. It also reveals overlapping military, scientific and masculine identities, developed in dialogue with, and often deliberately subverting, more public accounts. The article explores this unique source as a product of naval, imperial and expeditionary cultures; as a contribution to the wide textual and visual culture that surrounded the transit expeditions; and as a series of drawings that united the expedition members through the use of humour and irony, by differentiating the group from others they encountered, and by reflecting or rejecting ideas about the nature of scientific work and personae. The artist represented himself not as a serving officer but as part of a (mostly) united group, dedicated to but humorously self-deprecating about their contribution to the scientific effort.


Assuntos
Astronomia/história , Caricaturas como Assunto/história , Expedições/história , Hawaii , História do Século XIX , Vênus
10.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 12(8): 1359-1376, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28402573

RESUMO

The study aimed to explore the humor processing elicited through the manipulation of artistic drawings. Using the Comprehension-Elaboration Theory of humor as the main research background, the experiment manipulated the head portraits of celebrities based on the independent variables of facial deformation (large/small) and addition of affective features (positive/negative). A 64-channel electroencephalography was recorded in 30 participants while viewing the incongruous drawings of celebrities. The electroencephalography temporal and spectral responses were measured during the three stages of humor which included incongruity detection, incongruity comprehension and elaboration of humor. Analysis of event-related potentials indicated that for humorous vs non-humorous drawings, facial deformation and the addition of affective features significantly affected the degree of humor elicited, specifically: large > small deformation; negative > positive affective features. The N170, N270, N400, N600-800 and N900-1200 components showed significant differences, particularly in the right prefrontal and frontal regions. Analysis of event-related spectral perturbation showed significant differences in the theta band evoked in the anterior cingulate cortex, parietal region and posterior cingulate cortex; and in the alpha and beta bands in the motor areas. These regions are involved in emotional processing, memory retrieval, and laughter and feelings of amusement induced by elaboration of the situation.


Assuntos
Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto , Adulto , Caricaturas como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Anesth Hist ; 2(4): 159-160, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27852467

RESUMO

In March of 1905 in Judge magazine, Louis Dalrymple published his political cartoon of Theodore Roosevelt chloroforming "Uncle Sam." Having sampled a host of Democratic remedies, the 125-year-old Sam can expect that Roosevelt's chloroform will either cure him with major Republican surgery or kill him with Osler-linked euthanasia.


Assuntos
Caricaturas como Assunto , Desenhos Animados como Assunto , Política , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Clorofórmio , Pessoas Famosas , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
12.
Rev. Asoc. Esp. Neuropsiquiatr ; 36(129): 63-78, ene.-jun. 2016.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-153062

RESUMO

Entre 1940 y 1960 se desarrolló en Estados Unidos una intensa campaña anti-cómic impulsada por ciudadanos que consideraban que aquellas revistas no solo suponían una mala influencia para sus niños, sino que eran responsables de un incremento en la delincuencia juvenil. Un punto de inflexión se produjo en el momento en que psiquiatras y psicólogos se incorporaron a la citada campaña. Su líder fue Fredric Wertham, un psiquiatra de origen germano que acusó a los cómics de dañar la mente de los niños debido a su contenido cargado de violencia, sexo, horror y racismo. Algunos psiquiatras y psicólogos siguieron los planteamientos de Wertham, aunque otros los consideraron equivocados toda vez que no había evidencias científicas sobre el daño causado por los cómics en la mente de los niños. La intervención de los especialistas en salud mental fue esencial para la campaña anti-cómic, y fueron citados por la prensa, la radio, la televisión e incluso el Senado de los Estados Unidos, quien convocó a algunos de ellos como testigos en sesiones celebradas para analizar la relación entre los cómics y el comportamiento infantil. Por este motivo, Wertham y los especialistas en salud mental son vistos como responsables de la caída que sufrió el negocio de los cómics a finales de los años cincuenta (AU)


Between 1940 and 1960 comic books were in the United States the target of an intense campaign developed by citizens who thought that they were a bad reading for their children as well as responsible for an increase in juvenile delinquency. An inflection point arrived when psychiatrist and psychologists took part in this campaign. Their leader was German-born psychiatrist Fredric Wertham, who charged comic books of damaging children’s mind due to their content full of violence, sex, horror and racism. Many other psychiatrists and psychologist participated in the discussion: some of them followed Wertham's ideas, but other thought that he was wrong as there was no scientific evidence about this damage. The involvement of mental health specialists was essential for the anti-comic book campaign, as they were quoted by newspapers, radio and television and even called as experts at the US Senate’s hearings about the relationship between comic books and infantile behavior. For this reason, Wertham and his colleagues are seen today as responsible for the fall in the sales of comic books at the end of the 1950s (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , História do Século XIX , Saúde Mental/normas , Saúde Mental/tendências , Criminologia/métodos , Criminologia/normas , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Caricaturas como Assunto/psicologia , Desenhos Animados como Assunto/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Mudança Social , Psicanálise/educação , Valores Sociais , Ensino/métodos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia
20.
Asclepio ; 67(1): 0-0, ene.-jun. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-140639

RESUMO

Se estudia la trayectoria biográfica y la contribución de José Sánchez Pozuelos (Murcia, c. 1885-1936) al periodismo médico español del primer tercio del siglo XX, una época que en Murcia, como en el resto de España, fue un período de resurgir cultural y científico manifestado, entre otras cosas, por la edición de numerosas revistas médicas que pretendieron difundir entre los profesionales la producción científica más relevante, nacional y extranjera. En ese marco el médico José Sánchez Pozuelos, perteneciente a la burguesía murciana que detentaba el poder político local, e identificado con ideologías de carácter conservador y religioso, interesado al mismo tiempo por sacar del atraso a su tierra, fundó y dirigió Murcia Médica (1915-1918) y Estudios Médicos (1920, 1924-34), revistas que se convirtieron en la herramienta de difusión de la actividad de la Real Academia de Medicina de Murcia, pero también de otros profesionales españoles, y de los trabajos más relevantes procedentes de diversas publicaciones nacionales y extranjeras; Estudios Médicos llegó a ser además la revista médica nacional de mayor tirada. El ambiente de inestabilidad social que precedió a la sublevación militar de 1936 y el enfrentamiento bélico que le siguió truncaron el desarrollo de estas publicaciones y de los profesionales que las impulsaron (AU)


The biographical career of the physician José Sánchez Pozuelos and his contribution to the medical journalism in the first third of the twentieth century have been studied. In Murcia, as in the rest of Spain, this was a period of cultural and scientific excellence manifested, among other things, by the publication of many medical journals with the aim of disseminating the most relevant scientific production, the national as well as the foreign one. In this context, doctor José Sánchez Pozuelos who was belonging to the bourgeoisie that held the political local power and was also identified with conservative and religious ideologies as well as concerned with overcoming the backwardness of his homeland, founded and directed Murcia Médica (1915-1918) and Estudios Médicos (1920, 1924-1934). Both journals became the disseminating tool for the activity of the Murcia ́s Royal Academy of Medicine, but also for other Spanish professionals and for the most relevant papers from various national and international publications; Estudios Médicos also came to be the Spanish medical journal with the largest circulation. The atmosphere of social unrest that preceded the military uprising of 1936 and the war that followed it truncated the development of these publications and the careers of the professionals that promoted them (AU)


Assuntos
História do Século XX , Jornalismo Médico/história , Jornalismo Médico/normas , Biografias como Assunto , História da Medicina , Caricaturas como Assunto/história , Ciência da Informação/história , Espanha , Farmácia/história
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