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1.
PeerJ ; 11: e14678, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36684682

RESUMO

Background: Invasive prenatal evaluation by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) and karyotyping might represent an important option in pregnant women, but limited reports have applied CMA and karyotyping of fetuses conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART). This study aimed to examine the value of CMA and karyotyping in prenatal diagnosis after ART. Methods: This retrospective study included all singleton fetuses conceived by ART from January 2015 to December 2021. Anomalies prenatally diagnosed based on karyotyping and CMA were analyzed. Prevalence rates for various CMA and karyotyping results were stratified based on specific testing indications including isolated-and non-isolated ART groups. The rates of CMA findings with clinical significance (pathogenic/likely pathogenic) and karyotype anomalies were assessed and compared to those of local control individuals with naturally conceived pregnancies and without medical indications. Results: In total, 224 subjects were assessed by karyotyping and CMA. In the examined patients, chromosomal and karyotype abnormality rates were 3.57% (8/224) and 8.93% (20/224), respectively. This finding indicated a 5.35% (12/224)-incremental rate of abnormal CMA was obtained over karyotype analysis (p = 0.019). The risk of CMA with pathogenic findings for all pregnancies conceived by ART (5.80%, 13/224) was markedly elevated in comparison with the background value obtained in control individuals (1.47%, 9/612; p = 0.001). In addition, risk of CMA with clinically pathogenic results in isolated ART groups was significant higher compared to the background risk reported in the control cohort (p = 0.037). Conclusions: Prenatal diagnosis including karyotyping and CMA is recommended for fetuses conceived by ART, with or without ultrasound findings.


Assuntos
Feto , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Cariotipagem , Análise em Microsséries/métodos , Feto/anormalidades , Cariótipo
2.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280164, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36630423

RESUMO

Charadriidae comprise 142 valid species and the most recent checklist for the occurrence of this family in Brazil describes 11 species. There are few chromosomal studies in Charadriidae, most of them using a conventional approach. In Charadrius, only five species had their karyotypes described by classical cytogenetics, of which four have 2n = 76 (C. hiaticula, C. dubius, C. vociferou and C. collaris) and one 2n = 78 (C. alexandrinus alexandrinus). Among these species, only Charadrius collaris had the karyotype studied by chromosome painting, which allowed the identification of chromosomal homeologies with the karyotypes of Gallus gallus (GGA) and Burhinus oedicnemus (BOE). According to the literature, studies performed with BAC-FISH using probes from Gallus gallus and Taeniopygia guttata (TGU) libraries have shown interactions between macro and microchromosomes and micro inversions in chromosomes previously considered conserved. Other studies have shown the fusion of several microchromosomes, forming new macrochromosomes, leading to a decrease in the 2n of some species. The present study aims to deepen the chromosomal information in Charadrius collaris through the application of BAC-FISH with probes from the GGA and TGU libraries, in order to investigate possible rearrangements within the apparently conserved karyotype of this species, and thus better clarify the evolutionary history of the species. Charadrius collaris presented 2n = 76 and fundamental number (FN) equal to 94. Comparative mapping of BAC probes from GGA and TGU in Charadrius collaris revealed hybridization signals from 26 macrochromosome probes. Probes from microchromosomes 9 to 28 of GGA were also used and revealed 31 hybridization signals. The karyotype is well conserved, but it contains a paracentric and a pericentric inversion on the CCO1 chromosome, a paracentric and a pericentric inversion on the CCO4 and the separation of GGA4 into CCO4 and CCO8, demonstrating that the BAC-FISH approach allows for greater data resolution. More studies are needed to improve the understanding of chromosomal evolution within the order Charadriiformes and thus clarify whether these characteristics demonstrated here are specific traits for Charadrius collaris or if other species share these characteristics.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Aves Canoras , Animais , Charadriiformes/genética , Evolução Molecular , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem , Coloração Cromossômica , Aves Canoras/genética , Galinhas/genética
3.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(1)2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672918

RESUMO

Geckos (Gekkota), the species-rich clade of reptiles with more than 2200 currently recognized species, demonstrate a remarkable variability in diploid chromosome numbers (2n = 16-48) and mode of sex determination. However, only a small fraction of gekkotan species have been studied with cytogenetic methods. Here, we applied both conventional (karyotype reconstruction and C-banding) and molecular (fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes for rDNA loci and telomeric repeats) cytogenetic analyses in seven species of geckos, namely Blaesodactylus boivini, Chondrodactylus laevigatus, Gekko badenii, Gekko cf. lionotum, Hemidactylus sahgali, Homopholis wahlbergii (Gekkonidae) and Ptyodactylus togoensis (Phyllodactylidae), in order to provide further insights into the evolution of karyotypes in geckos. Our analysis revealed the presence of interstitial telomeric repeats in four species, but we were not able to conclude if they are remnants of previous chromosome rearrangements or were formed by an accumulation of telomeric-like satellite motifs. Even though sex chromosomes were previously identified in several species from the genera Hemidactylus and Gekko by cytogenetic and/or genomic methods, they were not detected by us in any examined species. Our examined species either have poorly differentiated sex chromosomes or, possibly, environmental sex determination. Future studies should explore the effect of temperature and conduct genome-wide analyses in order to identify the mode of sex determination in these species.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Lagartos/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Cariotipagem
4.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(1)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36672933

RESUMO

Miniature refers to species with extraordinarily small adult body size when adult and can be found within all major metazoan groups. It is considered that miniature species have experienced severe alteration of numerous morphological traits during evolution. For a variety of reasons, including severe labor concerns during collecting, chromosomal acquisition, and taxonomic issues, miniature fishes are neglected and understudied. Since some available studies indicate possible relationship between diploid chromosome number (2n) and body size in fishes, we aimed to study one of the smallest Neotropical fish Nannostomus anduzei (Teleostei, Characiformes, Lebiasinidae), using both conventional (Giemsa staining, C-banding) and molecular cytogenetic methods (FISH mapping of rDNAs, microsatellites, and telomeric sequences). Our research revealed that N. anduzei possesses one of the lowest diploid chromosome numbers (2n = 22) among teleost fishes, and its karyotype is entirely composed of large metacentric chromosomes. All chromosomes, except for pair number 11, showed an 18S rDNA signal in the pericentromeric region. 5S rDNA signals were detected in the pericentromeric regions of chromosome pair number 1 and 6, displaying synteny to 18S rDNA signals. Interstitial telomeric sites (ITS) were identified in the centromeric region of pairs 6 and 8, indicating that centric fusions played a significant role in karyotype evolution of studied species. Our study provides further evidence supporting the trend of diploid chromosome number reduction along with miniaturization of adult body size in fishes.


Assuntos
Caraciformes , Animais , Caraciformes/genética , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem , Telômero/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248814, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339390

RESUMO

Abstract The karyotype and constitutive heterochromatin pattern of the white stork Ciconia ciconia samples obtained from Manzala lake, Dimiaat, Egypt was described. Somatic cells of Ciconia ciconia samples have diploid number 2n= 68 chromosomes. Out of 68 chromosomes, 11 pairs including sex chromosomes were macrochromosomes and the remaining pairs were microchromosomes. Of the 11 macrochromosome pairs, no.1, 2, 4 and 5 were submetacentric and pairs no. 6, 7 and 8 were described as metacentric. In addition, the autosome pair no.3 was subtelocentric, while autosome pair no.9 was acrocentric. Also, the sex chromosome Z represents the fourth one in size and it was classified as submetacentric while, W chromosome appeared as medium size and was acrocentric. Furthermore, C-banding pattern (constitutive heterochromatin) revealed variation in their sizes and occurrence between macrochromosomes. Pairs no. 7 and 8 of autosomes exhibited unusual distribution of heterochromatin, where they appeared as entirely heterochromatic. This may be related to the origin of sex chromosomes Z and W. However, there is no sufficient evidence illustrate the appearance of entirely heterochromatic autosomes. Therefore, there is no available cytogenetic literature that describes the C-banding and karyotype of Ciconia Ciconia, so the results herein are important and may assist in cytogenetic study and evolutionary pattern of Ciconiiformes.


Resumo O cariótipo e o padrão constitutivo de heterocromatina das amostras de cegonha-branca Ciconia ciconia obtidas no lago Manzala, Dimiaat, Egito, foram descritos. As células somáticas de amostras de Ciconia ciconia possuem número diploide 2n = 68 cromossomos. Dos 68 cromossomos, 11 pares incluindo cromossomos sexuais eram macrocromossomos e os pares restantes eram microcromossomos. Dos 11 pares de macrocromossomos, os nos 1, 2, 4 e 5 eram submetacêntricos, e os pares nos 6, 7 e 8 foram descritos como metacêntricos. Além disso, o par de autossomos no 3 era subtelocêntrico, enquanto o par de autossomos no 9 era acrocêntrico. Além disso, o cromossomo sexual Z representa o quarto em tamanho e foi classificado como submetacêntrico, enquanto o cromossomo W apareceu como de tamanho médio e acrocêntrico. Além disso, o padrão de bandamento C (heterocromatina constitutiva) revelou variação em seus tamanhos e ocorrência entre macrocromossomos. Pares nos 7 e 8 dos autossomos exibiram distribuição incomum de heterocromatina, onde apareceram como totalmente heterocromáticos. Isso pode estar relacionado à origem dos cromossomos sexuais Z e W. No entanto, não há evidências suficientes para ilustrar o aparecimento de autossomos totalmente heterocromáticos. Portanto, não há literatura citogenética disponível que descreva o bandamento C e o cariótipo de Ciconia ciconia, portanto os resultados aqui apresentados são importantes e podem auxiliar no estudo citogenético e no padrão evolutivo de Ciconiiformes.


Assuntos
Animais , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Heterocromatina/genética , Aves , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249911, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339366

RESUMO

Abstract Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.


Resumo As neoplasias hematológicas e de células hematopoiéticas dos genes e as células hematopoiéticas estão associadas à mutação genética, geralmente em nível cromossômico. O estudo citogenético padrão é amplamente aceito como um dos principais determinantes diagnósticos e prognósticos em pacientes. Portanto, o presente estudo descritivo e transversal buscou determinar a análise citogenética de neoplasias hematológicas frequentes no Paquistão. Um total de 202 amostras de medula óssea periférica ou sangue de pacientes com malignidade hematológica benigna e maligna foi coletado usando uma técnica convencional de banda G. Entre os pacientes inscritos, a média de idade foi de 21,5 anos ± 23,4, e a distribuição por gênero mostrou uma marcada predominância da população masculina de 147 (73%) em comparação com a feminina de 55 (27%). Pacientes na faixa etária (2-10 anos) tiveram a maior frequência, 48 (24%), de neoplasias hematológicas, seguida da idade (11-20 anos) com 40 (20%). Cariótipos normais (46, XX / 46, XY) foram encontrados em 51% (n = 103) dos pacientes. Além disso, a frequência de cariótipo complexo foi de 30 (15%), enquanto normal foi observada em 171 (85%) pacientes. Leucemia linfoblástica aguda pré-B (LLA Pré-B) foi a doença maligna mais prevalente de 66 (33%), seguida por leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) de 41 (20%) e leucemia linfocítica aguda de 29 (14%). A translocação foi o 50 mais prevalente (25%), seguido por hipotriploidia 14 (7%) e monossomia 8 (4%) na análise de aberração cromossômica. Além disso, a translocação t (9:22) encontrada foi de 20 (10%) na LMC, com a maioria na faixa etária (31-40 anos). Este estudo recomenda que o cariótipo deve ser testado com frequência em condições hematológicas porque pode fornecer informações sobre as alterações cromossômicas relativas associadas a doenças malignas específicas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Cariotipagem
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243514, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278560

RESUMO

Abstract Allium sativum L. is an herb of the Alliaceae family with a specific taste and aroma and medicinal and nutraceutical properties that are widely marketed in several countries. Brazil is one of the largest importers of garlic in the world, despite of its production is restricted and limited to internal consumption. Thus, explore the genetic diversity of commercial garlic conserved at germplasm banks is essential to generate additional genetic information about its economically important crop. A suitable tool for this purpose is the cytogenetic characterisation of these accessions. This study aimed to characterise the cytogenetic diversity among seven accessions of garlic from a Germplasm Bank in Brazil. The karyotypes were obtained by conventional staining and with chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) fluorochromes. All accessions analysed showed chromosome number 2n = 16, karyotype formula 6M+2SM, symmetrical karyotypes, reticulate interphase nuclei, and chromosomes with uniform chromatin condensation from prophase to metaphase. The fluorochromes staining showed differences in the amount and distribution of heterochromatin along the chromosomes and between accessions studied. Based on the distribution pattern of these small polymorphisms, it was possible to separate the seven accessions into three groups. It was also possible to differentiate some of the accessions individually. One of the results obtained showed a heteromorphic distension of the nucleolar organiser region observed on the chromosome pairs 6 or 7 with peculiar characteristics. It was suggested for example, that the heteromorphic block of heterochromatin (CMA+++/DAPI-) on chromosome 6 of the "Branco Mineiro Piauí" accession can be used as a marker to identify this genotype or may be associated with some character of economic interest.


Resumo Allium sativum L. é uma erva da família Alliaceae com sabor e aroma específicos e propriedades medicinais e nutracêuticas amplamente comercializada em diversos países. O Brasil é um dos maiores importadores de alho do mundo, apesar da sua produção ser restrita e limitada ao consumo interno. Assim, explorar a diversidade genética do alho comercial conservado em bancos de germoplasma é essencial para fornecer informações genéticas adicionais acerca dessa cultura economicamente importante. Uma ferramenta adequada para esse fim é a caracterização citogenética desses acessos. Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a diversidade citogenética entre sete acessos de alho de um Banco de Germoplasma no Brasil. Os cariótipos foram obtidos por coloração convencional e com os fluorocromos de cromomicina A3 (CMA) e 4,6-diamidino-2-fenilindol (DAPI). Todos os acessos analisados ​​apresentaram número cromossômico 2n = 16, fórmula cariotípica 6M + 2SM, cariótipos simétricos, núcleos reticulados em intérfase e cromossomos com condensação uniforme da cromatina da prófase para a metáfase. A coloração com fluorocromos mostrou diferenças na quantidade e distribuição de heterocromatina ao longo dos cromossomos e entre os acessos estudados. Com base no padrão de distribuição desses pequenos polimorfismos, foi possível separar os sete acessos em três grupos. Também foi possível diferenciar individualmente alguns dos acessos. Um dos resultados obtidos mostrou distensão heteromórfica da região organizadora nucleolar observada nos pares dos cromossomos 6 ou 7 com características peculiares. Foi sugerido, por exemplo, que o bloco heteromórfico de heterocromatina (CMA +++ / DAPI-) no cromossomo 6 do acesso "Branco Mineiro Piauí" pode ser usado como um marcador para identificar esse genótipo ou pode estar associado a algum caráter de interesse econômico.


Assuntos
Alho , Brasil , Heterocromatina/genética , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem
8.
Leuk Res ; 124: 106996, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36538857

RESUMO

In this single center retrospective analysis 76 patients with high-risk (HR) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) treated with azacitidine (AZA) were reviewed for response, especially cytogenetic response (cyR) using repeated chromosome banding analyses (CBA) of bone marrow (bm) metaphases and frequent sequential Fluorescence-in-situ Hybridization (FISH) analyses of immunomagnetically enriched CD34 + circulating peripheral blood cells (CD34 +pb-FISH). In total, 526 CD34 +pb-FISH analyses and 236 CBA were examined. Median observation time was 8.45 months, median number of AZA cycles applied was 8, median overall survival (OS) was 14.9 months, 42.1 % of patients responded to therapy according to IWG criteria: 5 complete response (CR), 0 partial response (PR), 12 bmCR, 15 stable disease with hematologic improvement (HI). HI was reached in 36.8 % of patients, 31.5 % became transfusion-independent. By CBA or CD34 +pb-FISH 20.4 % and 31.6 % of patients showed cyR, respectively. HI rate was significantly higher in cytogenetic responders than in non-responders, but there was no impact on OS or leukemia-free-survival. Cytogenetic responders showed significantly better OS than non-responders. Patients with ≥ 6 AZA cycles had significantly better OS than patients with < 6 cycles applied. Karyotype evolution (KE) as a manifestation of cytogenetic progression was diagnosed in 29.5 % and 17.1 % of patients by CBA and CD34 +pb-FISH, respectively. KE was associated with significantly poorer OS and leukemia-free-survival.


Assuntos
Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Humanos , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Medula Óssea , Cariotipagem , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 40(1): 12-16, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36584993

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the coincidence rate of G-banding karyotype analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the diagnosis of children with sex chromosome mosaicisms. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was carried out for 157 children with suspected sex chromosome abnormalities who had presented at Shenzhen Children's Hospital from April 2021 to May 2022. Interphase sex chromosome FISH and G-banding karyotyping results were collected. The coincidence rate of the two methods in children with sex chromosome mosaicisms was compared. RESULTS: The detection rates of G-banding karyotype analysis and FISH were 26.1% (41/157) and 22.9% (36/157) , respectively (P > 0.05). The results of G-banding karyotype analysis showed that 141 cases (89.8%) were in the sex chromosome homogeneity group, of which only 5 cases (3.5%) were inconsistent with the results of FISH. There were 16 cases (10.2%) in the sex chromosome mosaicism group, of which 11 cases (68.8%) were inconsistent with the results of FISH. There was a statistical difference between the two groups in the coincidence rate of the results of the two methods (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: No significant difference was found between G-banding karyotype analysis and FISH in the detection rate of chromosome abnormalities. The coincidence rate in the mosaicism group was lower than that in the homogeneity group, and the difference was statistically significant. The two methods should be combined for clinical diagnosis.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Mosaicismo , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cariotipagem , Aberrações dos Cromossomos Sexuais , Cariótipo , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Sexuais
10.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 40(1): 105-109, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36585012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic basis, clinical phenotype and pathogenesis for a child with mosaicism ring chromosome 4. METHODS: Clinical data of the child was collected. Peripheral blood chromosomal karyotype G banding analysis, chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were carried out for the child, in addition with a review of the literature. RESULTS: The child was born full-term with low birth weight, facial dysmorphism, patent ductus arteriosus and ventricular septal defect. His karyotype was determined as mos46,XY,r(4)(p16.3q35.2)[259]/45,XY,-4[25]/47,XY,r(4)(p16.3q35.2), +r(4)(p16.3q35.2)[8]/46,XY,der(4)del(4)(p16.3)inv(4)(p16.3q31.1)[6]/46,XY,dic?r(4;4)(p16.3q35.2;p16.3q35.2)[4]/48,XY,r(4)(p16.3q35.2),+r(4)(p16.3q35.2)×2[3]/46,XY,r(4)(p1?q2?)[2]; CMA result was arr[GRCH37]4p16.3(68 345-2 981 614)×1; FISH result was 45,XY,-4[12]/45,XY,-4×2,+mar1.ish r1(4)(WHS-,D4Z1+)[1]/ 46,XY,-4,+mar1.ishr1(4)(WHS-,D4Z1+)[73]/46,XY,-4,+mar2.ishr2(4)(WHS-,D4Z1++)[1]/47,XY,-4,+mar1×2.ishr1(4) (WHS-, D4Z1+)×2[4]/46,XY,del(4)(p16.3).ish del(4)(p16.3)(WHS-,D4Z1+)[9]. CONCLUSION: In this case, the ring chromosome 4 as a de novo variant has produced a number of cell lines during embryonic development and given rise to mosaicism. The clinical phenotype of ring chromosome 4 is variable. The instability of the ring chromosome itself, presence of mosaicism, chromosome breakpoint and range of deletion and/or duplication may all affect the ultimate phenotype.


Assuntos
Cromossomos em Anel , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem , Cariótipo , Mosaicismo
11.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 40(1): 96-100, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36585010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic etiology for a child featuring mental retardation, language delay and autism. METHODS: G-banding chromosomal karyotyping and single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-array) were carried out for the child and her parents. RESULTS: The child was found to have a 46,XX,dup(8p?) karyotype, for which both of her parents were normal. SNP-array revealed that the child has harbored a 6.8 Mb deletion in 8p23.3p23.1 and a 21.8 Mb duplication in 8p23.1p12, both of which were verified as de novo pathogenic copy number variants. CONCLUSION: The clinical features of the child may be attributed to the 8p deletion and duplication. SNP-array can facilitate genetic diagnosis for children featuring mental retardation in conjunct with other developmental anomalies.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Humanos , Criança , Gravidez , Feminino , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Cariotipagem , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Deleção Cromossômica
12.
Ann Hematol ; 102(1): 89-97, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36542104

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients relapsing after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) have a poor prognosis. Cytogenetic evolution (CGE) has been investigated and found to have an important impact on the prognosis of relapsed leukemia, but its impact on AML patients relapsing after transplantation remains controversial. In this study, we analyzed 34 AML patients relapsing after allo-HSCT, among whom 14 developed additional abnormalities in chromosomal karyotype after leukemia recurrence (CGE group) and 20 patients did not (non-CGE group). We found that the cytogenetic characteristics were much more complex at relapse in the CGE group, and the acquisition of aberrations at relapse most commonly involved chromosome 11. The 6-month post-relapse overall survival (PROS) of the CGE group was significantly lower than that of the non-CGE group (21.4% versus 50.0%, P = 0.004). The CGE group also showed a trend of worse 2-year OS (7.1% versus 28.6%, P = 0.096). In the multivariate analyses, the occurrence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (HR 0.27 [95% CI, 0.11-0.68], P = 0.006) and a reduced-intensity FBA conditioning regimen (HR 0.42 [95% CI, 0.18-0.98], P = 0.045) were found to be two independent factors for a better PROS, whereas CGE (HR 3.16 [95% CI, 1.42-7.05], P = 0.005) was associated with a worse PROS. In conclusion, CGE was associated with a poor prognosis in AML patients who relapsed after allo-HSCT, and the importance of monitoring karyotype changes after transplantation should be noted.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Homólogo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Doença Crônica , Cariotipagem , Recidiva , Prognóstico
13.
Cytopathology ; 33(2): 249-252, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599627

RESUMO

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is described as a patient's clinical (phenotypical) presentation as a female with male karyotyping. Classically, patients are normal looking females with complaints of primary amenorrhea. The gonads may be found as extra-genital swellings; rarely, the testes may undergo malignant transformation. Thus, gonadectomy is indicated in these patients on attaining puberty. A rare and interesting case of clinically unsuspected AIS in a young female who presented with primary amenorrhea and inguinal swelling is reported. The initial diagnosis was suggested on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) from the inguinal swelling that showed the presence of Sertoli cells. Further family history revealed two similar siblings; karyotyping and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of AIS in the patient. This case highlights the importance of FNAC in early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach to confirm the diagnosis and help in appropriate management.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Resistência a Andrógenos , Síndrome de Resistência a Andrógenos/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resistência a Andrógenos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Irmãos , Testículo/patologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20854, 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460769

RESUMO

Numeric sex chromosome abnormalities are commonly associated with an increased cancer risk. Here, we report a 14-year-old boy with a rare mosaic 45, X/48, XYYY karyotype presenting with subtle dysmorphic features and relative height deficiency, requiring growth hormone therapy. As only 12 postnatal cases have been described so far with very limited follow-up data, to assess the proband's long-term prognosis, including cancer risk, we performed high-throughput single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis. Although comprehensive cytogenetic analysis showed seemingly near perfect balance between 45, X and 48, XYYY cell populations, scRNA-seq revealed widespread differences in genotype distribution among immune cell fractions, specifically in monocytes, B- and T-cells. These results were confirmed at DNA level by digital-droplet PCR on flow-sorted immune cell types. Furthermore, deregulation of predominantly autosomal genes was observed, including TCL1A overexpression in 45, X B-lymphocytes and other known genes associated with hematological malignancies. Together with the standard hematological results, showing increased fractions of monocytes and CD4+/CD8+T lymphocytes ratio, long-term personalized hemato-oncological surveillance was recommended in the reported patient.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Cariotipagem , Cariótipo , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sequência de RNA
15.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 39(12): 1415-1418, 2022 Dec 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36453971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic etiology for a patient featuring intellectual disability and torticollis. METHODS: Peripheral blood sample was collected from the patient and subjected to G-banded karyotyping analysis and single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-array) assay. RESULTS: The patient was found to have a chromosomal karyotype of 46,XX. SNP-array revealed that she has harbored a 3.8 Mb microdeletion at 10q26.3 which has encompassed 21 OMIM genes including EBF3 and ECHS1, and a 7.3 Mb duplication at 18q22.3q23 which has encompassed 19 OMIM genes including TSHZ1 and TXNL4A. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), the 10q26.3 deletion was predicted to be pathogenic, whilst the 18q22.3q23 duplication was predicted to be variation of unknown significance. CONCLUSION: The clinical phenotype of the patient may be mainly attributed to the 10q26.3 microdeletion, and haploinsufficiency of the EBF3 gene may account for her intellectual deficiency. Above finding has provided a basis for genetic counseling for the patient.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento Genético , Testes Genéticos , Feminino , Animais , Cariotipagem , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Genômica
16.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(12)2022 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36553513

RESUMO

It is well known that first-trimester miscarriages are associated with chromosome abnormalities, with numerical chromosome abnormalities being the ones most commonly detected. Conventional karyotyping is still considered the gold standard in the analysis of products of conception, despite the extended use of molecular genetic techniques. However, conventional karyotyping is a laborious and time-consuming method, with a limited resolution of 5-10 Mb and hampered by maternal cell contamination and culture failure. The aim of our study was to assess the type and frequency of chromosomal abnormalities detected by conventional karyotyping in specimens of sporadic first-trimester miscarriages in a Romanian cohort, using QF-PCR to exclude maternal cell contamination. Long-term cultures were established and standard protocols were applied for cell harvesting, slide preparation, and GTG banding. All samples with 46,XX karyotype were tested for maternal cell contamination by QF-PCR, comparing multiple microsatellite markers in maternal blood with cell culture and tissue samples. Out of the initial 311 specimens collected from patients with sporadic first-trimester miscarriages, a total of 230 samples were successfully analyzed after the exclusion of 81 specimens based on unsuitable sampling, culture failure, or QF-PCR-proven maternal cell contamination. Chromosome abnormalities were detected in 135 cases (58.7%), with the most common type being single autosomal trisomy (71/135-52.6%), followed by monosomy (monosomy X being the only one detected, 24/135-17.8%), and polyploidy (23/135-17.0%). The subgroup analysis based on maternal age showed a statistically significant higher rate of single trisomy for women aged 35 years or older (40.3%) compared to the young maternal age group (26.1%) (p = 0.029). In conclusion, the combination of conventional karyotyping and QF-PCR can lead to an increased chromosome abnormality detection rate in first-trimester miscarriages. Our study provides reliable information for the genetic counseling of patients with first-trimester miscarriages, and further large-scale studies using different genetic techniques are required.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Trissomia , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/genética , Aborto Espontâneo/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Romênia , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Cariotipagem , Análise Citogenética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
17.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(12)2022 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36553524

RESUMO

The current gold standard for the definitive diagnosis of fetal aneuploidy uses either chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis, both of which are which are invasive procedures carrying a procedure-related risk of miscarriage of up to 0.1-0.2%. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis using fetal nucleated red blood cells (FNRBCs) isolated from maternal peripheral venous blood would remove this risk of miscarriage since these cells can be isolated from the mother's blood. We aimed to detect whole-chromosome aneuploidies from single nucleated fetal red blood cells using whole-genome amplification followed by massively parallel sequencing performed on a semiconductor sequencing platform. Twenty-six single cells were picked from the placental villi of twelve patients thought to have a normal fetal genotype and who were undergoing elective first-trimester surgical termination of pregnancy. Following karyotyping, it was subsequently found that two of these cases were also abnormal (one trisomy 15 and one mosaic genotype). One single cell from chorionic villus samples for two patients carrying a fetus with trisomy 21 and two single cells from women carrying fetuses with T18 were also picked. Pooled libraries were sequenced on the Ion Proton and data were analysed using Ion Reporter software. We correctly classified fetal genotype in all 24 normal cells, as well as the 2 T21 cells, the 2 T18 cells, and the two T15 cells. The two cells picked from the fetus with a mosaic result by CVS were classified as unaffected, suggesting that this was a case of confined placental mosaicism. Fetal sex was correctly assigned in all cases. We demonstrated that semiconductor sequencing using commercially available software for data analysis can be achieved for the non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of whole-chromosome aneuploidy with 100% accuracy.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Doenças Fetais , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Aborto Espontâneo/diagnóstico , Aborto Espontâneo/genética , Placenta , Aneuploidia , Doenças Fetais/genética , Cariotipagem , Mosaicismo , Eritrócitos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Cromossomos
18.
PeerJ ; 10: e14400, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36523456

RESUMO

Background: Karyotyping and genome copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq) are two techniques frequently used in prenatal diagnosis. This study aimed to explore the diagnostic potential of using a combination of these two methods in order to provide a more accurate clinical basis for prenatal diagnosis. Methods: We selected 822 pregnant women undergoing amniocentesis and separated them into six groups according to different risk indicators. Karyotyping and CNV-seq were performed simultaneously to compare the diagnostic performance of the two methods. Results: Among the different amniocentesis indicators, abnormal fetal ultrasounds accounted for 39.29% of the total number of examinees and made up the largest group. The abnormal detection rate of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) high risk was 37.93% and significantly higher than the other five groups (P < 0.05). The abnormal detection rate of mixed indicators was significantly higher than the history of the adverse reproductive outcomes group (P = 0.0151). The two methods combined found a total of 119 abnormal cases (14.48%). Karyotyping detected 57 cases (6.93%) of abnormal karyotypes, 30 numerical aberrations, and 27 structural aberrations. CNV-seq identified 99 cases (12.04%) with altered CNVs, 30 cases of chromosome aneuploidies, and 69 structural aberrations (28 pathogenic, eight that were likely pathogenic, and 33 microdeletion/duplication variants of uncertain significance (VUS)). Thirty-seven cases were found abnormal by both methods, 20 cases were detected abnormally by karyotyping (mainly mutual translocation and mostly balanced), and 62 cases of microdeletion/duplication were detected by CNV-seq. Steroid sulfatase gene (STS) deletion was identified at chromosome Xp22.31 in three cases. Postnatal follow-up confirmed that babies manifested skin abnormalities one week after birth. Six fetuses had Xp22.31 duplications ranging from 1.5 Kb to 1.7 Mb that were detected by CNV-seq. Follow-up showed that five babies presented no abnormalities during follow-up, except for one terminated pregnancy due to a history of adverse reproductive outcomes. Conclusion: The combination of using CNV-seq and karyotyping significantly improved the detection rate of fetal pathogenic chromosomal abnormalities. CNV-seq is an effective complement to karyotyping and improves the accuracy of prenatal diagnosis.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cromossômicos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Cariotipagem
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 599, 2022 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36539690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Karyotype dynamics driven by chromosomal rearrangements has long been considered as a fundamental question in the evolutionary genetics. Saccharum spontaneum, the most primitive and complex species in the genus Saccharum, has reportedly undergone at least two major chromosomal rearrangements, however, its karyotypic evolution remains unclear. RESULTS: In this study, four representative accessions, i.e., hypothetical diploid sugarcane ancestor (sorghum, x = 10), Sa. spontaneum Np-X (x = 10, tetraploid), 2012-46 (x = 9, hexaploid) and AP85-441 (x = 8, tetraploid), were selected for karyotype evolution studies. A set of oligonucleotide (oligo)-based barcode probes was developed based on the sorghum genome, which allowed universal identification of all chromosomes from sorghum and Sa. spontaneum. By comparative FISH assays, we reconstructed the karyotype evolutionary history and discovered that although chromosomal rearrangements resulted in greater variation in relative lengths of some chromosomes, all chromosomes maintained a conserved metacentric structure. Additionally, we found that the barcode oligo probe was not applicable for chromosome identification in both Sa. robustum and Sa. officinarum species, suggesting that sorghum is more distantly related to Sa. robustum and Sa. officinarum compared with Sa. spontaneum species. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that the barcode oligo-FISH is an efficient tool for chromosome identification and karyotyping research, and expanded our understanding of the karyotypic and chromosomal evolution in the genus Saccharum.


Assuntos
Saccharum , Saccharum/genética , Tetraploidia , Cariótipo , Cariotipagem , Diploide , Grão Comestível/genética
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19750, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396840

RESUMO

Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is widely used to screen for common fetal chromosomal aneuploidies. However, the ability of NIPT-Plus to detect copy number variation (CNV) is debatable. Accordingly, we assessed the efficiency of NIPT-Plus to detect clinically significant fetal CNV. We performed a prospective analysis of 31,260 singleton pregnancies, included from June 2017 to December 2020. Cell-free fetal DNA was directly sequenced using the semiconductor sequencing platform for women with high-risk CNV with clinically significant results. Fetal karyotyping and chromosomal microarray analysis (or next-generation sequencing) are recommended for invasive diagnostic procedures. Women at low risk with no other abnormal results continued their pregnancies. We analyzed the expanded NIPT results, diagnostic test results, and follow-up information to evaluate its performance in detecting fetal CNV. Of the 31,260 pregnant women who received NIPT-Plus, 31,256 cases were tested successfully, a high risk of clinically significant CNV was detected in 221 cases (0.71%); 18 women refused further diagnosis; 203 women underwent invasive prenatal diagnosis; and 78 true positive cases and 125 false positive cases, with an overall positive predictive value (PPV) of 38.42% and a false positive rate of 0.40%. For known microdeletion/microduplication syndromes (n = 27), the PPVs were 75% DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), 80% 22q11.22 microduplication, 50% Prader-Willi syndrome, and 50% cri-du-chat. For the remaining clinically significant fetal CNVs (n = 175), the combined PPVs were 46.5% (CNVs > 10 Mb) and 28.57% (CNVs ≤ 10 Mb). NIPT-Plus screening for CNV has certain clinical value. NIPT-Plus yielded relatively high PPVs for 22q11.2 microduplication syndrome and DGS, and low to moderate PPVs for other CNVs.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Síndrome de DiGeorge , Teste Pré-Natal não Invasivo , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Aneuploidia , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Cariotipagem , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , Síndrome de DiGeorge/diagnóstico , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética
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