Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 318
Filtrar
1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(5): 311, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125577

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of four varieties of cactus pear resistant to carmine cochineal as exclusive roughage for lambs on the biochemical, histopathological, and histomorphometric parameters of kidneys. Twenty-four castrated male crossbred lambs at eight months of age and an initial body weight of 21.0 ± 0.5 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design, with four treatments and six repetitions. The experimental treatments consisted of four diets containing Miúda cactus pear, IPA-Sertânia cactus pear, IPA-F21 cactus pear, or Orelha de Elefante Mexicana (OEM) cactus pear as the only roughage. Blood samples were collected every two weeks (14 d, 28 d, 42 d, and 56 d) to quantify serum urea and creatinine levels. After 72 days of the introduction of the tested diets, the animals were slaughtered and fragments of the kidneys were collected for histological analysis. The serum urea level was higher in animals fed a diet based on the Miúda variety (49.38 mg dL-1), and the serum creatinine levels were lower in the last two collections (P = 0.009). The most frequent histopathological findings in the kidneys were calcification, congestion, glomerular atrophy, presence of luminal cellular debris, and nephrosis, regardless of the cactus pear variety. The Miúda cactus pear and OEM cactus pear varieties caused more severe damage to the nephron components, while the varieties IPA F-21 and IPA-Sertânia caused less significant injuries. The use of IPA-Sertânia and IPA F-21 cactus pear varieties is suggested in lamb's diets, due to the lower impact on the renal parenchyma. However, there was no expressive impairment of renal function, and there was no difference between the cactus pear varieties tested in this study on the weight gain of the animals, and they can all be used to feed feedlot sheep.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Opuntia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Carmim , Creatinina , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Rim/fisiologia , Masculino , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico , Ureia
2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(9)2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36143912

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: As the number of minimally invasive surgeries, including video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, increases, small, deeply located lung nodules are difficult to visualize or palpate; therefore, localization is important. We studied the use of a mixture of indigo-carmine and lipiodol, coupled with a transbronchial approach-to achieve accurate localization and minimize patient discomfort and complications. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients were enrolled from May 2019 to April 2022, and surgery was performed after the bronchoscopy procedure. Wedge resection or segmentectomy was performed, depending on the location and size of the lesion. Results: In 58/60 (96.7%) patients, the localization of the nodules was successful after localization, and 2/60 required c-arm assistance. None of the patients complained of discomfort during the procedure; in all cases, margins were found to be free from carcinoma, as determined by the final pathology results. Conclusions: We recommend this localization technique using mixture of indigo carmine and lipiodol, in concert with the transbronchial approach, because the procedure time is short, patient's discomfort is low, and success rate is high.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Nódulo Pulmonar Solitário , Carmim , Óleo Etiodado , Humanos , Índigo Carmim/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Nódulo Pulmonar Solitário/induzido quimicamente , Nódulo Pulmonar Solitário/diagnóstico por imagem , Nódulo Pulmonar Solitário/cirurgia
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15522, 2022 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109547

RESUMO

A continuous mode fixed-bed up-flow column adsorption analysis was conducted utilizing Acacia nilotica sawdust activated carbon (ASAC) as an adsorbent for the adsorption treatment of toxic Indigo Carmine Dye (ICD). The effect on the adsorption characteristics of ASAC of the influent ICD concentration, flow rate, and column bed depth has been investigated. According to the column study, the highest efficiency of ICD removal was approximately 79.01% at a preliminary concentration of 100 mg/L with a flow rate of 250 mL/h at a bed depth of 30 cm and adsorption power of 24.67 mg/g. The experimental work confirmed the dependency of break-through curves on dye concentration and flow rate for a given bed depth. Kinetic models were implemented by Thomas, Yoon-Nelson, and Bed-depth-service-time analysis along with error analysis to interpret experimental data for bed depth of 15 cm and 30 cm, ICD concentration of 100 mg/L and 200 mg/L and flow rate of 250 mL/h, and 500 mL/h. The analysis predicted the breakthrough curves using a regression basin. It indicated that all three models were comparable for the entire break-through curve depiction. The characteristic parameters determined by process design and error analysis revealed that the Thomas model was better followed by the BDST and Yoon-Nelson models in relating the procedure of ICD adsorption onto ASAC. B-E-T surface area and B-E-T pore volume of ASAC were 737.76 m2/g and 0.2583 cm3/g, respectively. S-E-M and X-R-D analysis reveal the micro-porous and amorphous nature of ASAC. F-T-I-R spectroscope indicate distinctive functional assemblies like -OH group, C-H bond, C-C bond, C-OH, and C-O groups on ASAC. It could be computed that the ASAC can be used efficiently as an alternative option for industrial wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Acacia , Carvão Vegetal , Adsorção , Carmim , Carvão Vegetal/química , Índigo Carmim
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7590, 2022 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534607

RESUMO

Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) or prickly pear cochineal, is the most damaging pest on cactus species with heavy economic losses worldwide. The efficacy of two Moroccan EPN isolates; Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar) (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) (applied at 25, 50, and 75 IJs cm-2) against D. opuntiae nymphs and young females were evaluated under both laboratory bioassays and field conditions. Results showed that S. feltiae was more effective, causing higher mortality of nymphs and adult females (98.8% and 97.5%, respectively) after 8 days of exposure, resulting in an LT50 value of 5.9 days (nymph) and 6.0 days (young female). While, H. bacteriophora had lower mortalities (83.8% for nymph and 81.3% for adult females). For the cochineal nymphs and adult females, no significant difference was observed among S. feltiae at 25, 50, and 75 IJs cm-2, and the positive control, D-limonene applied at 0.5 g/L which was used due to its high effectiveness against nymphs and females of D. opuntiae. In the field experiment, D-limonene at 0.5 g/L and S. feltiae applied at 75 IJs cm-2 were effective in reducing nymph and adult female populations by 85.3-93.9% at 12 days of post exposure period. To our knowledge, this work is the first report on the use of EPNs to control D. opuntiae. Thus, in addition to D-limonene, both Moroccan EPN isolates S. feltiae, and H. bacteriophora could be used as part of the integrated pest management strategy against D. opuntiae. Many factors such as temperature can affect the establishment and effectiveness of EPNs under field conditions. Therefore, additional studies under field conditions are needed.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Rabditídios , Animais , Carmim , Feminino , Limoneno , Ninfa , Controle Biológico de Vetores
6.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(7): 6207-6213, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) (carmine cochineal) is an insect pest highly noxious that has spread through cactus pear crops in the Brazilian semiarid region. Knowledge of diversity and genetic relationships of the cactus pear accessions is fundamental to create new varieties resistance to carmine cochineal. Therefore, this investigation was undertaken to assess the genetic diversity and genetic relationships that existed among cactus pear accessions of Nopalea sp. and Opuntia spp. with contrasting resistance to D. opuntiae. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a molecular analysis in seven cactus pear accessions from the "reference collection" of the Agronomic Institute of Pernambuco, Brazil using RAPD, ISSR and ITS molecular markers. A total of 242 bands were detected from 26 polymorphic primers. The high percentage of polymorphism by RAPD (89.8%), ISSR (81.2%) and ITS (75%) markers suggests that the cactus pear accessions have high genetic diversity. The combined analysis of markers systems enabled the accessions discrimination of about the genus and ploidy, but were incongruous in relation to resistance level to D. opuntiae. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic diversity, discrimination of about the genus and ploidy was confirmed by merging information from ISSR, RAPD and ITS markers systems. The IPA-200016, IPA-200149, IPA-100004, IPA-200205 accessions are genetically divergent, therefore could be potentially incorporated into any further breeding programs directed to create new varieties of cactus pear resistant to D. opuntiae.


Assuntos
Opuntia , Biomarcadores , Carmim , Variação Genética/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Opuntia/genética , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico/métodos
7.
Food Chem ; 386: 132851, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366626

RESUMO

Carminic acid is a food colorant which concentration has to be controlled due to the possible negative health effects. Sensitive voltammetric method is developed for carminic acid determination using electrode modified with SeO2 nanoparticles (SeO2 NPs) and hexadecyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (HDTPPB) acting as dispersive agent for nanoparticles and electrode surface co-modifier. SeO2 NPs of 37-45 nm are uniformly distributed at the electrode increasing its electroactive area (41 ± 2 vs. 8.9 ± 0.2 mm2 for bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE)). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data confirm an 18.3-fold decrease of charge transfer resistance compared to GCE (12.7 ± 0.3 vs. 232 ± 7 kΩ, respectively). In differential pulse mode, the linear dynamic ranges of carminic acid are 0.010-2.5 and 2.5-10 µmol L-1 with a detection limit of 3.4 nmol L-1. The method is successfully employed in candies and lozenges for sore throat treatment. The approach is simple, reliable, and can be used as an alternative to chromatography in routine analysis.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Doces , Carbono/química , Carmim , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Óxidos de Selênio
8.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 163: 112929, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35307455

RESUMO

This study provides a comprehensive review of the latest developments in the electrochemical impressions of the important dyestuffs including amaranth and carminic acid. Food colors are organic substances that have important effects on human health and food safety. While these substances do not pose a problem when used in the daily intake (ADI) amounts, they harm human health when consumed excessively. Amaranth and carminic acid are synthetic and natural food colors ingredients, respectively. Analysis of these substances in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and textile samples is extremely important because of their genotoxicity, cytostatic and cytotoxic effects. Electroanalytical methods, which have great advantages over traditional analytical methods, shed light on the scientific world. Electrochemical monitoring modules, which are fast, simple, accurate, reliable, and highly selective, are promising for the determination of both substances. Until now, amaranth and carminic acid food determinations have been carried out successfully with electrochemical monitoring techniques in many numbers in the literature. Voltammetric techniques are the most widely used among these electroanalytical methods. In particular, square wave and differential pulse voltammetric techniques, which have extraordinary properties, have been heavily preferred. Limits of detection (LOD) comparable to the standard analytical method have been achieved using these methods, which have very quick analysis durations, high precision and accuracy, do not require long preprocessing, and have great selectivity. In addition, more sensitive and selective analyses of amaranth and carminic acid in natural samples were carried out with numerous indicator electrodes. The merits of powerful electrochemical monitoring studies for the determination of both food colors during the last decade are presented in this study. Moreover, parameters such as analytical applications, detection limits, electrochemical methods, selectivity, working electrodes, and working ranges are summarized in detail.


Assuntos
Carmim , Corantes de Alimentos , Corante Amaranto , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Humanos
11.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 21(9): 3979-3985, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35094478

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fibroblasts and fibroblast-like cells (FLCs) are highly distributed in the dermis layer of the skin and gastrointestinal tract. A few studies have investigated the effects of color additives of cosmetic products on human fibroblasts. Therefore, this in vitro study was conducted to investigate the effects of 9 synthetic and natural dyes (indigo carmine, carmine, sunset yellow, tropaeolin, acid green 25, chlorophyllin, tartrazine, lissamine, and amaranth) on human foreskin fibroblast cells. METHODS: MTT assay was applied to investigate the effects of dyes on human normal fibroblast cells. For investigating the possible mechanism of cytotoxicity, the effect of dyes was evaluated on parameters of cellular oxidative stress including lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as lactate dehydrogenase. RESULTS: In the MTT assay, a significant reduction (p ≤ 0.05) was observed in the viability of fibroblast cells by chlorophyllin and indigo carmine at concentrations higher than 10 and 100 (µg/ml), respectively. Acid green 25 caused a significant reduction at very high concentrations (1000 and 2000 µg/ml), which was not toxic. The effect of other investigated dyes was not significant on the fibroblasts. A trend in increased cell proliferation by amaranth and carmine was observed, but this enhancement was not statistically significant. No significant changes were observed in lipid peroxidation or lactate dehydrogenase. Chlorophyllin caused a significant increase in the production of cellular ROS. CONCLUSIONS: Indigo carmine and chlorophyllin had cytotoxicity on human fibroblasts, and thus, further studies are required on their safety of use in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Índigo Carmim , Tartrazina , Corante Amaranto , Antraquinonas , Carmim , Proliferação de Células , Clorofilídeos , Corantes , Fibroblastos , Prepúcio do Pênis , Humanos , Lactato Desidrogenases , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
12.
Annu Rev Entomol ; 67: 281-303, 2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609893

RESUMO

Every facet of human culture is in some way affected by our abundant, diverse insect neighbors. Our relationship with insects has been on display throughout the history of art, sometimes explicitly but frequently in inconspicuous ways. This is because artists can depict insects overtly, but they can also allude to insects conceptually or use insect products in a purely utilitarian manner. Insects themselves can serve as art media, and artists have explored or exploited insects for their products (silk, wax, honey, propolis, carmine, shellac, nest material), body parts (e.g., wings), and whole bodies (dead, alive, individually, or as collectives). This review surveys insects and their products used as media in the visual arts and considers the untapped potential for artistic exploration of media derived from insects. The history, value, and ethics of insect media art are relevant topics at a time when the natural world is at unprecedented risk.


Assuntos
Mel , Insetos , Animais , Carmim , Seda
13.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131672, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346328

RESUMO

The glass system SiO2-B2O3-Na2O3-ZnO containing 2 wt% CdS and 1 wt% ZnS was synthesized by the conventional melt quench method. Glass transition temperature and crystallization temperature was determined from Differential thermal analysis (DTA) measurement to optimize heat-treatment. The amorphous structure of the glass was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement. Glasses were heat-treated by optimized heat-treatment schedule to grow CdS/ZnS QDs and crystalline phases of CdS and ZnS were confirmed by the XRD measurement. High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) was used to determine the size and shape of quantum dots (QDs) grown in the glass matrix. The optical band gap was calculated from the absorption spectra and found to decrease with increase in size of QDs. Electron-hole recombination rate was studied using a decay time and impedance analyzer. Prepared samples were tested as a photocatalyst under sunlight for the degradation of indigo carmine (IC) dye and photodegradation efficiency was found to be 73.6 % and 87.2 % for samples CZ1 and CZ4 respectively. No significant change is observed in degradation efficiency even for 4 cycles which confirms the stability of prepared glasses for dye degradation.


Assuntos
Pontos Quânticos , Carmim , Índigo Carmim , Dióxido de Silício , Sulfetos , Compostos de Zinco
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 145: 112404, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781143

RESUMO

Excessive fructose (Fru) consumption has been reported to favor nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the molecular mechanism is still elusive, lacking effective therapeutic strategies. Carminic acid (CA), a glucosylated anthraquinone found in scale insects like Dactylopius coccus, exerts anti-tumor and anti-oxidant activities. Nevertheless, its regulatory role in Fru-induced NAFLD is still obscure. Here, the effects of CA on NAFLD in Fru-challenged mice and the underlying molecular mechanisms were explored. We found that Fru intake significantly led to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in liver of mice, which were considerably attenuated by CA treatment through repressing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Additionally, inflammatory response induced by Fru was also attenuated by CA via the blockage of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and tumor necrosis factor α/TNF-α receptor (TNF-α/TNFRs) signaling pathways. Moreover, Fru-provoked oxidative stress in liver tissues was remarkably attenuated by CA mainly through improving the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2). These anti-dyslipidemias, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities regulated by CA were confirmed in the isolated primary hepatocytes with Fru stimulation. Importantly, the in vitro experiments demonstrated that Fru-induced lipid accumulation was closely associated with inflammatory response and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production regulated by TNF-α and Nrf-2 signaling pathways, respectively. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that CA could be considered as a potential therapeutic strategy to attenuate metabolic disorder and NAFLD in Fru-challenged mice mainly through suppressing inflammatory response and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Carmim/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Frutose , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
15.
J Insect Sci ; 22(1)2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942006

RESUMO

The carmine cochineal (Dactylopius coccus Costa) has high economic value as it is a natural source of carminic acid, an organic chromophore used in a wide range of sectors including pharmaceutics, food, and cosmetics. High demand is fuelling the search for innovative production techniques in order to move away from dependence on the prickly pear, which carries a number of limitations. The aim of this study was to establish cochineal colonies and breed and mass-produce the insects using two laboratory-scale production systems. The first system (STC-01) comprised a prismatic acrylic box with three compartments; synthetic matrices were placed vertically inside the box to provide support and a source of nutrients for the cochineal, and the system was lit artificially during fixed daylight periods. The second system (STC-02) comprised an automated micro-tunnel allowing the insects to move towards the sunlight, containing synthetic matrices arranged horizontally. There was a significant difference in yield between the two systems in a cochineal total life cycle of 120 d (80-90 d harvest period in both cases), with STC-01 being superior and producing a maximum yield of 4.86 ± 0.68 g fresh weight per day per square metre compared with 3.20 ± 0.14 g fresh weight per day per square metre production yield in STC-02. We conclude that cochineal production under controlled artificial conditions is feasible and sustainable, removing the need for natural and biological support and overcoming the environmental limitations posed by traditional production methods.


Assuntos
Carmim , Hemípteros , Animais , Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peru
16.
Se Pu ; 39(12): 1298-1305, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812001

RESUMO

New coccine is an azo pigment that is widely used in food. To mitigate potential health issues arising from excessive consumption, China has issued provisions on the allowed addition limit of new coccine in food. Currently, there are certain difficulties with establishing detection methods for such trace pigments in foods; for example, preprocessing is complex and time-intensive. In addition, the low content of the target substance in the sample could be disturbed by food matrix, resulting in poor detection sensitivity. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs), as a novel class of highly efficient adsorbents, have attracted increasing attention because of their stability and large specific surface area. MOFs are porous coordination crystal structures that connect metal clusters with organic ligands via coordination. Owing to their molecule-sized pores, MOFs can be used in various fields such as adsorption, catalysis, and drug dispersion. However, at the same time, their ultra-high specific surface area also leads to ultra-low weight of the material itself; this makes it difficult to collect the material even under high-speed centrifugation. In this study, a MOF material (PCN-222) with a high specific surface area was prepared by the coordination of the carboxyl group in the porphyrin ring and metal zirconium ions. To simplify pretreatment, the nanomaterials were filled into an injection solid phase extraction device for the rapid extraction of new coccine pigments from beverages. The morphology, structure, and properties of the PCN-222 nanomaterials were studied by transmission electron microscopy, particle size analysis, X-ray single-crystal diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and ultraviolet spectroscopy. The specific surface area of the synthesized material was 979 m2/g. A high specific surface area was conducive to the adsorption of trace target compounds. The surface charge of the material could be controlled by adjusting the pH value of the solution, which was beneficial to the selective adsorption and desorption of ionic pigments. The π-π interaction between the benzene ring of the porphyrin ring and the benzene ring of the azo pigment also promoted extraction. Thus, the extractant exhibited strong enrichment performance for the new coccine anionic pigment. The solid phase extraction conditions were optimized, and it was found that saturated adsorption capacity was achieved by filling 3 mg of extractant. The effect of pH on adsorption was also explored; the adsorption effect was the best at pH 3. In the desorption experiment, N,N-dimethylformamide at pH 11 was conducive to better elution of the target. Further elution volume studies showed that maximum recovery could be achieved by adding 3 mL of eluent. Subsequently, the sample pretreatment time was reduced to 5 min. The enriched sample was separated using a Zorbax eclipse XDB-C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 µm), eluted with an ammonium acetate-methanol solvent system, and detected at 254 nm. Under the optimum conditions, the recoveries of the samples at high, medium, and low levels reached 99.5%-109.4%, and the relative standard deviation was less than 3%. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N=3) of this method was 0.1 µg/L and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N=10) was 0.3 µg/L. In the actual sample detection experiment, the detection signal of new coccine in the sample was amplified by solid phase extraction to achieve enrichment. In addition, the extraction capacity of PCN-222 remained higher than 90% after four uses, and the synthesized material could be recycled. The high precision and low detection limit indicate that the method is suitable for the enrichment and detection of trace carmine in beverages. The findings of this study will aid in the development of a new solid phase extraction technology for food safety evaluation.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Adsorção , Bebidas , Carmim , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Extração em Fase Sólida
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077331

RESUMO

Carmines (E120) are used worldwide as natural food colouring agents of animal origin, with a widespread application, including yoghurts. Despite being considered safe for human health, carmines are known to cause allergic reactions. Our goal was to evaluate the presence of carmines in different yoghurts with a label declaration of E120, purchased in Portugal, and, for the first time, to assess the human risk. The analytical methodology, recommended by JECFA, was based on acid hydrolysis of the samples followed by spectrophotometric UV-Vis analysis at 494 nm. This methodology allowed for a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 39.0 mg/kg and recovery rates higher than 97.7%. All the samples had carmines at levels above the LOQ, ranging between 43.8 and 193.8 mg/kg, with an average of 125.2 ± 34.5 mg/kg. In total, 8 (26.7%) samples exceeded the European Union (EU) maximum permitted level (MPL) established for carmines in this foodstuff, 150 mg/kg. Solid yoghurts presented higher average levels, 137.2 mg/kg, when compared to liquid samples, 107.2 mg/kg, with a significant statistical difference (p= 0.0236) being observed. No significant statistical difference was observed between white and private labels, whose average levels were very similar, 125.4 vs 125 mg/kg, respectively. Although some samples were above the allowable values, the estimated daily intake (EDI), designed for the different scenarios of different yoghurt types, did not exceed the established ADI, 5 mg/kg bw/day. According to the obtained results, carmine ingestion through the consumption of yoghurt poses low risk to the Portuguese consumers. However, children were the most vulnerable population group with a calculated risk value of up to 10% considering the mean content scenario. These first findings point out the need to reinforce surveillance programmes and monitoring studies, contributing to an increased awareness regarding carmine exposure, however it must be emphasised that yoghurt has evident nutritional benefits depending on a healthful consumer choice.


Assuntos
Carmim/análise , Corantes de Alimentos/análise , Iogurte/análise , Peso Corporal , Carmim/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Corantes de Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Portugal , Medição de Risco , Espectrofotometria/métodos
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(39): 54876-54890, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018116

RESUMO

The syntheses and characterization of fish scale biochar magnetic composites (FSB@Fe3O4) and their applications in the removal of indigo carmine dye from effluents are described. Preparation of the fish scale biochar magnetic composites, FSB@400 °C-Fe3O4, FSB@600 °C-Fe3O4, and FSB@800 °C-Fe3O4, was done following the chemical co-precipitation method. The adsorbents were characterized using peak optical absorbance, functional groups, magnetic strength, surface morphology, particle size, elemental compositions, surface charge, surface area, thermal stability, and crystalline phase, using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis spec), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), transmission electron microscopy/scanning electron microscopy (TEM/SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), point of zero charge pH (pHpzc), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), and powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD) techniques, correspondingly. The potential of magnetic composites for the abstraction of indigo carmine dye from wastewater was determined as a function of the initial concentration of indigo carmine dye, contact time, dye solution pH, adsorbent dosage, and solution temperature. The results demonstrated that the quantity (q) of indigo carmine dye adsorbed onto magnetic composites improved with a rise in initial dye concentration, adsorbent load, and solution temperature. Conversely, lower quantities of adsorbed dye were recorded at higher pH levels. The data fitted a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The Langmuir isotherm gave the best fit (Langmuir>Freundlich>Redlich-Peterson>Toth>Hill>Sips>Temkin) suggesting a uniformly monolayer adsorption. Adsorption of environmental wastewater samples revealed that all the adsorbents can be used to effectively treat industrial wastewaters. The recycling data established that the adsorbents could be used for five consecutive cycles without significant loss of adsorption capacities.


Assuntos
Carmim , Índigo Carmim
19.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 257: 119791, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892249

RESUMO

This study report optimization of vortex-assisted natural deep eutectic solvent based liquid-phase microextraction (VA-NADES-LPME) for determination of indigo-carmine in some food samples by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. To ensure efficient extraction, nine different NADES were prepared and tested for the extraction of indigo-carmine. In order to increase extraction efficiency of indigo-carmine, the effects of VA-NADES-LPME variables and their interactions were optimized with central composite design. The optimized method exhibited a linear range between 10 and 900 ng mL-1. Limit of detection, limit of quantification and enrichment factor were determined as 3.3 ng mL-1, 10 ng mL-1 and 135-fold, respectively. The applicability of the optimized method was investigated in selected food samples using the matrix-matching calibration curve. Using optimised experimental conditions (pH of 3.2, 75 µL of NADES-4, 285 µL of THF, and 4 min vortexing), satisfactory recovery results were found in the range of 95.9-104.2% with 1.4-3.7% of relative standard deviation. Finally, the optimized method was economical, simple, green, requires less laborious sampling, and provides superior accuracy and precision in trace-level analysis.


Assuntos
Índigo Carmim , Microextração em Fase Líquida , Carmim , Limite de Detecção , Solventes
20.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(7): 10326-10353, 2021 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819919

RESUMO

Excessive fructose (Fru) intake has become an increased risk for chronic kidney disease progression. Despite extensive researches that have been performed to develop effective treatments against Fru-induced renal injury, the outcome has achieved limited success. In this study, we attempted to explore whether carminic acid (CA) could influence the progression of Fru-induced kidney injury, and the underlying molecular mechanism. At first, our in vitro results showed that CA significantly reduced inflammation in mouse tubular epithelial cells and human tubule epithelial cells stimulated by Fru. The anti-inflammatory effects of CA were associated with the blockage of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling. In addition, Fru-exposed cells showed higher oxidative stress, which was effectively restrained by CA treatment through improving nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf-2) nuclear translocation. Importantly, we found that Fru-induced inflammation and oxidative stress were accelerated in cells with Nrf-2 knockdown. What's more, in Fru-stimulated cells, CA-alleviated inflammatory response and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were evidently abolished by Nrf-2 knockdown. The in vivo analysis demonstrated that Fru led to metabolic disorder, excessive albuminuria and histologic changes in renal tissues, which were effectively reversed by CA supplementation. We confirmed that CA significantly reduced inflammation and oxidative stress in the kidneys of mice through regulating NF-κB and Nrf-2 signaling pathways, eventually alleviating the progression of chronic kidney injury. Taken together, these results identified CA as a potential therapeutic strategy for metabolic stress-induced renal injury through restraining inflammation and oxidative stress via the improvement of Nrf-2 signaling.


Assuntos
Carmim/farmacologia , Frutose/toxicidade , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Túbulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...