Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 375
Filtrar
1.
Zootaxa ; 5162(5): 451-486, 2022 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095494

RESUMO

Deep-sea sponges are an imperative component of benthos. They accumulate the suspended organic matter by filtering large quantities of water and, with their intricate structures, provide the most suitable habitats for various associated organisms. We describe three new cadorhizid sponges from the Central Indian Ridge (CIR), Indian Ocean. The sponges are part of the benthic sledge collection conducted onboard the MGS Sagar in the CIR region. A detailed taxonomic description of two novel species, Asbestopluma (Asbestopluma) indiyansis sp. nov., and Asbestopluma (A.) bharatiyae sp. nov. are provided based on the morphological and molecular (mtCOI and 28S) markers. In addition, another new carnivorous species Chondrocladia sagari sp. nov. is described based on the morphological and mtCOI marker. The systematic and descriptions of new species are discussed based on the structural and phylogenetic analysis. Our study shows that the cladorhizid fauna of the seamounts from the CIR are unique and represent regionally endemic benthic habitats.


Assuntos
Carnívoros , Poríferos , Animais , Carnivoridade , Ecossistema , Filogenia
2.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35893660

RESUMO

Carnivorous sponges (family Cladorhizidae) use small invertebrates as their main source of nutrients. We discovered a novel iridovirus (carnivorous sponge-associated iridovirus, CaSpA-IV) in Chondrocladia grandis and Cladorhiza oxeata specimens collected in the Arctic and Atlantic oceans at depths of 537-852 m. The sequenced viral genome (~190,000 bp) comprised 185 predicted ORFs, including those encoding 26 iridoviral core proteins, and phylogenetic analyses showed that CaSpA-IV is a close relative to members of the genus Decapodiridovirus and highly identical to a partially sequenced virus pathogenic to decapod shrimps. CaSpA-IV was found in various anatomical regions of six C. grandis (sphere, stem, root) from the Gulf of Maine and Baffin Bay and of two C. oxeata (sphere, secondary axis) from Baffin Bay. Partial MCP sequencing revealed a divergent virus (CaSpA-IV-2) in one C. oxeata. The analysis of a 10 nt long tandem repeat showed a number of repeats consistent across sub-sections of the same sponges but different between animals, suggesting the presence of different strains. As the genetic material of crustaceans, particularly from the zooplanktonic copepod order Calanoida, was identified in the investigated samples, further studies are required to elucidate whether CaSpA-IV infects the carnivorous sponges, their crustacean prey, or both.


Assuntos
Carnívoros , Iridovirus , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Carnivoridade , Filogenia
3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(22): e2201362, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642470

RESUMO

Fast snapping in the carnivorous Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) involves trap lobe bending and abrupt curvature inversion (snap-buckling), but how do these traps reopen? Here, the trap reopening mechanics in two different D. muscipula clones, producing normal-sized (N traps, max. ≈3 cm in length) and large traps (L traps, max. ≈4.5 cm in length) are investigated. Time-lapse experiments reveal that both N and L traps can reopen by smooth and continuous outward lobe bending, but only L traps can undergo smooth bending followed by a much faster snap-through of the lobes. Additionally, L traps can reopen asynchronously, with one of the lobes moving before the other. This study challenges the current consensus on trap reopening, which describes it as a slow, smooth process driven by hydraulics and cell growth and/or expansion. Based on the results gained via three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC), morphological and mechanical investigations, the differences in trap reopening are proposed to stem from a combination of size and slenderness of individual traps. This study elucidates trap reopening processes in the (in)famous Dionaea snap traps - unique shape-shifting structures of great interest for plant biomechanics, functional morphology, and applications in biomimetics, i.e., soft robotics.


Assuntos
Droseraceae , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Biomimética , Biofísica , Carnivoridade , Droseraceae/anatomia & histologia
4.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 22(1): 82, 2022 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laurasiatheria contains taxa with diverse diets, while the molecular basis and evolutionary history underlying their dietary diversification are less clear. RESULTS: In this study, we used the recently developed molecular phyloecological approach to examine the adaptive evolution of digestive system-related genes across both carnivorous and herbivorous mammals within Laurasiatheria. Our results show an intensified selection of fat and/or protein utilization across all examined carnivorous lineages, which is consistent with their high-protein and high-fat diets. Intriguingly, for herbivorous lineages (ungulates), which have a high-carbohydrate diet, they show a similar selection pattern as that of carnivorous lineages. Our results suggest that for the ungulates, which have a specialized digestive system, the selection intensity of their digestive system-related genes does not necessarily reflect loads of the nutrient components in their diets but appears to be positively related to the loads of the nutrient components that are capable of being directly utilized by the herbivores themselves. Based on these findings, we reconstructed the dietary evolution within Laurasiatheria, and our results reveal the dominant carnivory during the early diversification of Laurasiatheria. In particular, our results suggest that the ancestral bats and the common ancestor of ruminants and cetaceans may be carnivorous as well. We also found evidence of the convergent evolution of one fat utilization-related gene, APOB, across carnivorous taxa. CONCLUSIONS: Our molecular phyloecological results suggest that digestive system-related genes can be used to determine the molecular basis of diet differentiations and to reconstruct ancestral diets.


Assuntos
Carnivoridade , Herbivoria , Animais , Dieta , Herbivoria/genética , Filogenia , Ruminantes
5.
Nature ; 603(7903): 852-857, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35322229

RESUMO

Secondary aquatic adaptations evolved independently more than 30 times from terrestrial vertebrate ancestors1,2. For decades, non-avian dinosaurs were believed to be an exception to this pattern. Only a few species have been hypothesized to be partly or predominantly aquatic3-11. However, these hypotheses remain controversial12,13, largely owing to the difficulty of identifying unambiguous anatomical adaptations for aquatic habits in extinct animals. Here we demonstrate that the relationship between bone density and aquatic ecologies across extant amniotes provides a reliable inference of aquatic habits in extinct species. We use this approach to evaluate the distribution of aquatic adaptations among non-avian dinosaurs. We find strong support for aquatic habits in spinosaurids, associated with a marked increase in bone density, which precedes the evolution of more conspicuous anatomical modifications, a pattern also observed in other aquatic reptiles and mammals14-16. Spinosaurids are revealed to be aquatic specialists with surprising ecological disparity, including subaqueous foraging behaviour in Spinosaurus and Baryonyx, and non-diving habits in Suchomimus. Adaptation to aquatic environments appeared in spinosaurids during the Early Cretaceous, following their divergence from other tetanuran theropods during the Early Jurassic17.


Assuntos
Dinossauros , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Carnivoridade , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , Mamíferos , Filogenia
6.
Cell Tissue Res ; 388(2): 399-416, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35260936

RESUMO

Lycopodina hypogea is a carnivorous sponge that tolerates laboratory husbandry very well. During a digestion cycle, performed without any digestive cavity, this species undergoes spectacular morphological changes leading to a total regression of long filaments that ensure the capture of prey and their reformation at the end of the cycle. This phenomenon is a unique opportunity to analyze the molecular and cellular determinants that ensure digestion in the sister group of all other metazoans. Using differential transcriptomic analysis coupled with cell biology studies of proliferation, differentiation, and programmed cell deaths (i.e., autophagy and the destructive/constructive function of apoptosis), we demonstrate that the molecular and cellular actors that ensure digestive homeostasis in a sister group of all remaining animals are similar in variety and complexity to those controlling tissue homeostasis in higher vertebrates. During a digestion cycle, most of these actors are finely tuned in a coordinated manner. Our data benefits from complementary approaches coupling in silico and cell biology studies and demonstrate that the nutritive function is provided by the coordination of molecular network that impacts the cells turnover in the entire organism.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Carnivoridade , Animais , Expressão Gênica
7.
J Fish Biol ; 100(4): 894-908, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35195903

RESUMO

The absence of a controlled diet is unfortunate in a promising model organism for ageing, the turquoise killifish (Nothobranchius furzeri Jubb, 1971). Currently captive N. furzeri are fed bloodworms but it is not known whether this is an optimal diet. Replacing bloodworms with a practical dry feed would reduce diet variability. In the present study, we estimated the nutritional value of the diet ingested by wild fish and determined the fish-body amino acid profile as a proxy for their nutritional requirements. We compared the performance of fish fed four commercial feeds containing 46%-64% protein to that achieved with bloodworms and that of wild fish. Wild fish target a high-protein (60%) diet and this is supported by their superior performance on high-protein diets in captivity. In contrast, feeds for omnivores led to slower growth, lower fecundity and unnatural liver size. In comparison to wild fish, a bloodworm diet led to lower body condition, overfeeding and male liver enlargement. Out of the four dry feeds tested, the fish fed Aller matched wild fish in body condition and liver size, and was comparable to bloodworms in terms of growth and fecundity. A starter feed for carnivorous species appears to be a practical replacement for bloodworms for N. furzeri. The use of dry feeds improved performance in comparison to bloodworms and thus may contribute to reducing response variability and improving research reproducibility in N. furzeri research.


Assuntos
Ciprinodontiformes , Fundulidae , Envelhecimento , Animais , Carnivoridade , Ciprinodontiformes/fisiologia , Fundulidae/fisiologia , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216238

RESUMO

Sense of smell is mediated by diverse families of olfactory sensing receptors, conveying important dietary information, fundamental for growth and survival. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the sensory olfactory pathways in the regulation of feeding behavior of carnivorous rainbow trout (RT, Oncorhynchus mykiss), from first feeding until 8 months. Compared to a commercial diet, RT fed with a total plant-based diet showed drastically altered growth performance associated with feed intake from an early stage. Exhaustive examination of an RT genome database identified three vomeronasal type 1 receptor-like (ORA), 10 vomeronasal type 2 receptor-like (OLFC) and 14 main olfactory receptor (MOR) genes, all highly expressed in sensory organs, indicating their potential functionality. Gene expression after feeding demonstrated the importance in olfactory sensing perception of some OLFC (olfcg6) and MOR (mor103, -107, -112, -113, -133) receptor family genes in RT. The gene ora1a showed evidence of involvement in olfactory sensing perception for fish fed with a commercial-like diet, while ora5b, mor118, mor124 and olfch1 showed evidence of involvement in fish fed with a plant-based diet. Results indicated an impact of a plant-based diet on the regulation of olfactory sensing pathways as well as influence on monoaminergic neurotransmission in brain areas related to olfactory-driven behaviors. The overall findings suggest that feeding behavior is mediated through olfactory sensing detection and olfactory-driven behavior pathways in RT.


Assuntos
Carnivoridade/fisiologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/fisiologia , Receptores Odorantes/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Dieta/métodos , Dieta Vegetariana/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/fisiologia , Plantas
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(5)2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074877

RESUMO

The appearance of Homo erectus shortly after 2.0 Ma is widely considered a turning point in human dietary evolution, with increased consumption of animal tissues driving the evolution of larger brain and body size and a reorganization of the gut. An increase in the size and number of zooarchaeological assemblages after the appearance of H. erectus is often offered as a central piece of archaeological evidence for increased carnivory in this species, but this characterization has yet to be subject to detailed scrutiny. Any widespread dietary shift leading to the acquisition of key traits in H. erectus should be persistent in the zooarchaeological record through time and can only be convincingly demonstrated by a broad-scale analysis that transcends individual sites or localities. Here, we present a quantitative synthesis of the zooarchaeological record of eastern Africa from 2.6 to 1.2 Ma. We show that several proxies for the prevalence of hominin carnivory are all strongly related to how well the fossil record has been sampled, which constrains the zooarchaeological visibility of hominin carnivory. When correcting for sampling effort, there is no sustained increase in the amount of evidence for hominin carnivory between 2.6 and 1.2 Ma. Our observations undercut evolutionary narratives linking anatomical and behavioral traits to increased meat consumption in H. erectus, suggesting that other factors are likely responsible for the appearance of its human-like traits.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Carnivoridade/fisiologia , Arqueologia/métodos , Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Dieta/métodos , Fósseis , Humanos
10.
J Evol Biol ; 35(2): 225-239, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34882899

RESUMO

The inactivation of ancestral protein-coding genes (gene loss) can be associated with phenotypic modifications. Within placental mammals, repeated losses of PNLIPRP1 (gene inhibiting fat digestion) occurred preferentially in strictly herbivorous species, whereas repeated NR1I3 losses (gene involved in detoxification) occurred preferentially in strictly carnivorous species. It was hypothesized that lower fat contents of herbivorous diets and lower toxin contents of carnivorous diets cause relaxed selection pressure on these genes, resulting in the accumulation of mutations and ultimately to convergent gene losses. However, because herbivorous and carnivorous diets differ vastly in their composition, a fine-grained analysis is required for hypothesis testing. We generated a trait matrix recording diet and semi-quantitative estimates of fat and toxin consumption for 52 placental species. By including data from 31 fossil taxa, we reconstructed the ancestral diets in major lineages (grundplan reconstruction). We found support that PNLIPRP1 loss is primarily associated with low levels of fat intake and not simply with herbivory/carnivory. In particular, PNLIPRP1 loss also occurred in carnivorous lineages feeding on a fat-poor diet, suggesting that the loss of this gene may be beneficial for occupying ecological niches characterized by fat-poor food resources. Similarly, we demonstrated that carnivorous species are indeed less exposed to diet-related toxins, suggesting that the loss of NR1I3 and related genes (NR1I2 and UGT1A6) resulted from relaxed selection pressure. This study illustrates the need of detailed phenotype studies to obtain a deeper understanding of factors underlying gene losses and to progress in understanding genomic causes of phenotypic variation in mammals.


Assuntos
Placenta , Xenobióticos , Animais , Carnivoridade/fisiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Lipase , Mamíferos/genética , Gravidez
11.
Gene ; 808: 145999, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627942

RESUMO

Gut microbiome influence the health and evolution of mammals and multiple factors modulate the structure and function of gut microbiome. However, the specific changes of the diets and phylogeny on the gut microbiome were unclear. Here, we compared the gut microbiome of 16 rare wild mammals. All data (>200G 16S rRNA gene sequences) were generated using a high-throughput sequencing platform. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the most predominant phyla in all mammals. However, Proteobacteria was an additionally dominant phylum specifically detected in the microbiome of carnivores and omnivores. Moreover, the dominant phyla in canids were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Fusobacteria. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on the gut microbiome and mitochondrial genome of these mammals were similar. The impact of the host on the microbiome community composition was most evident when considering conspecific and congeneric relationships. Similarity clustering showed that the gut microbiome of herbivores was clustered together, and the other clade comprised both omnivores and carnivores. Collectively, these results revealed that phylogenetic relationships and diet have an important impact on the gut microbiome, and thus the gut microbiome community composition may reflect both the phylogenetic relationships and diets. This study provides valuable basic data to facilitate future efforts related to animal conservation and health.


Assuntos
Dieta/tendências , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Mamíferos/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/genética , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Evolução Biológica , Carnivoridade/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Evolução Molecular , Fezes/microbiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbivoria/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Mamíferos/genética , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
12.
Nature ; 601(7892): 263-267, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937938

RESUMO

Cancer is a ubiquitous disease of metazoans, predicted to disproportionately affect larger, long-lived organisms owing to their greater number of cell divisions, and thus increased probability of somatic mutations1,2. While elevated cancer risk with larger body size and/or longevity has been documented within species3-5, Peto's paradox indicates the apparent lack of such an association among taxa6. Yet, unequivocal empirical evidence for Peto's paradox is lacking, stemming from the difficulty of estimating cancer risk in non-model species. Here we build and analyse a database on cancer-related mortality using data on adult zoo mammals (110,148 individuals, 191 species) and map age-controlled cancer mortality to the mammalian tree of life. We demonstrate the universality and high frequency of oncogenic phenomena in mammals and reveal substantial differences in cancer mortality across major mammalian orders. We show that the phylogenetic distribution of cancer mortality is associated with diet, with carnivorous mammals (especially mammal-consuming ones) facing the highest cancer-related mortality. Moreover, we provide unequivocal evidence for the body size and longevity components of Peto's paradox by showing that cancer mortality risk is largely independent of both body mass and adult life expectancy across species. These results highlight the key role of life-history evolution in shaping cancer resistance and provide major advancements in the quest for natural anticancer defences.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Dieta , Mamíferos , Neoplasias , Envelhecimento , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/classificação , Tamanho Corporal , Peso Corporal , Carnivoridade , Dieta/veterinária , Longevidade , Mamíferos/classificação , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/veterinária , Filogenia , Fatores de Risco , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Curr Biol ; 32(3): 677-686.e3, 2022 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919807

RESUMO

Theropod dinosaurs underwent some of the most remarkable dietary changes in vertebrate evolutionary history, shifting from ancestral carnivory1-3 to hypercarnivory4,5 and omnivory/herbivory,6-9 with some taxa eventually reverting to carnivory.10-12 The mandible is an important tool for food acquisition in vertebrates and reflects adaptations to feeding modes and diets.13,14 The morphofunctional modifications accompanying the dietary changes in theropod dinosaurs are not well understood because most of the previous studies focused solely on the cranium and/or were phylogenetically limited in scope,12,15-21 while studies that include multiple clades are usually based on linear measurements and/or discrete osteological characters.8,22 Given the potential relationship between macroevolutionary change and ontogenetic pattern,23 we explore whether functional morphological patterns observed in theropod mandibular evolution show similarities to the ontogenetic trajectory. Here, we use finite element analysis to study the mandibles of non-avialan coelurosaurian theropods and demonstrate how feeding mechanics vary between dietary groups and major clades. We reveal an overall reduction in feeding-induced stresses along all theropod lineages through time. This is facilitated by a post-dentary expansion and the development of a downturned dentary in herbivores and an upturned dentary in carnivores likely via the "curved bone effect." We also observed the same reduction in feeding-induced stress in an ontogenetic series of jaws of the tyrannosaurids Tarbosaurus and Tyrannosaurus, which is best attributed to bone functional adaptation. This suggests that this common tendency for structural strengthening of the theropod mandible through time, irrespective of diet, is linked to "functional peramorphosis" of bone functional adaptations acquired during ontogeny.


Assuntos
Dinossauros , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Carnivoridade , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , Filogenia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16135, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373471

RESUMO

Humans are unique in their diet, physiology and socio-reproductive behavior compared to other primates. They are also unique in the ubiquitous adaptation to all biomes and habitats. From an evolutionary perspective, these trends seem to have started about two million years ago, coinciding with the emergence of encephalization, the reduction of the dental apparatus, the adoption of a fully terrestrial lifestyle, resulting in the emergence of the modern anatomical bauplan, the focalization of certain activities in the landscape, the use of stone tools, and the exit from Africa. It is in this period that clear taphonomic evidence of a switch in diet with respect to Pliocene hominins occurred, with the adoption of carnivory. Until now, the degree of carnivorism in early humans remained controversial. A persistent hypothesis is that hominins acquired meat irregularly (potentially as fallback food) and opportunistically through klepto-foraging. Here, we test this hypothesis and show, in contrast, that the butchery practices of early Pleistocene hominins (unveiled through systematic study of the patterning and intensity of cut marks on their prey) could not have resulted from having frequent secondary access to carcasses. We provide evidence of hominin primary access to animal resources and emphasize the role that meat played in their diets, their ecology and their anatomical evolution, ultimately resulting in the ecologically unrestricted terrestrial adaptation of our species. This has major implications to the evolution of human physiology and potentially for the evolution of the human brain.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Carnivoridade/fisiologia , Dieta Paleolítica/história , Hominidae/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Algoritmos , Animais , Arqueologia , Ecossistema , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Carne/história , Tanzânia
15.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253182, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214090

RESUMO

Although relationships between intestinal morphology between trophic groups in reptiles are widely assumed and represent a cornerstone of ecomorphological narratives, few comparative approaches actually tested this hypothesis on a larger scale. We collected data on lengths of intestinal sections of 205 reptile species for which either body mass (BM), snout-vent-length (SVL) or carapax length (CL) was recorded, transforming SVL or CL into BM if the latter was not given, and analyzed scaling patterns with BM and SVL, accounting for phylogeny, comparing three trophic guilds (faunivores, omnivores, herbivores), and comparing with a mammal dataset. Length-BM relationships in reptiles were stronger for the small than the large intestine, suggesting that for the latter, additional factors might be relevant. Adding trophic level did not consistently improve model fit; only when controlling for phylogeny, models indicated a longer large intestine in herbivores, due to a corresponding pattern in lizards. Trophic level effects were highly susceptible to sample sizes, and not considered strong. Models that linked BM to intestine length had better support than models using SVL, due to the deviating body shape of snakes. At comparable BM, reptiles had shorter intestines than mammals. While the latter finding corresponds to findings of lower tissue masses for the digestive tract and other organs in reptiles as well as our understanding of differences in energetic requirements between the classes, they raise the hitherto unanswered question what it is that reptiles of similar BM have more than mammals. A lesser effect of trophic level on intestine lengths in reptiles compared to mammals may stem from lesser selective pressures on differentiation between trophic guilds, related to the generally lower food intake and different movement patterns of reptiles, which may not similarly escalate evolutionary arms races tuned to optimal agility as between mammalian predators and prey.


Assuntos
Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Mamíferos/anatomia & histologia , Répteis/anatomia & histologia , Anatomia Comparada , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Carnivoridade , Ingestão de Energia , Herbivoria , Intestino Grosso/anatomia & histologia , Intestino Delgado/anatomia & histologia , Mamíferos/classificação , Tamanho do Órgão , Répteis/classificação
16.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 863, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267313

RESUMO

Organisms comprise multiple interacting parts, but few quantitative studies have analysed multi-element systems, limiting understanding of phenotypic evolution. We investigate how disparity of vertebral morphology varies along the axial column of mammalian carnivores - a chain of 27 subunits - and the extent to which morphological variation have been structured by evolutionary constraints and locomotory adaptation. We find that lumbars and posterior thoracics exhibit high individual disparity but low serial differentiation. They are pervasively recruited into locomotory functions and exhibit relaxed evolutionary constraint. More anterior vertebrae also show signals of locomotory adaptation, but nevertheless have low individual disparity and constrained patterns of evolution, characterised by low-dimensional shape changes. Our findings demonstrate the importance of the thoracolumbar region as an innovation enabling evolutionary versatility of mammalian locomotion. Moreover, they underscore the complexity of phenotypic macroevolution of multi-element systems and that the strength of ecomorphological signal does not have a predictable influence on macroevolutionary outcomes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Carnivoridade/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Microtomografia por Raio-X
18.
Ann Bot ; 128(3): 241-259, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carnivorous plants are an ecological group of approx. 810 vascular species which capture and digest animal prey, absorb prey-derived nutrients and utilize them to enhance their growth and development. Extant carnivorous plants have evolved in at least ten independent lineages, and their adaptive traits represent an example of structural and functional convergence. Plant carnivory is a result of complex adaptations to mostly nutrient-poor, wet and sunny habitats when the benefits of carnivory exceed the costs. With a boost in interest and extensive research in recent years, many aspects of these adaptations have been clarified (at least partly), but many remain unknown. SCOPE: We provide some of the most recent insights into substantial ecophysiological, biochemical and evolutional particulars of plant carnivory from the functional viewpoint. We focus on those processes and traits in carnivorous plants associated with their ecological characterization, mineral nutrition, cost-benefit relationships, functioning of digestive enzymes and regulation of the hunting cycle in traps. We elucidate mechanisms by which uptake of prey-derived nutrients leads to stimulation of photosynthesis and root nutrient uptake. CONCLUSIONS: Utilization of prey-derived mineral (mainly N and P) and organic nutrients is highly beneficial for plants and increases the photosynthetic rate in leaves as a prerequisite for faster plant growth. Whole-genome and tandem gene duplications brought gene material for diversification into carnivorous functions and enabled recruitment of defence-related genes. Possible mechanisms for the evolution of digestive enzymes are summarized, and a comprehensive picture on the biochemistry and regulation of prey decomposition and prey-derived nutrient uptake is provided.


Assuntos
Carnivoridade , Plantas , Animais , Nutrientes , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Plantas/genética
19.
Ann Bot ; 128(3): 301-314, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Secondary metabolites are integral to multiple key plant processes (growth regulation, pollinator attraction and interactions with conspecifics, competitors and symbionts) yet their role in plant adaptation remains an underexplored area of research. Carnivorous plants use secondary metabolites to acquire nutrients from prey, but the extent of the role of secondary metabolites in plant carnivory is not known. We aimed to determine the extent of the role of secondary metabolites in facilitating carnivory of the Cape sundew, Drosera capensis. METHODS: We conducted metabolomic analysis of 72 plants in a time-series experiment before and after simulated prey capture. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and the retention time index to identify compounds in the leaf trap tissue that changed up to 72 h following simulated prey capture. We identified associated metabolic pathways, and cross-compared these compounds with metabolites previously known to be involved in carnivorous plants across taxa. KEY RESULTS: For the first time in a carnivorous plant, we have profiled the whole-leaf metabolome response to prey capture. Reliance on secondary plant metabolites was higher than previously thought - 2383 out of 3257 compounds in fed leaves had statistically significant concentration changes in comparison with unfed controls. Of these, ~34 compounds are also associated with carnivory in other species; 11 are unique to Nepenthales. At least 20 compounds had 10-fold changes in concentration, 12 of which had 30-fold changes and are typically associated with defence or attraction in non-carnivorous plants. CONCLUSIONS: Secondary plant metabolites are utilized in plant carnivory to an extent greater than previously thought - we found a whole-metabolome response to prey capture. Plant carnivory, at the metabolic level, likely evolved from at least two distinct functions: attraction and defence. Findings of this study support the hypothesis that secondary metabolites play an important role in plant diversification and adaptation to new environments.


Assuntos
Drosera , Carnivoridade , Folhas de Planta , Plantas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10940, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035418

RESUMO

Adaptive radiation is a phenomenon in which various organs are diversified morphologically or functionally as animals adapt to environmental inputs. Leeches exhibit a variety of ingestion behaviors and morphologically diverse ingestion organs. In this study, we investigated the correlation between behavioral pattern and feeding organ structure of leech species. Among them, we found that Alboglossiphonia sp. swallows prey whole using its proboscis, whereas other leeches exhibit typical fluid-sucking behavior. To address whether the different feeding behaviors are intrinsic, we investigated the behavioral patterns and muscle arrangements in the earlier developmental stage of glossiphoniid leeches. Juvenile Glossiphoniidae including the Alboglossiphonia sp. exhibit the fluid ingestion behavior and have the proboscis with the compartmentalized muscle layers. This study provides the characteristics of leeches with specific ingestion behaviors, and a comparison of structural differences that serves as the first evidence of the proboscis diversification.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Alimentar , Trato Gastrointestinal , Sanguessugas/anatomia & histologia , Sanguessugas/fisiologia , Animais , Carnivoridade , Sanguessugas/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...