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1.
J Food Sci ; 87(1): 302-311, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919279

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the properties of ternary composite gel of scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) protein hydrolysates (SMGHs)/κ-carrageenan (KC)/xanthan gum (XG). The rheological properties, moisture-distribution, molecular structure, and microstructure of SMGNs/KC/XG gels were analyzed. The results showed that the G' value, melting temperature, and water holding capacity of SMGHs/KC/XG were higher than those of SMGHs, SMGHs/KC, and SMGHs/XG. FTIR spectrum showed the generation of hydrogen bonds between SMGHs and KC/XG, and the carboxylic acid group of XG interacts with SMGHs. Moreover, the cryo-SEM results showed that SMGHs/KC/XG exhibited a tighter, smoother, and more aggregated microstructure than those of SMGHs, SMGHs/KC, and SMGHs/XG. These results indicate that the gel and microstructural properties of SMGHs are significantly improved by addition of KC and XG, and SMGHs/KC/XG has potential to be used as functional hydrogels for food, pharmaceutical, and biomedical applications. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) male gonads are rich in protein and usually regarded as byproducts during adductor processing. Because of its gelation properties, scallop male gonads have potential to be used as functional hydrogels for food. The SMGHs/KC/XG ternary composite gel showed excellent gel properties, which would be potentially applied in delivery system in food and biological fields. Further study is undergoing to apply SMGHs/KC/XG to embed bioactive compounds, such as curcumin and ß-carotene.


Assuntos
Pectinidae , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Animais , Carragenina , Gônadas , Hidrogéis , Masculino , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos , Reologia
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126729, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388920

RESUMO

Polysaccharide-based hydrogels offer a great overlook for environmental applications and help in the elimination of various noxious pollutants from the water system. Novel carrageenan and itaconic acid-based superadsorbent hydrogel having appreciable swelling properties and adsorption capacity towards Methylene blue (MB), Crystal violet (CV), and Methyl Red (MR) was synthesized by suspension polymerization technique. The swelling study showed the dependency upon the temperature in which the swelling rate increased with increasing temperature with a maximum swelling rate of 417% at 318 K. For ascertaining the maximum adsorption capacity, various influential parameters such as contact time, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, and temperature were systematically studied. Maximum adsorption capacity as calculated from the Langmuir isotherm was 2439.02, 1111.11, and 666.68 mg/g for MB, CV, and MR, respectively. Thermodynamic studies revealed the spontaneous nature of the undertaken dye adsorption experiment. Overall, the present study reveals that the synthesized superadsorbent hydrogel can be used as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of dyes from an aqueous solution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Carragenina , Corantes , Hidrogéis , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Azul de Metileno , Succinatos
3.
J Fish Dis ; 45(1): 19-33, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549432

RESUMO

To date, the mechanisms of inflammation have been poorly studied in fish of commercial interest, due to the lack of development of appropriate experimental models. The current study evaluated a local inflammation triggered by a polymeric carrageenin mixture (a mucopolysaccharide derived from the red seaweed Chondrus crispus) in the skin of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Fish were injected subcutaneously with phosphate-buffered saline (as control) or λ/κ-carrageenin (1%), and skin samples from the injection sites were collected 1.5, 3 and 6 hr post-injection, processed for inclusion in paraplast and stained with haematoxylin-eosin, Alcian blue or periodic acid-Schiff. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry and expression analyses of several cells' markers and proinflammatory genes were also analysed in samples of the injected sites. Microscopic results indicated an increased number of skin mucus-secreting cells and acidophilic granulocytes in the skin of fish studied at 1.5 hr and 3 hr post-injection with carrageenin, respectively, with respect to the data obtained in control fish. Otherwise, both the gene expression of the non-specific cytotoxic cell marker (granzyme B, grb) and the proinflammatory cytokine (interleukin-1ß, il-1ß) were up-regulated at 1.5 hr in the skin of fish injected with carrageenin compared with the control fish, whilst the gene expression of acidophilic granulocyte markers (NADPH oxidase subunit Phox22 and Phox40, phox22 and phox40) was up-regulated at 3 and 6 hr in the carrageenin group, compared with the control group. In addition, the gene expression of myeloperoxidase (mpo) was also up-regulated at 6 hr in the skin of fish injected with carrageenin in comparison with control samples. The present results indicate the chronological participation of two important immune cells involved in the resolution of the inflammation in the skin of gilthead seabream.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Dourada , Animais , Carragenina , Doenças dos Peixes/induzido quimicamente , Granulócitos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/veterinária , Injeções Subcutâneas , Macrófagos , Monócitos , Muco
4.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 607(Pt 2): 1131-1141, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571300

RESUMO

The synthesis of Janus nanosheets using κ-carrageenan (κ-Ca) as a green template endows a greener and more straightforward method compared to traditional approaches of using wax template. We hypothesize that the hydrogen bonding interaction between κ-Ca and graphene oxide (GO) allows partial masking of GO's single facet, paving the way for the asymmetric modification of the exposed surface. GO is first encapsulated within the porous hydrogel matrix formed by κ-Ca to isolate one of the facets. The exposed surface was then selectively hydrophobized to produce an amphiphilic asymmetrically modified graphene oxide (AMGO). The properties of AMGO synthesized under different κ-Ca/GO ratios were studied. The κ-Ca/GO interactions and the properties of GO and AMGO were investigated and characterized. AMGO was successfully produced with a yield of 90.37 % under optimized synthesis conditions. The separation of κ-Ca and AMGO was conducted without organic solvents, and the κ-Ca could be subsequently recovered. Furthermore, the porous hydrogel matrix formed by κ-Ca and GO exhibited excellent shape-retaining properties with high thermal tolerance of up to 50 °C. Given these benefits, this newly developed method endows sustainability and open the possibility of formulating more flexible material synthesis protocols.


Assuntos
Grafite , Carragenina , Hidrogéis , Ligação de Hidrogênio
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34947999

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread around the world and remains a major public health threat. Vaccine inefficiency, vaccination breakthroughs and lack of supply, especially in developing countries, as well as the fact that a non-negligible part of the population either refuse vaccination or cannot be vaccinated due to age, pre-existing illness or non-response to existing vaccines intensify this issue. This might also contribute to the emergence of new variants, being more efficiently transmitted, more virulent and more capable of escaping naturally acquired and vaccine-induced immunity. Hence, the need of effective and viable prevention options to reduce viral transmission is of outmost importance. In this study, we investigated the antiviral effect of iota-, lambda- and kappa-carrageenan, sulfated polysaccharides extracted from red seaweed, on SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan type and the spreading variants of concern (VOCs) Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta. Carrageenans as part of broadly used nasal and mouth sprays as well as lozenges have the potential of first line defense to inhibit the infection and transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we demonstrate by using a SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudotyped lentivirus particles (SSPL) system and patient-isolated SARS-CoV-2 VOCs to infect transgenic A549ACE2/TMPRSS2 and Calu-3 human lung cells that all three carrageenan types exert antiviral activity. Iota-carrageenan exhibits antiviral activity with comparable IC50 values against the SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan type and the VOCs. Altogether, these results indicate that iota-carrageenan might be effective for prophylaxis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infections independent of the present and potentially future variants.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/virologia , Carragenina/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/farmacologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Pandemias , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Células Vero
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e243775, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909834

RESUMO

Rubiadin is identified as a bioactive anthraquinone that exists in some quinone rich plants. The current research was carried out to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory impact of Rubiadin in acute and chronic inflammation test models in rodents. The anti-inflammatory activity of Rubiadin was examined in cotton pellet-induced granuloma and carrageenan-induced edema as chronic and acute inflammation models in rats. TNF-α level and histopathological changes were assessed using sampled foot tissue of rat in the acute model. Also, the IL-1ß level was assessed in the chronic model. One-way ANOVA (post hoc Tukey's) analysis was used for comparing the groups. Rubiadin (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) induced a significant reduction in TNF α level and the paw edema compared to the control group in carrageenan test. Also, it was observed that the anti-inflammatory activity of Rubiadin (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) is comparable to mefenamic acid (30 mg/kg, i.p.) as the standard drug. Rubiadin was effective in granuloma induced by cotton pellet concerning the granuloma and transudate formation amount. Rubiadin's anti-inflammatory effects were associated with a significant IL-1ß decrease in this model. The results suggest that Rubiadin as a natural compound can possess significant peripheral anti-inflammatory impacts.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Roedores , Animais , Antraquinonas , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Carragenina/uso terapêutico , Carragenina/toxicidade , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos
7.
Biomolecules ; 11(12)2021 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944441

RESUMO

Protein kinase Cε (PKCε) is highly expressed in nociceptor neurons and its activation has been reported as pro-nociceptive. Intriguingly, we previously demonstrated that activation of the mitochondrial PKCε substrate aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) results in anti-nociceptive effects. ALDH2 is a major enzyme responsible for the clearance of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), an oxidative stress byproduct accumulated in inflammatory conditions and sufficient to induce pain hypersensitivity in rodents. Here we determined the contribution of the PKCε-ALDH2 axis during 4-HNE-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. Using knockout mice, we demonstrated that PKCε is essential for the nociception recovery during 4-HNE-induced hypersensitivity. We also found that ALDH2 deficient knockin mice display increased 4-HNE-induced nociceptive behavior. As proof of concept, the use of a selective peptide activator of PKCε (ΨεHSP90), which favors PKCε translocation to mitochondria and activation of PKCε-ALDH2 axis, was sufficient to block 4-HNE-induced hypersensitivity in WT, but not in ALDH2-deficient mice. Similarly, ΨεHSP90 administration prevented mechanical hypersensitivity induced by endogenous production of 4-HNE after carrageenan injection. These findings provide evidence that selective activation of mitochondrial PKCε-ALDH2 axis is important to mitigate aldehyde-mediated pain in rodents, suggesting that ΨεHSP90 and small molecules that mimic it may be a potential treatment for patients with pain.


Assuntos
Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Aldeídos/efeitos adversos , Dor/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C-épsilon/metabolismo , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Animais , Carragenina/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Transporte Proteico
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 7353-7367, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754189

RESUMO

Background: Although bullfrog oil (BFO) exerts anti-inflammatory effects, it has undesirable properties limiting its use. Methodology: BFO nanocapsules (BFONc) were produced through nanoprecipitation, and their physicochemical and morphological properties were characterized. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the formulation, a mitochondrial activity evaluation assay was conducted, and cell uptake was assessed. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), type-6 interleukin (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels. The in vivo anti-inflammatory effect was assessed by quantifying myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels using the carrageenan-induced paw edema model. Results: BFONc showed a particle size of 233 ± 22 nm, a polydispersity index of 0.17 ± 0.03, and a zeta potential of -34 ± 2.6mV. BFONc revealed remarkable biocompatibility and did not induce changes in cell morphology. Furthermore, BFONc decreased ROS levels by 81 ± 4%; however, NO level increased by 72 ± 18%. TNF and IL-6 levels were reduced by approximately 10% and 90%, respectively. Significant in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was observed compared to dexamethasone. MPO levels were reduced up to 2 MPOs/mg. Conclusion: Taken together, the results pointed out the remarkable biocompatibility and anti-inflammatory effects of BFONc.


Assuntos
Nanocápsulas , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Carragenina , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Nanocápsulas/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Rana catesbeiana , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/uso terapêutico
9.
Soft Matter ; 17(42): 9708-9715, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642718

RESUMO

Nowadays, several approaches are being suggested to endow hydrogels with improved mechanical properties for practical applications as cartilage and skin replacements, soft electronics, and actuators. However, it remains a challenge to develop DN gels with both high fracture toughness and fracture stretch. Here, we introduce (bio)polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) consisting of gelatin and κ-carrageenan as the first brittle network and covalently crosslinked polyacrylamide (PAAm) as the second stretchable network to fabricate a highly stretchable and notch-insensitive gelatin/κ-carrageenan/PAAm hydrogel. The unprecedented high stretchability (∼51.7) is ascribed to the reduction of stress concentration and defects in the network structure through the fracture of the PEC gel. In addition, a high fracture toughness (∼16053.34 J m-2) is achieved by effective energy transfer between the PECs and PAAm gel due to their covalent crosslinking, and efficient energy dissipation through destroying inter- and intramolecular interactions in the PEC gel.


Assuntos
Gelatina , Hidrogéis , Resinas Acrílicas , Carragenina , Polieletrólitos
10.
Food Res Int ; 149: 110703, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600695

RESUMO

Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is an herbaceous plant used as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) source that presents a range of beneficial effects on human health. Herein, it was used a chia oil containing over than 62% of α-linolenic acid (ALA), a compound widely related to anti-inflammatory actions. Chia oil effect was tested using paw edema and mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, and ear edema induced by croton oil, histamine, and capsaicin. Croton oil was used in both preventive and therapeutic treatment schedules of chia oil while histamine and capsaicin were used only in preventive treatment schedule. Chia oil mechanism of action was investigated using nociception and paw edema response induced by intraplantar injection of acidified saline (ASIC activator), PGE2 (prostaglandin pathway), cinnamaldehyde (TRPA1 activator), bradykinin (BK pathway), menthol (TRPM8 activator), and capsaicin (TRPV1 activator). Further, RT-PCR for inflammatory mediators (TRPA1, NF-κB, PPAR-γ, COX-2, IL-6, TNF, FPR2, FAAH, MAGL, and IL-12A) induced by carrageenan, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and the cell viability were then accessed. Later, chia oil actions were evaluated in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a multiple sclerosis (MS) model. Chia oil showed anti-edematogenic and anti-hyperalgesic effects when administered 1 h before pro-inflammatory stimulus - particularly carrageenan and croton oil. Moreover, chia oil upregulated the mRNA levels of COX-2 and formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) while reduced IL-6 expression in the spinal cord of mice submitted to i.pl. injection of carrageenan. Interestingly, chia oil mediates antinociceptive effects in mice decreasing the nociceptive response induced by acidified saline, PGE2, and cinnamaldehyde, but not by bradykinin, menthol, and capsaicin. On the EAE model, chia oil preventively administered attenuated EAE-induced motor deficits and mechanical hyperalgesia in mice, suggesting a valuable effect of chia oil supplementation in regulating inflammatory responses and some immune functions during immune-mediated inflammatory disorders (IMID). Nonetheless, additional reports will need to assess the effect of chia oil in well-controlled clinical trials performed in MS patients.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Carragenina , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
11.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684400

RESUMO

Carrageenan (CGN) is a high molecular weight polysaccharide extracted from red seaweeds, composed of D-galactose residues linked in ß-1,4 and α-1,3 galactose-galactose bond, widely used as a food additive in processed foods for its properties as a thickener, gelling agent, emulsifier, and stabilizer. In recent years, with the spread of the Western diet (WD), its consumption has increased. Nonetheless, there is a debate on its safety. CGN is extensively used as an inflammatory and adjuvant agent in vitro and in animal experimental models for the investigation of immune processes or to assess the activity of anti-inflammatory drugs. CGN can activate the innate immune pathways of inflammation, alter the gut microbiota composition and the thickness of the mucus barrier. Clinical evidence suggests that CGN is involved in the pathogenesis and clinical management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), indeed food-exclusion diets can be an effective therapy for disease remission. Moreover, specific IgE to the oligosaccharide α-Gal has been associated with allergic reactions commonly referred to as the "α-Gal syndrome". This review aims to discuss the role of carrageenan in inflammatory bowel diseases and allergic reactions following the current evidence. Furthermore, as no definitive data are available on the safety and the effects of CGN, we suggest gaps to be filled and advise to limit the human exposure to CGN by reducing the consumption of ultra-processed foods.


Assuntos
Carragenina/efeitos adversos , Dieta , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Animais , Carragenina/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Inflamação
12.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684714

RESUMO

Current cell-based bone tissue regeneration strategies cannot cover large bone defects. K-carrageenan is a highly hydrophilic and biocompatible seaweed-derived sulfated polysaccharide, that has been proposed as a promising candidate for tissue engineering applications. Whether κ-carrageenan can be used to enhance bone regeneration is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether κ-carrageenan has osteogenic potential by testing its effect on pre-osteoblast proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Treatment with κ-carrageenan (0.5 and 2 mg/mL) increased both MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast adhesion and spreading at 1 h. K-carrageenan (0.125-2 mg/mL) dose-dependently increased pre-osteoblast proliferation and metabolic activity, with a maximum effect at 2 mg/mL at day three. K-carrageenan (0.5 and 2 mg/mL) increased osteogenic differentiation, as shown by enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity (1.8-fold increase at 2 mg/mL) at day four, and matrix mineralization (6.2-fold increase at 2 mg/mL) at day 21. K-carrageenan enhanced osteogenic gene expression (Opn, Dmp1, and Mepe) at day 14 and 21. In conclusion, κ-carrageenan promoted MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast adhesion and spreading, metabolic activity, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation, suggesting that κ-carrageenan is a potential osteogenic inductive factor for clinical application to enhance bone regeneration.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea/fisiologia , Carragenina/farmacologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Carragenina/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
13.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641376

RESUMO

Different parts of Araucaria bidiwillii (bunya pin) trees, such as nuts, seeds, bark, and shoots, are widely used in cooking, tea, and traditional medicines around the world. The shoots essential oil (EO) has not yet been studied. Herein, the chemical profile of A. bidiwillii shoots EO (ABSEO) was created by GC-MS analysis. Additionally, the in vivo oral and topical anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced models, as well as antipyretic potentiality of ABSEO and its nanoemulsion were evaluated. Forty-three terpenoid components were identified and categorized as mono- (42.94%), sesqui- (31.66%), and diterpenes (23.74%). The main compounds of the ABSEO were beyerene (20.81%), α-pinene (16.21%), D-limonene (14.22%), germacrene D (6.69%), ß-humulene (4.14%), and sabinene (4.12%). The ABSEO and its nanoemulsion exhibited significant inflammation suppression in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model, in both oral (50 and 100 mg/kg) and topical (5% in soyabean oil) routes, compared to the control and reference drugs groups. All the results demonstrated the significant inflammation reduction via the inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß and IL8), nitrosative (NO), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) supported by the histopathological studies and immunohistochemical assessment of MMP-9 and NF-κß levels in paw tissues. Moreover, the oral administration of ABSEO and its nanoemulsion (50 and 100 mg/kg) exhibited antipyretic activity in rats, demonstrated by the inhibition of hyperthermia induced by intramuscular injection of brewer's yeast. These findings advised that the use of ABSEO and its nanoemulsion against numerous inflammatory and hyperthermia ailments that could be attributed to its active constituents.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antipiréticos/farmacologia , Araucaria/química , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Carragenina/efeitos adversos , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/patologia , Emulsões , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Brotos de Planta/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
14.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641627

RESUMO

Peganum harmala (P. harmala) belongs to the family Zygophyllaceae, and is utilized in the traditional medicinal systems of Pakistan, China, Morocco, Algeria, and Spain to treat several chronic health disorders. The aim of the present study was to identify the chemical constituents and to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and toxicity effects of P. harmala extracts both in vitro and in vivo. Sequential crude extracts including 100% dichloromethane, 100% methanol, and 70% aqueous methanol were obtained and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. The anti-inflammatory effect of the extract was investigated using the carrageenan-induced paw edema method in mice, whereas the toxicity of the most active extract was evaluated using an acute and subacute toxicity rat model. In addition, we have used the bioassay-guided approach to obtain potent fractions, using solvent-solvent partitioning and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography from active crude extracts; identification and quantification of compounds from the active fractions was achieved using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography techniques. Results revealed that the 100% methanol extract of P. harmala exhibits significant in vitro antioxidant activity in DPPH assay with an IC50 of 49 µg/mL as compared to the standard quercetin with an IC50 of 25.4 µg/mL. The same extract exhibited 63.0% inhibition against serum albumin denaturation as compared to 97% inhibition by the standard diclofenac sodium in an in vitro anti-inflammatory assay, and in vivo anti-inflammatory against carrageenan-induced paw edema (75.14% inhibition) as compared to 86.1% inhibition caused by the standard indomethacin. Furthermore, this extract was not toxic during a 14 day trial of acute toxicity when given at a dose of 3 g/kg, indicating that the lethal dose (LD50) of P. harmala methanol extract was greater than 3 g/kg. P. harmala methanolic fraction 2 obtained using bioassay-guided fractionation showed the presence of quinic acid, peganine, harmol, harmaline, and harmine, confirmed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and quantified using external standards on high performance liquid chromatography. Taken all together, the current investigation further confirms the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and safety aspects of P. harmala, which justifies its use in folk medicine.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Carragenina/efeitos adversos , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Peganum/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Indometacina/farmacologia , Dose Letal Mediana , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Quercetina/farmacologia , Ratos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Testes de Toxicidade Subaguda
16.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 208: 112085, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478956

RESUMO

Fe3O4 nanoparticle loaded with silver ion was prepared as a more efficient, safer, and less environmentally hazardous silver-based antibacterial nanomaterial. The Fe3O4 nanoparticle was modified using 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTMS) to enhance the silver ion adsorption capacity and antibacterial activity. Silver ions were adsorbed on pristine Fe3O4 and Fe3O4@NH2 to enhance antibacterial activity. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results showed that Fe3O4 adsorbed 2.74 wt% of Ag, whereas Fe3O4@NH2 adsorbed 9.88 wt%. Pristine Fe3O4NP, silver ion loaded Fe3O4 (Fe3O4-Ag), and silver ion loaded Fe3O4@NH2 (Fe3O4@NH2-Ag) were used to manufacture carrageenan-based composite films. Compared with Fe3O4-Ag, Fe3O4@NH2-Ag exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity against E. coli (8.82 vs. 5.02 log reduction) and L. monocytogenes (10.09 vs. 3.93 log reduction). While the addition of Fe3O4 significantly reduced the WCA of the carrageenan films from 61.1 ± 5.4 ° to 37.2 ± 2.1 °, the additions of Fe3O4-Ag and Fe3O4@NH2-Ag reduced the WCA of the film to a lesser extent (56.9 ± 4.6 ° and 56.9 ± 4.6 °, respectively). Fe3O4NP also improved the thermal stability of carrageenan over Fe3O4@NH2-Ag (22 °C vs. 13 °C) and UV blocking properties (T280, 0.1 ± 0.0 % vs. 3.3 ± 1.5 %).


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanocompostos , Nanopartículas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carragenina , Escherichia coli , Íons , Silanos , Prata/farmacologia
17.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 110: 106560, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487919

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a common sexually transmitted infection, is causally associated with cervical cancer. Vaccination against HPV provides protection; however, HPV vaccines are exclusively prophylactic. Carrageenan, an extract from red algae, demonstrated potent anti-HPV activity in in vitro and animal studies. We describe the protocol for the Carrageenan-gel Against Transmission of Cervical Human papillomavirus (CATCH) study, an ongoing randomized controlled trial among sexually active young females, aimed at evaluating the efficacy of a carrageenan-based gel in reducing type-specific incidence (i.e. new detections of HPV) and prevalence (i.e. absence of a previously detected HPV) of genital HPV infections as well as participant adherence to the intervention. The CATCH study is a phase IIB double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Eligible women 18 years and older are randomized 1:1 to the carrageenan-containing gel or placebo gel arm. For the first month, participants use the study gel intra-vaginally every other day, and over the 12-month study period, prior to and after each act of vaginal intercourse. At each study visit (months 0, 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12), participants provide a self-collected vaginal sample and record information on sexual activities, adherence, and adverse events using a computerized questionnaire. The primary outcomes are incident and prevalent type-specific cervicovaginal HPV infection. The primary analyses are based on intention-to-treat whereas per-protocol analyses are conducted based on measures of adherence. Trial registration: ISRCTN96104919.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Carragenina , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle
18.
Curr Protoc ; 1(8): e183, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370402

RESUMO

The subcutaneous air pouch is an in vivo model that can be used to study the components of acute and chronic inflammation, the resolution of the inflammatory response, the oxidative stress response, and potential therapeutic targets for treating inflammation. Injection of irritants into an air pouch in rats or mice induces an inflammatory response that can be quantified by the volume of exudate produced, the infiltration of cells, and the release of inflammatory mediators. The model presented in this article has been extensively used to identify potential anti-inflammatory drugs. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol: Air pouch model in the rat Alternate Protocol: Air pouch model in the mouse.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Inflamação , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Carragenina/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Mediadores da Inflamação/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Ratos
19.
Anesth Analg ; 133(5): 1311-1320, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral and parietal peritoneum layers have different sensory innervations. Most visceral peritoneum sensory information is conveyed via the vagus nerve to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). We already showed in animal models that intramuscular (i.m.) injection of local anesthetics decreases acute somatic and visceral pain and general inflammation induced by aseptic peritonitis. The goal of the study was to compare the effects of parietal block, i.m. bupivacaine, and vagotomy on spinal cord and NTS stimulation induced by a chemical peritonitis. METHODS: We induced peritonitis in rats using carrageenan and measured cellular activation in spinal cord and NTS under the following conditions, that is, a parietal nerve block with bupivacaine, a chemical right vagotomy, and i.m. microspheres loaded with bupivacaine. Proto-oncogene c-Fos (c-Fos), cluster of differentiation protein 11b (CD11b), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression in cord and NTS were studied. RESULTS: c-Fos activation in the cord was inhibited by nerve block 2 hours after peritoneal insult. Vagotomy and i.m. bupivacaine similarly inhibited c-Fos activation in NTS. Forty-eight hours after peritoneal insult, the number of cells expressing CD11b significantly increased in the cord (P = .010). The median difference in the effect of peritonitis compared to control was 30 cells (CI95, 13.5-55). TNF-α colocalized with CD11b. Vagotomy inhibited this microglial activation in the NTS, but not in the cord. This activation was inhibited by i.m. bupivacaine both in cord and in NTS. The median difference in the effect of i.m. bupivacaine added to peritonitis was 29 cells (80% increase) in the cord and 18 cells (75% increase) in the NTS. Our study underlines the role of the vagus nerve in the transmission of an acute visceral pain message and confirmed that systemic bupivacaine prevents noxious stimuli by inhibiting c-Fos and microglia activation. CONCLUSIONS: In rats receiving intraperitoneal carrageenan, i.m. bupivacaine similarly inhibited c-Fos and microglial activation both in cord and in the NTS. Vagal block inhibited activation only in the NTS. Our study underlines the role of the vagus nerve in the transmission of an acute visceral pain message and confirmed that systemic bupivacaine prevents noxious stimuli. This emphasizes the effects of systemic local anesthetics on inflammation and visceral pain.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/prevenção & controle , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Manejo da Dor , Núcleo Solitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Vagotomia , Nervo Vago/cirurgia , Dor Visceral/prevenção & controle , Dor Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Dor Aguda/metabolismo , Dor Aguda/fisiopatologia , Animais , Antígeno CD11b/metabolismo , Carragenina , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Injeções Intramusculares , Masculino , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Peritonite/induzido quimicamente , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Núcleo Solitário/metabolismo , Núcleo Solitário/fisiopatologia , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Nervo Vago/fisiopatologia , Dor Visceral/induzido quimicamente , Dor Visceral/metabolismo , Dor Visceral/fisiopatologia
20.
J Food Sci ; 86(9): 4017-4025, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392533

RESUMO

κ-Carrageenan gels were explored for improving the stability of ready-to-drink (RTD) mango juice.RTD mango juice with an acidity of 0.3% and a Brix of 18° was prepared. Two gels, bi-gel and hydrogel, were incorporated in RTD mango juice to study the effect of gel dosage, resting time, and homogenizing time on selected attributes (cloud and physical stability, and viscosity), determined using second-order Box-Behnken design, in combination with response surface methodology. The coefficient of determination values for all models was found to be higher than 90%. The fluid behavior of RTD mango juice after the addition of gels tends to fit Herschel-Bulkley's model. The behavior of RTD mango juice's fluid was found to change from shear thickening to shear thinning after the addition of gels. For hydrogel-based RTD mango juice, maximum cloud stability (3.012 abs), physical stability (66.49%) with minimum viscosity (4120 cP) resulted from optimized conditions of gel dosage (9 mL), resting time (1 h), and homogenizing time (33 s). For RTD mango juice, hydrogel can be preferred over bi-gel due to its melt-in-your-mouth sensation with high physical and cloud stability. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Ready-to-drink mango juice is consumed by a large number of people worldwide. However, an increase in the storage period causes coagulation of the pulp particles, resulting in undesired distinct layers of pulp and water content. In this study, κ-Carrageenan gels were added to RTD mango juices to avoid such separation and improve cloud and physical stability. The findings from this study might serve as a roadmap for developing high-quality, stable RTD products.


Assuntos
Carragenina , Manipulação de Alimentos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Mangifera , Viscosidade , Carragenina/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/normas , Géis/química
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