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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(5): 306, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112255

RESUMO

Tick and tick-borne pathogens constitute a growing veterinary and public health concern around the world. Ticks are considered natural reservoirs for tick-borne related pathogens and are equally responsible for the spread of infections in animals as well as humans. In this study, the presence of Rickettsia, Bartonella, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum was investigated in hard ticks collected from reptiles, birds, and wild mammalian animals. The sample collection was carried out between December 2020 and September 2021. Adult ticks (male and female) were collected from wild animals in six districts of southern Benin. Molecular analysis was used to verify the presence of pathogens in all the ticks collected from wild animals. A total of 504 ticks were collected and grouped into 115 different tick pools. The PCR analysis detected 19 out of 115 tick pools which turn out positive for Rickettsia spp. and 9/115 tick pools positive for Bartonella spp., while Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was not detected in any tick. Several of the tick species collected from our studied reptiles/wild mammalian animals could be potential sources of zoonotic pathogens when subjected to further investigation. Therefore, stringent attention should be established for tick infestation of reptiles/wild mammalian animals in order to put in place proper control and prevention measures for tick-borne diseases in the wild, which could serve as reservoirs in the infestation of domestic animals/humans in the event of any possible contact.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Bartonella , Ixodidae , Rickettsia , Carrapatos , África Ocidental , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Bartonella/genética , Benin/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mamíferos , Rickettsia/genética
2.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 36(3): 523-539, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116832

RESUMO

Erythema migrans, an expanding erythematous skin lesion that develops days to weeks following an Ixodes species tick bite, is the most common clinical manifestation of Lyme disease. Presentations in the United States differ somewhat from that in Europe, presumably because of the different etiologic agents. Diagnosis is based on the appearance of the skin lesion, rather than on laboratory testing. After treatment with an appropriate oral antibiotic for 10 to 14 days, the prognosis is excellent. Two conditions that cause a similar skin lesion following a tick bite, but are of unknown cause, are Southern tick-associated rash illness in the United States and tick-associated rash illness in Japan.


Assuntos
Exantema , Doença de Lyme , Picadas de Carrapatos , Carrapatos , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Eritema , Exantema/diagnóstico , Exantema/tratamento farmacológico , Exantema/etiologia , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/complicações , Doença de Lyme/diagnóstico , Doença de Lyme/tratamento farmacológico , Picadas de Carrapatos/complicações , Picadas de Carrapatos/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 46(3): 224-227, 2022 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094125

RESUMO

Objective: Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF); fever, widespread pain in the body, deterioration in liver function tests; it is a tick-borne viral infectious disease that can cause bleeding and death in the skin, mucous membranes, and sometimes internal organs. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological characteristics of CCHF cases diagnosed in Afyonkarahisar. Methods: Demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, treatments, and prognoses of patients diagnosed with CCHF in Afyonkarahisar were retrospectively analyzed. Results: In Afyonkarahisar, it was determined that 35 case reports were made between 2002 and November 2019, the date when the CCHF was first seen in Turkey. A history of tick attachment was detected in 31 subjects. Tick arrest cases were most common in June (12 cases; 34.3%) and July (9 cases; 2.9%). There was a history of living in rural areas in twenty-seven (77.1%) patients, close contact with animals in 12 patients, and a history of contact with animal blood in 4 patients. All the 35 cases that followed resulted in healing and no mortality was observed. Conclusion: CCHF is an endemic disease that still maintains its importance in our country. The most important factor in the control with the disease is to prevent virus contact to prevent transmission. People living in endemic areas should be informed about the precautions to be taken against tick bites, and awareness should be raised by providing education about the disease.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Carrapatos , Animais , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/diagnóstico , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(9): e1010770, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107982

RESUMO

Babesia are tick-borne protozoan parasites that can infect livestock, pets, wildlife animals, and humans. In the mammalian host, they invade and multiply within red blood cells (RBCs). To support their development as obligate intracellular parasites, Babesia export numerous proteins to modify the RBC during invasion and development. Such exported proteins are likely important for parasite survival and pathogenicity and thus represent candidate drug or vaccine targets. The availability of complete genome sequences and the establishment of transfection systems for several Babesia species have aided the identification and functional characterization of exported proteins. Here, we review exported Babesia proteins; discuss their functions in the context of immune evasion, cytoadhesion, and nutrient uptake; and highlight possible future topics for research and application in this field.


Assuntos
Babesia , Carrapatos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Babesia/genética , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Humanos , Mamíferos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
5.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 55: e0192, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36134865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rickettsia of the spotted fever group (SFG) has been reported in ticks and domestic animals in Campo Grande (CG), Midwest Brazil. METHODS: We searched for Rickettsia in the SFG in capybaras and their ticks in an urban park in the CG. RESULTS: The seropositivity rate was 88.2% (15/17). Although 87.7% of the capybaras sampled showed infestations with Amblyomma sculptum, A. dubitatum, and Amblyomma spp., no molecular results were detected in ticks. CONCLUSIONS: Since Rickettsia from the SFG circulates among capybaras in the urban parks of Campo Grande, this large rodent species should be monitored within the One Health Agenda.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Rickettsia , Febre Maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa , Carrapatos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Parques Recreativos , Rickettsia/genética , Febre Maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas/epidemiologia , Febre Maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas/veterinária , Roedores/microbiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(39): e2112341119, 2022 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122224

RESUMO

Urbanization is rapidly transforming much of Southeast Asia, altering the structure and function of the landscape, as well as the frequency and intensity of the interactions between people, animals, and the environment. In this study, we explored the impact of urbanization on zoonotic disease risk by simultaneously characterizing changes in the ecology of animal reservoirs (rodents), ectoparasite vectors (ticks), and pathogens across a gradient of urbanization in Kuching, a city in Malaysian Borneo. We sampled 863 rodents across rural, developing, and urban locations and found that rodent species diversity decreased with increasing urbanization-from 10 species in the rural location to 4 in the rural location. Notably, two species appeared to thrive in urban areas, as follows: the invasive urban exploiter Rattus rattus (n = 375) and the native urban adapter Sundamys muelleri (n = 331). R. rattus was strongly associated with built infrastructure across the gradient and carried a high diversity of pathogens, including multihost zoonoses capable of environmental transmission (e.g., Leptospira spp.). In contrast, S. muelleri was restricted to green patches where it was found at high densities and was strongly associated with the presence of ticks, including the medically important genera Amblyomma, Haemaphysalis, and Ixodes. Our analyses reveal that zoonotic disease risk is elevated and heterogeneously distributed in urban environments and highlight the potential for targeted risk reduction through pest management and public health messaging.


Assuntos
Carrapatos , Urbanização , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Cidades , Humanos , Murinae , Ratos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14872, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050456

RESUMO

Records on the distribution of Rickettsia spp. in their natural hosts in Central Asia are incomplete. Rodents and small mammals are potential natural reservoirs for Rickettsiae in their natural lifecycle. Studies about the maintenance of Rickettsia in wild animals are available for Western nations, but-to our knowledge-no studies and data are available in the Republic of Kazakhstan so far. The first case description of Rickettsioses in Kazakhstan was made in the 1950ies in the Almaty region and now Kyzylorda, East Kazakhstan, Pavlodar and North Kazakhstan are endemic areas. The existence of murine and endemic typhus was proven in arthropod vectors in the regions Kyzylorda and Almaty. Here we show for the first time investigations on tick-borne Rickettsia species detected by a pan-rickettsial citrate synthase gene (gltA) real-time PCR in ear lobes of small mammals (n = 624) in Kazakhstan. From all analysed small mammals 2.72% were positive for Rickettsia raoultii, R. slovaca or R. conorii. Sequencing of the rickettsial gene OmpAIV and the 23S-5S interspacer region revealed a similar heritage of identified Rickettsia species that was observed in ticks in previous studies from the region. In summary, this study proves that rodents in Kazakhstan serve as a natural reservoir of Rickettsia spp.


Assuntos
Rickettsia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa , Carrapatos , Animais , Incidência , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Mamíferos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsiales , Roedores , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/epidemiologia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/microbiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 321, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arthropod-borne pathogens and their vectors are present throughout Africa. They have been well studied in livestock of sub-Saharan Africa, but poorly studied in companion animals. Given their socioeconomic importance, the African Small Companion Animal Network (AFSCAN), as part of the WSAVA Foundation, initiated a standardized multi-country surveillance study. METHODS: In six countries (Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, and Namibia) in both rural and urban settings, 160 infested cats were sampled to assess their ectoparasite community (ticks and fleas), as well as the micro-parasite prevalence within those ectoparasites (60 and 118 pools of ticks and fleas, respectively) and blood (276 cats, including 116 non-infested). RESULTS: Almost two thirds of all infested cats originated from Tanzania and Kenya. Despite the large macro-geographical variation, no consistent difference was found in ectoparasite diversity and numbers between East and West Africa. Far more flea-infested than tick-infested cats were found. The most dominant ectoparasite was Ctenocephalides felis. Among the ticks, the exophilic Haemaphysalis spp. were the commonest, including species that are not typically linked with companion animals (Haemaphysalis spinulosa and Haemaphysalis elliptica). The most prevalent pathogens found in the blood and fleas were Bartonella henselae and Mycoplasma haemofelis. In the ticks, the dog-associated Hepatozoon canis was most commonly found. A high degree of co-parasitism was found in all countries and habitats. CONCLUSIONS: Our continent-wide standardized field study highlights the cat's potential to serve as a reservoir of pathogens that can be transmitted to humans or livestock, especially when cats are expected to become more commonly kept in African villages and towns.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas , Ixodidae , Sifonápteros , Carrapatos , Animais , Vetores Artrópodes , Gatos , Cães , Infestações por Pulgas/epidemiologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Gana , Humanos , Gado
9.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 560, 2022 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088366

RESUMO

Ticks are important vectors of various zoonotic pathogens that can infect animals and humans, and most documented tick-borne pathogens have a strong bias towards microorganisms with strong disease phenotypes. The recent development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled the study of microbial communities, referred to as microbiome. Herein, we undertake a systematic review of published literature to build a comprehensive global dataset of microbiome determined by NGS in field-collected ticks. The dataset comprised 4418 records from 76 literature involving geo-referenced occurrences for 46 species of ticks and 219 microorganism families, revealing a total of 83 emerging viruses identified from 24 tick species belonging to 6 tick genera since 1980. The viral, bacterial and eukaryotic composition was compared regarding the tick species, their live stage and types of the specimens, or the geographic location. The data can assist the further investigation of ecological, biogeographical and epidemiological features of the tick-borne disease.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Carrapatos , Animais , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Metagenoma , Microbiota/genética , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Carrapatos/microbiologia
10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 954785, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35959365

RESUMO

Background: Spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR), containing various pathogenic Rickettsia spp., poses remarkable negative influences to public health by causing various severe or mild diseases. Information regarding prevalence of SFGR in ticks in Jiangsu province, Eastern China, is still limited and needs urgent investigations. Methods: Hedgehog- and bovine-attached ticks were collected from Jiangsu province, Eastern China. DNA of individual ticks was extracted for nested polymerase chain reaction amplifications targeting gltA, 16S ribosomal RNA (rrs), ompA, ompB, and sca4 genes following with sequencing. SFGR-specific IgG antibodies in sera of local donators were evaluated using ELISA. Results: Overall, 144 (83.2%) of the 173 ticks from hedgehogs and 2 (1.2%) of the 168 ticks from bovine were positive for one of the three identified Rickettsia spp., with significant difference between the two groups (P = 3.6e-52). Candidatus Rickettsia principis (9; 5.2%) and R. heilongjiangensis (135; 78.0%) were detected in Haemaphysalis flava rather than in H. longicornis ticks from hedgehogs. R. heilongjiangensis (1; 0.6%) and Candidatus R. jingxinensis (or Candidatus R. longicornii) (1; 0.6%) were identified in H. longicornis and Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from bovine, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated Candidatus R. jingxinensis belonged to R. japonica subgroup, whereas Candidatus R. principis belonged to a novel subgroup. Higher serological prevalence of spotted fever and SFGR-specific IgG antibody level in humans were observed around the investigated area than in urban areas, without significant difference. Conclusion: Candidatus R. principis and Candidatus R. jingxinensis were identified in Jiangsu province, Eastern China, and fully genetically characterized for the first time. The higher prevalence of SFGR in hedgehog-attached ticks as well as the higher SFGR-specific IgG antibody level and seropositive rate in humans around the investigated area suggested that more attention should be paid to SFGR. This pathogen is usually transmitted or harbored by wild animals and ticks. This study provides important epidemiological data for both physicians and public health officers in developing early prevention and control strategies against potential Rickettsia infections and in the preparation of suitable testing and treatment needs for rickettsiosis in the endemic areas.


Assuntos
Rickettsia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa , Carrapatos , Animais , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Ouriços , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Filogenia , Prevalência , Rickettsia/genética , Carrapatos/microbiologia
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 302, 2022 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36028886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods with a world-wide distribution that are extremely important not only in terms of human and animal health but also economically. In Algeria, information on tick species is scarce. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed using online databases. The information extracted from the databases was was supplemented by information from an original study. Ticks were collected from various hosts and by flagging from January 2018 to December 2019. RESULTS: To date, in Algeria a total of 36 valid tick species belonging to two families have been recorded: (1) family Argasidae, with three Argas species and nine Ornithodoros species recorded; and (ii) family Ixodidae, with one Dermacentor species, three Haemaphysalis species, 10 Hyalomma species, four Ixodes species and six Rhipicephalus species recorded. The geographical distribution for each species was determined and listed. Eight new tick-host associations were recorded: four for Ixodes inopinatus sensu Estrada-Peña et al. 2014, one for Rhipicephalus bursa, one for R. turanicus, one for Hyalomma marginatum and one for Hy. lusitanicum. To our best knowledge, this study is the first to report the presence of I. inopinatus sensu Estrada-Peña et al. 2014 in Algeria. We also report here for the first time all tick species (Argasidae and Ixodidae) known to be present in Algeria. CONCLUSION: This article represents a tool for students and scientists who work in the field of ticks and provides important new data on the distribution of ticks in Algeria.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Carrapatos , Argélia , Animais , Humanos
12.
Infect Immun ; 90(9): e0062121, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35993770

RESUMO

Ticks are hematophagous ectoparasites capable of transmitting multiple human pathogens. Environmental changes have supported the expansion of ticks into new geographical areas that have become the epicenters of tick-borne diseases (TBDs). The spotted fever group (SFG) of Rickettsia frequently infects ticks and causes tick-transmitted rickettsioses in areas of endemicity where ixodid ticks support host transmission during blood feeding. Ticks also serve as a reservoir for SFG Rickettsia. Among the members of SFG Rickettsia, R. rickettsii causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), the most lethal TBD in the United States. Cases of RMSF have been reported for over a century in association with several species of ticks in the United States. However, the isolation of R. rickettsii from ticks has decreased, and recent serological and epidemiological studies suggest that novel species of SFG Rickettsia are responsible for the increased number of cases of RMSF-like rickettsioses in the United States. Recent analyses of rickettsial genomes and advances in genetic and molecular studies of Rickettsia provided insights into the biology of Rickettsia with the identification of conserved and unique putative virulence genes involved in the rickettsial life cycle. Thus, understanding Rickettsia-host-tick interactions mediating successful disease transmission and pathogenesis for SFG rickettsiae remains an active area of research. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding how SFG Rickettsia species coopt and manipulate ticks and mammalian hosts to cause rickettsioses, with a particular emphasis on newly described or emerging SFG Rickettsia species.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Infecções por Rickettsia , Rickettsia , Febre Maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas , Carrapatos , Animais , Humanos , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Mamíferos , Rickettsia/genética , Febre Maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas/microbiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia
13.
Infect Immun ; 90(9): e0030622, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000876

RESUMO

Lyme disease vaccines based on recombinant Outer surface protein A (OspA) elicit protective antibodies that interfere with tick-to-host transmission of the disease-causing spirochete Borreliella burgdorferi. Another hallmark of OspA antisera and certain OspA monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is their capacity to induce B. burgdorferi agglutination in vitro, a phenomenon first reported more than 30 years ago but never studied in molecular detail. In this report, we demonstrate that transmission-blocking OspA MAbs, individually and in combination, promote dose-dependent and epitope-specific agglutination of B. burgdorferi. Agglutination occurred within minutes and persisted for hours. Spirochetes in the core of the aggregates exhibited evidence of outer membrane (OM) stress, revealed by propidium iodide uptake. The most potent agglutinator was the mouse MAb LA-2, which targets the OspA C terminus (ß-strands 18 to 20). Human MAb 319-44, which also targets the OspA C terminus (ß-strand 20), and 857-2, which targets the OspA central ß-sheet (strands 8 to 10), were less potent agglutinators, while MAb 221-7, which targets ß-strands 10 to 11, had little to no measurable agglutinating activity, even though its affinity for OspA exceeded that of LA-2. Remarkably, monovalent Fab fragments derived from LA-2, and to a lesser degree 319-44, retained the capacity to induce B. burgdorferi aggregation and OM stress, a particularly intriguing observation considering that "LA-2-like" Fabs have been shown to experimentally entrap B. burgdorferi within infected ticks and prevent transmission during feeding to a mammalian host. It is therefore tempting to speculate that B. burgdorferi aggregation triggered by OspA-specific antibodies in vitro may in fact reflect an important biological activity in vivo.


Assuntos
Grupo Borrelia Burgdorferi , Borrelia burgdorferi , Doença de Lyme , Carrapatos , Aglutinação , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Antígenos de Superfície , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa , Vacinas Bacterianas , Epitopos , Humanos , Soros Imunes , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas , Lipoproteínas , Vacinas contra Doença de Lyme , Mamíferos , Camundongos , Propídio
14.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272865, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35972927

RESUMO

Ticks and tick-borne diseases cause substantial economic losses to the livestock industry in sub-Saharan Africa. Mazao Tickoff is a novel bioacaricide developed for tick control and is based on the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato (s.l.) isolate ICIPE 7. To date, no randomized controlled study has been undertaken to demonstrate the efficacy of this bioacaricide in reducing natural tick infestation on cattle. To this end, this field trial is designed to evaluate the anti-tick efficacy of Mazao Tickoff on cattle in coastal Kenya compared to a standard chemical tick control protocol. In this prospective, multi-center randomized controlled trial, eligible herds will be randomized by the herd size to the intervention arm in a 1:1:1 ratio to either Triatix® (active ingredient: amitraz); Mazao Tickoff (active ingredient: M. anisopliae ICIPE 7); or placebo (excipients of the Mazao Tickoff), with a total enrollment target of 1,077 cattle. Treatments will be dispensed on Day 0 (defined individually as the day each animal receives the first treatment) and thereafter every two weeks until Day 182. Ticks will be counted on every animal in each herd (herds to be included have at least one animal bearing at least one tick on Day 0), and thereafter on bi-weekly intervals until Day 182. The primary efficacy assessments of Mazao Tickoff will be based on the mean percentage reduction in tick counts at each post-treatment follow-up visit compared to the placebo group and the Triatix® arm. Further, the effect of Mazao Tickoff on the prevalence of common cattle pathogens, Anaplasma marginale and Theileria parva, will be determined by assessing incidence and seroprevalence at four different time points. This protocol describes the first rigorous evaluation of the efficacy of Mazao Tickoff and its potential as a viable alternative non-chemical acaricide tool for tick control in Kenya and elsewhere.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Metarhizium , Infestações por Carrapato , Carrapatos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Quênia , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
15.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(4): e0203422, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35916407

RESUMO

Tick infestations have been reported as one of the factors threatening the health of giant pandas, but studies of viral pathogens carried by ticks feeding on the blood of giant pandas are limited. To assess whether blood-sucking ticks of giant pandas can carry viral pathogens and if so, whether the viruses in ticks are associated with those previously detected in giant panda hosts, we determined the viromes of ticks detached from giant pandas in a field stocking area in Sichuan Province, southwest China. Using viral metagenomics we identified 32 viral species in ticks, half of which (including anellovirus [n = 9], circovirus [n = 3], and gemycircularvirus [n = 4]) showed homology to viruses carried by giant pandas and their associated host species (such as red pandas and mosquitoes) in the same living domain. Remarkably, several viruses in this study phylogenetically assigned as bunyavirus, hepe-like virus, and circovirus were detected with relatively high abundance, but whether these newly identified tick-associated viruses can replicate in ticks and then transmit to host animals during a blood meal will require further investigation. These findings further expand our understanding of the role of giant panda-infesting ticks in the local ecosystem, especially related to viral acquisition and transmission, and lay a foundation to assess the risk for giant panda exposure to tick-borne viruses. IMPORTANCE Ticks rank only second to mosquitoes as blood-feeding arthropods, capable of spreading pathogens (including viruses, bacteria, and parasites) to hosts during a blood meal. To better understand the relationship between viruses carried by ticks and viruses that have been reported in giant pandas, it is necessary to analyze the viromes of giant panda-parasitic blood-sucking ticks. This study collected 421 ticks on the body surface of giant pandas in Sichuan Province, China. We characterized the extensive genetic diversity of viruses harbored by these ticks and reported frequent communication of viruses between giant pandas and their ticks. While most of the virome discovered here are nonpathogenic viruses from giant pandas and potentially tick-specific viruses, we revealed some possible tick-borne viruses, represented by novel bunyaviruses. This research contributes to the literature because currently there are few studies on the virome of giant panda-infesting ticks.


Assuntos
Orthobunyavirus , Carrapatos , Ursidae , Vírus , Animais , Ecossistema , Viroma/genética , Vírus/genética
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(8): e0010692, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994434

RESUMO

Haemaphysalis longicornis (Neumann), a tick of public health and veterinary importance, spend the major part of their life cycle off-host, especially the adult host-seeking period. Thus, they have to contend with prolonged starvation. Here, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanism of tick starvation endurance in the salivary glands, midguts, ovaries, and Malpighian tubules of starved H. longicornis ticks using the data-independent acquisition quantitative proteomic approach to study the proteome changes. Essential synthases such as glutamate synthase, citrate synthase, and ATP synthase were up-regulated probably due to increased proteolysis and amino acid catabolism during starvation. The up-regulation of succinate dehydrogenase, ATP synthase, cytochrome c oxidase, and ADP/ATP translocase closely fits with an increased oxidative phosphorylation function during starvation. The differential expression of superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, thioredoxin, and peroxiredoxin indicated fasting-induced oxidative stress. The up-regulation of heat shock proteins could imply the activation of a protective mechanism that checks excessive protein breakdown during starvation stress. The results of this study could provide useful information about the vulnerabilities of ticks that could aid in tick control efforts.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Carrapatos , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Ixodidae/química , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Proteômica
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(8): e0010698, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037170

RESUMO

SFTSV, a tick-borne bunyavirus causing a severe hemorrhagic fever termed as severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS). To evaluate the potential role of rodents and its ectoparasitic chiggers in the transmission of SFTSV, we collected wild rodents and chiggers on their bodies from a rural area in Qingdao City, Shandong Province, China in September 2020. PCR amplification of the M and L segments of SFTSV showed that 32.3% (10/31) of rodents and 0.2% (1/564) of chiggers (Leptotrombidium deliense) from the rodents were positive to SFTSV. Our results suggested that rodents and chiggers may play an important role in the transmission of SFTSV, although the efficiency of chiggers to transmit SFTSV needs to be further investigated experimentally.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae , Infestações por Ácaros , Phlebovirus , Carrapatos , Trombiculidae , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Febre , Phlebovirus/genética , Roedores
18.
Parasitol Res ; 121(10): 2887-2890, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930045

RESUMO

The genus Haemaphysalis Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae) is the second-largest genus, with more than 170 described species that primarily parasitize mammals and birds (Guglielmone et al. 2014, Guglielmone et al. 2020). Haemaphysalis species are three-host ticks, mainly distributed in southern and southeastern Asia and tropical Africa (Guglielmone et al. 2014). The present study identified a tick, Haemaphysalis hoodi Warburton & Nuttall, 1909, collected from a human in Yaoundé, Cameroon. This tick species feed on birds in sub-Saharan Africa. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second record of H. hoodi from humans. In addition, 16S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase I sequences were generated for this species for the first time. Screening pan-Rickettsia-PCR infection gave a negative result.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Infestações por Carrapato , Carrapatos , Animais , Aves , Camarões , Humanos , Ixodidae/genética , Mamíferos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
19.
Acta Trop ; 235: 106634, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932842

RESUMO

Ticks, as obligate blood-sucking ectoparasites, feed on a broad range of vertebrates and transmit a great diversity of pathogenic microorganisms. Some tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are endemic in China, whereas epidemiological studies are limited in Jiangxi, a forest province located in eastern China. Here, we have determined the positivity rates of TBPs in humans, rodents, dogs, goats and ticks, and performed the molecular characterization of TBPs in Jiangxi province. We found a high positivity rate of TBPs in the collected samples, demonstrating 23 (12.92%) samples positive for more than one TBPs. Of those, 11 (6.18%) samples were positive for Rickettsia spp., six (3.37%) Ehrlichia spp./Anaplasma spp., one (0.56%) Bartonella spp., two (1.12%) Borrelia spp., and five (2.81%) Babesia spp. The positivity rates of TBPs varied among ticks, animals, and humans as follow: goats (14/37, 37.84%), ticks (8/35, 22.86%), and dogs (1/11, 9.09%). Humans and rodents were negative for TBP presence. Phylogenetic analyses of these TBP sequences revealed the presence of Rickettsia japonica, Ehrlichia minasensis, and an unclassified Babesia spp. in goats, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia valaisiana, and an unclassified Bartonella spp. in ticks. Furthermore, R. japonica infection was exclusively found in goats with the positivity rate of 29.73%. Our study is the first report of R. japonica in goats around the world. These findings suggest high TBP positivity rates among goats, ticks, and dogs, and diverse TBPs in goats and ticks in the studied sites. Therefore, our results underscore the urgent need to assess TBP-tick-vertebrate-environment interactions and the risk of tick borne disease exposure in humans in the future.


Assuntos
Babesia , Bartonella , Rickettsia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Carrapatos , Animais , Babesia/genética , Bartonella/genética , China/epidemiologia , Cães , Florestas , Cabras , Humanos , Filogenia , Rickettsia/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia
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