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1.
Zootaxa ; 5183(1): 75-89, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095457

RESUMO

A new species of Macrosiphum Passerini is described based on all life cycle morphs: fundatrix, apterous and alate viviparae, oviparae, and males. Macrosiphum ginajo lives throughout the growing season on glandularsticky species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae) in dry forest habitats of western North America. The new species is compared to other Macrosiphum known to feed on Silene. A very similar species, Macrosiphum aetheocornum, which feeds on native Geranium species in similar habitats, is also discussed including measurements, illustrations, and detailed comparison to the new species.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Caryophyllaceae , Silene , Animais , Masculino
2.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(8): 2196-2204, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36043827

RESUMO

Pseudostellaria heterophylla is authentic traditional Chinese herbal medicine in Fujian Province. P. hete-rophylla suffers from serious consecutive monoculture problems. Fallow can alleviate such problems, but the mecha-nism is still unclear. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was performed to analyze the changes in soil microbial community structure and diversity in the P. heterophylla soil at different fallow ages as well as their relationships with soil physicochemical properties and phenolic acids. The results showed that fungal community diversity decreased but bacterial community diversity increased in fallow soils compared with the control soil of P. heterophy-lla. For bacterial communities, the relative abundance of Acidobacteria increased, while that of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria decreased in fallow soils. For fungal communities, the relative abundance of dominant phyla had no significant difference between fallow and control soils. Soil acidity and organic matter content showed a trend of weakening and decreasing, respectively, with the increases of fallow years. In addition, with the increases of fallow years, the content of phenolic acids in soil, including benzoic acid and salicylic acid, showed significant decrease, while some other phenolic acids such as p-coumaric acid were accumulated obviously. Taken together, fallow could efficiently ameliorate the structure of soil microbial community and soil properties of P. heterophylla, and thus alleviate the effects of continuous cropping.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae , Microbiota , Micobioma , Bactérias/genética , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
3.
Food Res Int ; 158: 111576, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840261

RESUMO

Pseudostellaria heterophylla, has historically been used as medicine food homology plant for thousand years in China. Our previous studies had indicated that daily intake of Pseudostellaria heterophylla extract enhanced cognitive memory. Herein, heterophyllin B (HET-B), a brain permeable cyclopeptide from Pseudostellaria heterophylla was determined, and the molecular mechanism underlying its memory improvement effects was investigated. Pseudostellaria heterophylla extract as well as HET-B reversed Aß25-35-induced axonal atrophy and neuronal apoptosis in cultured cortical neurons of mice. HET-B could enhance memory retrieval, modulate splenic T helper cell, and ameliorate neuroinflammation in i.c.v. Aß1-42 injected Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice. To explore the mechanism of action, network pharmacology was performed to predict protein targets and pathways of HET-B against AD. Five key targets were identified related to the effect of HET-B in AD intervention, and were clarified involved in axonal regeneration. We revealed for the first time that HET-B promoted memory retrieval through axonal regeneration and anti-neuroinflammation. This study provides a basis to research on HET-B as nutritional supplements for brain healthy.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae , Memória , Neuritos , Peptídeos Cíclicos , Animais , Caryophyllaceae/química , Caryophyllaceae/metabolismo , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 184: 105067, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35715029

RESUMO

Myosoton aquaticum L. is a competitive broadleaf weed commonly found in wheat fields in China and has become challenging due to its evolving herbicide resistance. In this study, one subpopulation, RF1 (derived from the tribenuron-methyl-resistant population HN10), with none of the known acetolactate synthase (ALS) resistance mutations was confirmed to exhibit resistance to tribenuron-methyl (SU), pyrithiobac­sodium (PTB), florasulam (TP), flucarbazone-Na (SCT), and diflufenican (PDS). In vitro ALS activity assays showed that the total ALS activity of RF1 was lower than that of the susceptible (S) population. However, there was no difference in ALS gene expression induced by tribenuron-methyl between the two populations. The combination of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) inhibitor malathion and tribenuron-methyl resulted in the RF1 population behaving like the S population. The rapid P450-mediated tribenuron-methyl metabolism in RF1 plants was also confirmed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. In addition, approximately equal glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was observed in RF1 and S plants of untreated and tribenuron-methyl treated groups. This study reported one M. aquaticum L. population without ALS resistance mutations exhibiting resistance to ALS inhibitors and the PDS inhibitor diflufenican, and the non-target-site resistance mechanism played a vital role in herbicide resistance.


Assuntos
Acetolactato Sintase , Caryophyllaceae , Herbicidas , Acetolactato Sintase/metabolismo , Caryophyllaceae/genética , Cromatografia Líquida , Resistência a Herbicidas/genética , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
Molecules ; 27(12)2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35744844

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the Pseudostellaria heterophylla polysaccharides (PF40) physicochemical and antidiabetic characteristics. The ultraviolet-visible (UV) spectra, Fourier transform infrared radiation (FT-IR) spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, zeta potential, surface characteristics, and conformational and thermal stability properties of PF40 were characterized. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), combined with Congo red test, revealed that PF40 powder has mainly existed in amorphous form with triple-helix conformation. The single-molecular structure of PF40 exhibited a multi-branched structure extending from the center to the periphery by scanning probe microscopy (SPM) scanning. The monosaccharide residue of PF40 was an α-pyranoid ring and exhibits good stability below 168 °C. Experimental studies on antidiabetic characteristics found that PF40 could significantly improve STZ-induced intestinal mucosal damage and reduce the apoptosis of villus epithelial cells. PF40 combined with metformin could significantly improve the symptoms of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats, the molecular mechanism might be through inhibiting the expression of RORγ protein and increasing Foxp3 protein in the jejunum of T2DM rats, and then restoring the STZ-induced imbalance of T helper 17(Th17)/ regulatory T cells (Treg) cells, thereby maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis. Results identified in this study provided important information regarding the structure and antidiabetic characteristics of Pseudostellaria heterophylla polysaccharides, which can contribute to the development of Pseudostellaria heterophylla polysaccharides for industrial purposes in the future.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Animais , Caryophyllaceae/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Ratos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
6.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(6)2022 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35741822

RESUMO

Mitochondrial genomes have become an interesting object of evolutionary and systematic study both for animals and plants, including angiosperms. Although the framework of the angiosperm phylogeny was built on the information derived from chloroplast and nuclear genes, mitochondrial sequences also revealed their usefulness in solving the phylogenetic issues at different levels of plant systematics. Here, we report for the first time the complete sequences of 26 protein-coding genes of eight Colobanthus species (Caryophyllaceae). Of these, 23 of them represented core mitochondrial genes, which are directly associated with the primary function of that organelle, and the remaining three genes represented a facultative set of mitochondrial genes. Comparative analysis of the identified genes revealed a generally high degree of sequence conservation. The Ka/Ks ratio was <1 for most of the genes, which indicated purifying selection. Only for rps12 was Ka/Ks > 1 in all studied species, suggesting positive selection. We identified 146-165 potential RNA editing sites in genes of the studied species, which is lower than in most angiosperms. The reconstructed phylogeny based on mitochondrial genes was consistent with the taxonomic position of the studied species, showing the separate character of the family Caryophyllaceae and close relationships between all studied Colobanthus species, with C. lycopodioides sharing less similarity.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae , Genoma Mitocondrial , Magnoliopsida , Animais , Caryophyllaceae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genes Mitocondriais , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Magnoliopsida/genética , Filogenia
7.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35566285

RESUMO

The stress-responsive, SK5 subclass, dehydrin gene, CaDHN, has been identified from the Arctic mouse-ear chickweed Cerastium arcticum. CaDHN contains an unusual single cysteine residue (Cys143), which can form intermolecular disulfide bonds. Mutational analysis and a redox experiment confirmed that the dimerization of CaDHN was the result of an intermolecular disulfide bond between the cysteine residues. The biochemical and physiological functions of the mutant C143A were also investigated by in vitro and in vivo assays using yeast cells, where it enhanced the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by neutralizing hydrogen peroxide. Our results show that the cysteine residue in CaDHN helps to enhance C. arcticum tolerance to abiotic stress by regulating the dimerization of the intrinsically disordered CaDHN protein, which acts as a defense mechanism against extreme polar environments.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae , Cisteína , Cisteína/química , Dissulfetos/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7268, 2022 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508663

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) deficiency in agricultural soil is a worldwide concern. P modification of biochar, a common soil conditioner produced by pyrolysis of wastes and residues, can increase P availability and improve soil quality. This study aims to investigate the effects of P-modified biochar as a soil amendment on the growth and quality of a medicinal plant (Pseudostellaria heterophylla). P. heterophylla were grown for 4 months in lateritic soil amended with P-modified and unmodified biochar (peanut shell) at dosages of 0, 3% and 5% (by mass). Compared with unmodified biochar, P-modified biochar reduced available heavy metal Cd in soil by up to 73.0% and osmotic suction in the root zone by up to 49.3%. P-modified biochar application at 3% and 5% promoted the tuber yield of P. heterophylla significantly by 68.6% and 136.0% respectively. This was different from that in unmodified biochar treatment, where tuber yield was stimulated at 3% dosage but inhibited at 5% dosage. The concentrations of active ingredients (i.e., polysaccharides, saponins) in tuber were increased by 2.9-78.8% under P-modified biochar amendment compared with control, indicating the better tuber quality. This study recommended the application of 5% P-modified biochar for promoting the yield and quality of P. heterophylla.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Carvão Vegetal/química , Fósforo/química , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
9.
Molecules ; 27(6)2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35335375

RESUMO

A new 5,7-dihydroxy-3'-methoxy-4'-acetoxyflavone-8-C-ß-d-arabinopyranoside-2″-O-(4‴-acetoxy)-glucoside (6) and three known flavone C-glycosides-5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone-6-C-xyloside-8-C-ß-d-glucoside (lucenin-1) (7), 5,7,3'-trihydroxyflavone-6-C-glucoside-8-C-ß-d-glucoside (vicenin-2) (8), and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone-6-C-ß-d-glucopyranoside-8-C-α-arabinopyranoside (chrysoeriol-6-C-ß-d-glucopyranoside-8-C-α-arabinopyranoside) (9)-were isolated from aerial parts of Scleranthus perennis L. (Caryophyllaceae). Their structures were determined through the use of comprehensive spectroscopic and spectrometric methods, and a method for the quantification of the major constituents of S. perennis and S. annuus L. was developed. Furthermore, the anti-collagenase and antioxidant activities of all isolated compounds obtained from extracts and fractions from both Scleranthus species were evaluated. The highest percentage of collagenase inhibition (at 400 µg/mL) was distinguished for methanolic extracts (22.06%, 32.04%) and ethyl acetate fractions (16.59%, 14.40%) from S. annuus and S. perennis. Compounds 6-9 displayed moderate inhibitory activity, with IC50 values ranging from 39.59-73.86 µM.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Caryophyllaceae , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Colagenases , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/química
10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(2): 506-517, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35113427

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Spergularia marina (L.) Griseb. (S. marina) is a sub-cosmopolitan species used as traditional phytotherapy based on diverse biological activities. It is native and widespread in the northern hemisphere, though introduced also into the southern hemisphere. The extract of another species 'Spergularia purpurea' has been traditionally used in Morocco against various diseases and S. marina, itself, is a local popular food in South Korea. In this context, we evaluated the potential antihypertensive and diuretic effects of S. marina water and n-butanol extracts in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats vs. the well-known diuretic, furosemide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After toxicity studies, selected doses were administered orally daily for one week. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), water/electrolyte clearance, renal functions, and serum electrolytes were assessed. Vascular reactivity of isolated aortic rings was evaluated under different incubating settings against various antagonists to unravel the mechanism of action. RESULTS: Both extracts significantly reduced the MABP. Only, the n-butanol fraction exerted a significant aquaresis, increasing electrolyte free-water clearance with a significantly decreased urinary Na+, K+, and C- excretion. The water extract significantly augmented the ACh-induced relaxation and attenuated the NE-induced aortic rings' contractile response. It also exhibited a direct relaxant effect on the NE-precontracted rings with intact or denuded endothelium. Blocking the vascular calcium channels by preincubation with nifedipine prevented the S. marina-induced relaxation, denoting a calcium channel blocking activity. CONCLUSIONS: The vasorelaxant and the differential diuretic effects of both extracts introduce S. marina as a potential novel antihypertensive agent with calcium channel blocking activity. To enrich cardiovascular therapeutics, human studies to confirm the efficacy and safety of S. marina in hypertension are warranted. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: https://www.europeanreview.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/Graphical-abstract.jpg.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Caryophyllaceae , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Aorta Torácica , Cálcio , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Diuréticos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico
11.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 169: 107436, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35131426

RESUMO

Early stages of speciation in plants might involve genetic incompatibilities between plastid and nuclear genomes, leading to inter-lineage hybrid breakdown due to the disruption between co-adapted plastid and nuclear genes encoding subunits of the same plastid protein complexes. We tested this hypothesis in Silene nutans, a gynodioecious Caryophyllaceae, where four distinct genetic lineages exhibited strong reproductive isolation among each other, resulting in chlorotic or variegated hybrids. By sequencing the whole gene content of the four plastomes through gene capture, and a large part of the nuclear genes encoding plastid subunits from RNAseq data, we searched for non-synonymous substitutions fixed in each lineage on both genomes. Lineages of S. nutans exhibited a high level of dN/dS ratios for plastid and nuclear genes encoding most plastid complexes, with a strong pattern of coevolution for genes encoding the subunits of ribosome and cytochrome b6/f that could explain the chlorosis of hybrids. Overall, relaxation of selection due to past bottlenecks and positive selection have driven the diversity pattern observed in S. nutans plastid complexes, leading to plastid-nuclear incompatibilities. We discuss the possible role of gynodioecy in the evolutionary dynamics of the plastomes through linked selection.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae , Genomas de Plastídeos , Silene , Caryophyllaceae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Plastídeos/genética , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Silene/genética
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(1): 122-126, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35178918

RESUMO

Four cyclic peptides were isolated from the 75% ethanol extract of the fibrous roots of Pseudostellaria heterophylla by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and semi-preparative HPLC. Through mass spectrometry, NMR and other methods, they were identified as pseudostellarin L(1), heterophyllin B(2), pseudostellarin B(3), and pseudostellarin C(4). Among them, compound 1 was a new cyclic peptide, and compounds 2-4 were isolated from the fibrous roots of P. heterophylla for the first time. None of these compounds displayed cytotoxic activities against MCF-7, A549, HCT-116, and SGC-7901 cells.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae , Caryophyllaceae/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Peptídeos Cíclicos/análise , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(28): 43421-43434, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35094272

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of potentially toxic elements in soil samples and plant tissues of Minuartia recurva and M. bulgarica, predominantly or exclusively calcifuge species. Biological concentration (BCs) and translocation factors (TFs) were used to evaluate their accumulation potential. Considerable differences were observed between M. recurva and M. bulgarica assessions in terms of accumulation strategies of potentially toxic elements (PTEs). In M. recurva, most of the elements analyzed (Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Co) were transported to the shoot, whereas in M. bulgarica, these elements remained predominantly in the roots. The Cu concentrations in the shoot samples of M. recurva from an abandoned iron-copper mine at Mt. Kopaonik were clearly above the notional hyperaccumulation threshold, characterizing this species as a possible Cu hyperaccumulator. Additionally, strong accumulation potential for Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb, and Cd was observed in M. recurva assessions, but without significant accumulation due to the low concentrations of these elements in the soils. The strong accumulation capacity and the different strategies in tolerance to PTEs indicate a potential of the two species for an application in phytoremediation: M. recurva for phytoextraction and M. bulgarica for phytostabilization.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
14.
Molecules ; 27(2)2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35056848

RESUMO

The work is aimed at phytochemical characterization and In Vitro evaluation of antioxidant actions, anti-inflammatory effects, and cytotoxicity of purified extracts from three rupturewort (Herniaria L.) species, i.e., Herniaria glabra (HG), H. polygama (HP), and H. incana herb (HIh). The total phenolic content established in the purified extracts (PEs) of HIh, HP, and HG was 29.6, 24.0, and 13.0%, respectively. Thirty-eight non-saponin metabolites were identified using LC-HR-QTOF-ESI-MS; however, only 9 were common for the studied Herniaria species. The most abundant phenolic compound in HG-PE was narcissin (7.4%), HP-PE shared 3 major constituents, namely cis-2-hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid 2-O-ß-glucoside (cis-GMCA, 5.8%), narcissin (5.4%), and rutin (5.3%). Almost half of HIh phenolic content (14.7%) belonged to oxytroflavoside A (7-O-methylkaempferol-3-O-[3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-(1→6)]-[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-ß-galactopyranoside). Antioxidant properties of the Herniaria PEs were evaluated employing an experimental model of human blood plasma, exposed to the peroxynitrite-induced oxidative stress. The assays demonstrated significant reduction of oxidative damage to protein and lipid plasma components (estimated by measurements of 3-nitrotyrosine, protein thiol groups, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances), and moderate protection of its non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity. Anti-inflammatory properties of the Herniaria PEs were evaluated In Vitro as inhibitory effects against cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and -2) and concanavalin A-induced inflammatory response of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). None of the studied plants showed inhibitory effects on COXs but all purified extracts partly reduced the release of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) from PBMCs, which suggested their prospective ability to up-regulate inflammatory response of the cells. The purified extract from H. glabra turned out to be the most efficient suppressor of PBMCs' inflammatory response. Additionally, cytotoxicity of purified Herniaria extracts on PBMCs was ruled out based on In Vitro studies.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Caryophyllaceae/química , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 285: 114860, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822955

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Herniaria hirsuta is traditionally used in Moroccan folk medicine for treatment of urinary stones and as a diuretic. It is rich in saponins, which are known to be deglycosylated in the colon, whereafter aglycones such as medicagenic acid are absorbed and further metabolized in the liver. AIM OF THE STUDY: A sample of hepatic metabolites of medicagenic acid, with medicagenic acid glucuronide as the most abundant one, was evaluated for in vitro activity against urinary stones. A crystallization assay and a crystal-cell interaction assay were used to evaluate in vitro activity of hepatic metabolites of medicagenic acid on CaC2O4 (calciumoxalate) crystals, present in the majority of urinary stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the crystallization assay the effects on nucleation of Ca2+ and C2O42- and aggregation of the CaC2O4 crystals are studied. In the crystal-cell interaction assay crystal retention is investigated by determining the amount of Ca2+ bound to injured monolayers of MDCK I cells. RESULTS: Results of the crystallization assay showed a tentative effect on crystal aggregation. The crystal-cell interaction assay showed a significant inhibition of crystal binding, which may reduce crystal retention in the urinary tract. CONCLUSIONS: As both formation of crystals by inhibiting aggregation and retention of crystals is affected, the beneficial effect of H. hirsuta against urinary stones may at least in part be attributed to medicagenic acid metabolites, indicating that saponins containing medicagenic acid may act as prodrugs.


Assuntos
Oxalato de Cálcio/química , Caryophyllaceae/química , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cristalização , Cães , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Medicina Tradicional , Extratos Vegetais/química , Triterpenos/metabolismo
16.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(13): 3480-3484, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342285

RESUMO

In the present study, six known compounds were investigated that were isolated from the aerial parts of plant Dianthus helenae Vved. The structures of these compounds were identified as polypodine B (1), 2,3,20,22-diacetonide-20-hydroxyecdysone (2), 20-hydroxyecdysone (3), cyasterone (4), α-ecdysone (5) and 2-deoxy-α-ecdysone (6). Their structures were confirmed by NMR-, ESI-MS, and IR-spectroscopy. The compounds (5) and (6) are reported for the first time from this species. Furthermore, compounds (2) and (4) were isolated for the first time from the Caryophyllaceae family. In addition, all these phytoecdysteroids were investigated for a nootropic activity. Thus, the total phytoecdysteroids-containing preparation at a dose of 25 mg/kg increases two times the motor activity, an approximate reaction - four times and exploratory behavior - 1.4 times compared to control animals.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae , Dianthus , Animais , Caryophyllaceae/química , Dianthus/química , Ecdisterona , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Uzbequistão
17.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(13): 3368-3374, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331165

RESUMO

A new cyclic peptide, Pseudostellarin K (1), together with thirteen known compounds, including two cyclic peptides (2 and 3), one ß-carboline alkaloid (4), two amides (5 and 6), three phenylpropanoids (7-9) and other compounds (10-14), were isolated from the fibrous root of Pseudostellaria heterophylla. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1, 4-6, 10 were isolated from the genus pseudostellaria for the first time. All compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activities against MCF-7, A549, HCT-116 and SGC-7901 cell lines by MTT assay. Unfortunately, all these compounds displayed weak cytotoxic activities.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae , Plantas Medicinais , Caryophyllaceae/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química
18.
Fitoterapia ; 156: 105072, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728327

RESUMO

Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq.) Pax. (Taizishen, TZS) contains a variety of natural active cyclic-peptide compounds (CP). In this article, four kinds of CP monomers were isolated by HPLC and the structures were identified by mass spectrometry. The in vivo absorption of CP was detected by UPLC-MS/MS. The interaction between CP and membrane receptor was analyzed by SPR. As a result, the relative absorption rate of CP was Pesudostellarin B > Heterophyllin B > Pesudostellarin C > Pesudostellarin E. The difference in absorption rate of CP in vivo was related to its interaction with membrane receptors. The absorption mechanism of CP might be different. This is the first report that in vivo absorption study of different CP from TZS and explore its absorption mechanism, laying a theoretical foundation for the research and development of its oral drugs, and providing new ideas for the study of the absorption mechanism of CP from traditional Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Ratos
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 291: 115163, 2022 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35247473

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The root of Psammosilene tunicoides (W. C. Wu et C. Y. Wu) is a well-known medicinal herb for the treatment of pain, hemostasia and rheumatoid arthritis among Chinese people. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to investigate the antinociceptive activity and mechanism of ß-carboline alkaloids 1-4 which were extracted from the roots of P. tunicoides. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The analgesic effects were evaluated using peripheral and central pain mouse models of nociception, including the formalin test and the tail flick test. The levels of glutamic acid (Glu) and nitric oxide (NO) in cerebellar cortexes and spinal cords (L4-6) were determined. The anti-inflammatory of all compounds were then assessed on RAW264.7 cells. RESULTS: Our results showed that compounds 1-4 had significant analgesic effects on both phases of formalin test of mice. Furthermore, all compounds showed suppressive effects on Glu in the brain and NO levels in the brain cortex and the spinal cord. Except for compound 1, the others could extend the pain threshold of hot water tail-flick in mice. In addition, compounds 2 and 3 (60 µmol/kg) could decrease GABAAα1 protein levels in spinal cord. All compounds exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) 1.1-34.9 µM. CONCLUSION: ß-carboline alkaloids from the roots of P. tunicoides had significant analgesic activity by both central and peripheral mechanisms. Our findings suggested that regulating the release of NO or Glu or GABAα1 are some of the mechanisms of analgesic activity of ß-carboline alkaloids.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Caryophyllaceae , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Carbolinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(22): 5792-5796, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951166

RESUMO

Fusarium is the major pathogen of root rot of Pseudostellaria heterophylla. This study aims to explain the possible distribution of Fusarium species and the contamination of its toxin-chemotypes in tuberous root of P. heterophylla. A total of 89 strains of fungi were isolated from the tuberous root of P. heterophylla. Among them, 29 strains were identified as Fusarium by ITS2 sequence, accounting for 32.5%. They were identified as five species of F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum, F. fujikuroi, F. oxysporum, and F. graminearum based on ß-Tubulin and EF-1α genes. LC-MS/MS detected 18, 1, and 5 strains able to produce ZEN, DON, and T2, which accounted for 62.1%, 3.4%, and 17.2%, respectively. Strain JK3-3 can produce ZEN, DON, and T2, while strains BH1-4-1, BH6-5, and BH16-2 can produce ZEN and T2. PCR detected six key synthase genes of Tri1, Tri7, Tri8, Tri13, PKS14, and PKS13 in strain JK3-3, which synthesized three toxins of ZEN, DON, and T2. Four key synthase genes of Tri8, Tri13, PKS14, and PKS13 were detected in strains BH1-4-1, BH6-5, and BH16-2, which were responsible for the synthesis of ZEN and T2. The results showed that the key genes of toxin biosynthesis were highly correlated with the toxins produced by Fusarium, and the biosynthesis of toxin was strictly controlled by the genetic information of the strain. This study provides a data basis for the targeted prevention and control of exo-genous mycotoxins in P. heterophylla and a possibility for the development of PCR for rapid detection of toxin contamination.


Assuntos
Caryophyllaceae , Fusarium , Micotoxinas , Cromatografia Líquida , Fusarium/genética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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