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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250739, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355896

RESUMO

Abstract Several reasons may underlie the dramatic increase in type2 diabetes mellitus. One of these reasons is the genetic basis and variations. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms are associated with different diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible association of two identified mutations ApaI (rs7975232) and TaqI (rs731236). Eighty-nine healthy individuals and Fifty-six Type 2 Diabetic (T2D) patients were investigated using RFLP technique for genotyping and haplotyping as well. The distribution of Apal genotypes was not statistically significant among the control (P=0.65) as well as for diabetic patients (P=0.58). For Taql allele frequencies of T allele was 0.61 where of G allele was 0.39. The frequency distribution of Taql genotypes was not statistically significant among the control (P=0.26) as well as diabetic patients (P=0.17). Relative risk of the allele T of Apa1 gene is 1.28 and the odds ratio of the same allele is 1.53, while both estimates were < 1.0 of the allele G. Similarly, with the Taq1 gene the relative risk and the odds ratio values for the allele T are 1.09 and 1.27 respectively and both estimates of the allele C were 0.86 for the relative risk and 0.79 for the odds ratio. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium between the two SNPs Taq1/apa1 was statistically significant in control group (D = 0.218, D' = 0.925 and P value < 0.001) and similar data in diabetic groups (D = 0.2, D' = 0.875 and P value < 0.001). These data suggest that the T allele of both genes Apa1 and Taq1 is associated with the increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We think that we need a larger number of volunteers to reach a more accurate conclusion.


Resumo Várias razões podem estar subjacentes ao aumento dramático da diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Um desses motivos é a base genética e variações. Os polimorfismos do receptor da vitamina D estão associados a diferentes doenças, como artrite reumatoide e diabetes. O objetivo deste estudo é investigar a possível associação de duas mutações identificadas ApaI (rs7975232) e TaqI (rs731236). Oitenta e nove indivíduos saudáveis ​​e 56 pacientes com diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) foram investigados usando a técnica RFLP para genotipagem e haplotipagem também. A distribuição dos genótipos Apal não foi estatisticamente significativa entre o controle (P = 0,65), bem como para os pacientes diabéticos (P = 0,58). Para as frequências do alelo Taql, o alelo T foi de 0,61, onde o alelo G foi de 0,39. A distribuição de frequência dos genótipos Taql não foi estatisticamente significativa entre o controle (P = 0,26), bem como os pacientes diabéticos (P = 0,17). O risco relativo do alelo T do gene Apa1 é 1,28 e a razão de chances do mesmo alelo é 1,53, enquanto ambas as estimativas foram < 1,0 do alelo G. Da mesma forma, com o gene Taq1, os valores de risco relativo e razão de chances para o alelo T são 1,09 e 1,27, respectivamente, e ambas as estimativas do alelo C foram de 0,86 para o risco relativo e 0,79 para o odds ratio. O desequilíbrio de ligação par a par entre os dois SNPs Taq1 / apa1 foi estatisticamente significativo no grupo de controle (D = 0,218, D' = 0,925 e valor P < 0,001) e dados semelhantes em grupos diabéticos (D = 0,2, D' = 0,875 e valor P < 0,001). Esses dados sugerem que o alelo T de ambos os genes Apa1 e Taq1 está associado ao aumento do risco de diabetes tipo 2. Achamos que precisamos de um número maior de voluntários para chegar a uma conclusão mais precisa.


Assuntos
Humanos , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249104, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339389

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was designed to evaluate the strength of association of raised plasma homocysteine concentration as a risk factor for coronary heart disease independent of conventional risk factor. It was a case control study conducted at Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore. A total of 210 subjects aged 25 to 60 years comprising of 105 newly admitted patients of CHD as cases and 105 age and sex matched healthy individuals with no history of CHD as control were recruited for the study. Fasting blood samples were obtained from cases and controls. Plasma homocysteine was analyzed by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) method on automated immunoassay analyzer (Abbott IMX). Total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL cholesterol were analyzed using calorimetric kit methods. The concentration of LDL cholesterol was calculated using Friedewald formula. The patients were also assessed for traditional risk factors such as age, sex, family history of CVD, hypertension, smoking and physical activity, and were compared with control subjects. The collected data was entered in SPSS version 24 for analysis and interpretation.The mean age in controls and experimental groups were 43.00± 8.42 years and 44.72± 8.59 years with statistically same distribution (p- value= 0.144). The mean plasma homocysteine for cases was 22.33± 9.22 µmol/L where as it was 12.59±3.73 µmol/L in control group. Highly significant difference was seen between the mean plasma level of homocysteine in cases and controls (p˂0.001).Simple logistic regression indicates a strong association of coronary heart disease with hyperhomocysteinemia (OR 7.45), which remained significantly associated with coronary heart disease by multivariate logistic regression (OR 7.10, 95%C1 3.12-12.83, p=0.000). The present study concludes that elevated levels of Plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease independent of conventional risk factors and can be used as an indicator for predicting the future possibility for the onset of CVD.


Resumo O presente estudo foi desenhado para avaliar a força da associação da concentração elevada de homocisteína no plasma como um fator de risco para doença cardíaca coronária independente do fator de risco convencional. Foi um estudo de caso-controle realizado no Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore. Um total de 210 indivíduos com idade entre 25 e 60 anos, compreendendo 105 pacientes recém-admitidos de CHD como casos e 105 indivíduos saudáveis ​​pareados por idade e sexo sem histórico de CHD como controle, foi recrutado para o estudo. Amostras de sangue em jejum foram obtidas de casos e controles. A homocisteína plasmática foi analisada pelo método de imunoensaio de polarização de fluorescência (FPIA) em analisador de imunoensaio automatizado (Abbott IMX). Colesterol total, triglicerídeos e colesterol HDL foram analisados ​​usando métodos de kit calorimétrico. A concentração de colesterol LDL foi calculada pela fórmula de Friedewald. Os pacientes também foram avaliados para fatores de risco tradicionais, como idade, sexo, história familiar de DCV, hipertensão, tabagismo e atividade física, e foram comparados com indivíduos de controle. Os dados coletados foram inseridos no SPSS versão 24 para análise e interpretação. A média de idade nos grupos controles e experimentais foi de 43,00 ± 8,42 anos e 44,72 ± 8,59 anos com distribuição estatisticamente igual (p-valor = 0,144). A homocisteína plasmática média para os casos foi de 22,33 ± 9,22 µmol / L, enquanto no grupo controle foi de 12,59 ± 3,73 µmol / L. Diferença altamente significativa foi observada entre o nível plasmático médio de homocisteína em casos e controles (p ˂ 0,001). A regressão logística simples indica uma forte associação de doença cardíaca coronária com hiper-homocisteinemia (OR 7,45), que permaneceu significativamente associada com doença cardíaca coronária por multivariada regressão logística (OR 7,10, 95% C1 3,12-12,83, p = 0,000). O presente estudo conclui que níveis elevados de homocisteína plasmática são fator de risco independente para doença cardíaca coronária, independentemente dos fatores de risco convencionais, e pode ser usado como um indicador para prever a possibilidade futura de aparecimento de DCV.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença das Coronárias/embriologia , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/diagnóstico , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fatores de Risco , Jejum
3.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(1): 199-207, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension (HT), chronic HT, and gestational diabetes during pregnancy in a defined population of patients with saccular intracranial aneurysms (sIAs). METHODS: We included all patients with sIA, first admitted to the Neurosurgery Department of Kuopio University Hospital from its defined catchment population between 1990 and 2015, who had given birth for the first time in 1990 or later. The patients' medical records were reviewed, and clinical data were linked with prescription drug usage, hospital diagnoses and causes of death, obtained from nationwide registries. The prevalences of pre-eclampsia, other hypertensive disorders and gestational diabetes in patients were compared with a matched control population (n = 324). In addition, the characteristics of sIA disease in patients with pre-eclampsia were compared to those of sIA patients without pre-eclampsia. RESULTS: A total of 169 patients with sIA fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 22 (13%) had pre-eclampsia and 32 (19%) had other hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. In 324 matched controls who had given birth, the prevalence of pre-eclampsia was 5% (n = 15) and other hypertensive disorders were diagnosed in 10% (n = 34). There was no significant difference in prevalence of gestational diabetes (12% vs. 11%). Patients with sIA with pre-eclampsia more frequently had irregularly shaped aneurysms (p = 0·003). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-eclampsia was significantly more frequent in patients with sIA than in their population controls. Irregularly shaped aneurysms were more frequent in sIA patients with pre-eclampsia. Further studies are required to determine whether history of pre-eclampsia may indicate an elevated risk for sIA formation or rupture.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Aneurisma Intracraniano , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Aneurisma Intracraniano/complicações , Aneurisma Intracraniano/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez
4.
J Neurotrauma ; 39(1-2): 86-92, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626946

RESUMO

This case-control study using baseline data from the population cohort Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study® compared lifetime history of concussion between children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that children with ADHD would have a greater lifetime history of concussion than children without ADHD. Children were recruited from schools across the United States, sampled to provide strong generalizability to the US population. The current sample included 10,585 children (age: mean = 9.9; standard deviation = 0.6; range 9-10 years; 48.9% girls; 64.6% White), including 1085 with ADHD and 9500 without ADHD. The prevalence of prior concussion among children with ADHD was 7.2% (95% CI: 6.6-7.8%) compared with 3.2% (3.1-3.3%) among children without ADHD, meaning current ADHD status was associated with twice the odds of experiencing a prior concussion [χ2 = 44.54; p < 0.001; odds ratio = 2.34 (1.81-3.03)]. No significant differences were observed in proportion of boys and girls with ADHD who had a prior concussion history. The number of current ADHD symptoms were not meaningfully associated with prior concussion history. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with lower rates of reported concussion, but not differentially in association with ADHD. ADHD is associated with twice the lifetime prevalence of prior concussion before age 11 among children from the general U.S. population. Boys and girls with ADHD did not differ in proportions with prior concussion and concussion history was not related to the number of ADHD symptoms reported by parents.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Concussão Encefálica , Adolescente , Atletas/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(3): 1995-2002, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a major zoonosis all over the world. MicroRNAs are significant gene expression regulators and could be involved during the infections and also genetic alterations in the miRNAs sequence can affect primary miRNAs and precursor miRNAs processing and thus alter miRNAs expression. Current research studied the impact of the miR-146a polymorphism on miR-146a, TRAF-6, and IRAK-1 genes expression in patients with brucellosis illness. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this research, 25 patients with brucellosis and 25 healthy participants with determined genotypes for miR-SNP rs2910164 and miR-SNP rs57095329 were recruited. IRAK-1, TRAF-6, and miR-146a expressions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were specified by quantitative real- time PCR (qRT-PCR). Moreover, interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α) serum levels were assessed by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. There was no significant difference in the expression level of miR-146a, IRAK-1, and TRAF-6, among the patients with brucellosis and control group. TRAF-6 PBMCs expression levels in the distinctive genotypes of rs2910164 were significantly observed in patients (P = 0.048). No significant distinctions were found in miR-146a, IRAK-1, and TRAF-6 expression levels and among the rs57095329 different genotypes in brucellosis patients and controls. Meanwhile, no significant relationship was found between the rs2910164 and rs57095329 genotypes and the serum level of cytokines mentioned between the two groups. We did not find any association between expression of TRAF-6, miR-146a, and IRAK-1 in PBMCs, and cytokines serum levels with two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miR-146a. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of writers' knowledge, this research is the first one evaluating the probable link between the miR-146a rs2910164 and rs57095329 variant with miRNAs, relevant cytokine levels, and target genes in brucellosis.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1 , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , MicroRNAs , Animais , Brucelose/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Zoonoses
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 107, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feline leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is often associated with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection; however, the role and clinical significance of this coinfection remain unknown. This study aimed to assess whether FIV is associated with L. infantum infection in cats from canine leishmaniosis endemic areas and to report the clinical signs and hematological alterations associated with coinfection. METHODS: A retrospective matched case-control study (ratio 1:2) was conducted. Data of clinical examination and complete blood count (CBC) were selected from a cohort of 705 cats examined for epidemiological studies on feline leishmaniosis conducted between 2012 and 2019. Ninety-one FIV seropositive cases and 182 FIV seronegative control cats were selected. Matching was done according to age, sex, lifestyle and geographic provenience of case cats. Rapid ELISA devices were mainly used to detect anti-FIV antibodies. Anti-Leishmania IgG antibodies were detected by indirect-immunofluorescence test (IFAT). Leishmania DNA was searched in blood, oral and conjunctival swabs by quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: Feline immunodeficiency virus seropositive cats had no hematological abnormalities suggestive of an advanced stage of FIV infection and were statistically more frequently IFAT positive, and their risk of being L. infantum antibody positive was 2.8 greater than in the FIV seronegatives. The association of FIV seropositivity with L. infantum antibody positivity was confirmed in the univariable model of logistic regression. A multivariate model found FIV infection and L. infantum PCR positivity as predictors of a positive L. infantum IFAT result. Male outdoor cats from rural or suburban areas were at risk for FIV and L. infantum antibody positivity. Clinical signs more frequently associated with the coinfection were oral lesions, pale mucous membranes and low body condition score (BCS). CONCLUSIONS: This study documents that FIV seropositive cats with no hematological abnormalities suggestive of an advanced stage of FIV infection are more prone to be L. infantum seroreactive by IFAT in endemic areas. Therefore, FIV seropositive cats should be tested for L. infantum antibodies and treated for preventing sand fly bites. Pale mucous membranes, low BCS and oral lesions but no CBC abnormalities were significantly associated with the coinfection.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Coinfecção , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral , Leishmaniose , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Gatos , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 170, 2022 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common infectious diseases in humans. Dental plaque is considered as a reservoir of this bacterium, which could play an important role in the development of gastrointestinal problems. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori and its virulence factors in dental plaques in children with and without dental caries. METHODS: Among children aged 6 to 12 years, a total of 72 children were enrolled in the study, including 36 cases with total DMFT/dmft > 3 (case group) and 36 participants with total DMFT/dmft < 1 (control group). After removing supra-gingival plaques from the lower first permanent molar teeth, the samples were examined using PCR method for the presence of H. pylori and some of its virulence factors. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square, Fisher' exact test, t-tests, and logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 72 participants, 40 cases were male, and 32 cases were female. The minimum and maximum values of total DMFT/dmft indices were zero and ten, respectively, and the mean ± SD value of total DMFT/dmft was 2.78 ± 3.22. Except for vegetable consumption (p = 0.045), there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding gastrointestinal disorders, feeding methods in infancy (p = 0.058), frequency of daily brushing (p = 0.808), frequency of dental visits (p = 0.101), and history of dental scaling (p = 0.246) and professional topical fluoride therapy (p = 0.5). Out of 72 samples, 15 cases were positive for H. pylori DNA (20.8%), and there was no significant association between the presence of this bacterium in dental plaque and dental caries (p = 0.281). The frequency of virulence factors detected in 15 H. pylori cases was as follows: cagA in six cases (40.0%), vacAm1 in three cases (20.0%), and vacAs1 in one case (6.7%). There was no significant difference between the groups regarding the prevalence of virulence factors. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate the presence of H. pylori along with some virulence factors in dental plaques as a reservoir of this bacterium in children in Iran. Although there was no significant association between this bacterium and the incidence of dental caries, dental health in children needs to be seriously taken into consideration.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Placa Dentária , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Antígenos de Bactérias , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Placa Dentária/epidemiologia , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Virulência/genética
8.
BMC Surg ; 22(1): 161, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the widespread use of the posterior surgery, more and more surgeons chose posterior surgery to treat thoracic and lumbar tuberculosis. But others still believed that the anterior surgery is more conducive to eradicating the lesions, and easier to place larger bone pieces for bone graft fusion. We compared the clinical and radiological outcomes of anterior and posterior surgical approaches and presented our views. METHODS: This study included 52 thoracic and lumbar tuberculosis patients at Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital from January 2010 to June 2018. All cases underwent radical debridement, nerve decompression, intervertebral bone graft fusion and internal fixation. Cases were divided into anterior group (24 cases) and posterior group (28 cases). Statistical analysis was used to compare the clinical effectiveness, radiological outcomes, complications and other related information. RESULTS: Patients in the anterior group and the posterior group were followed up for an average of 27.4 and 22.3 months, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the preoperative, postoperative and last follow-up VAS score, ASIA grade and Cobb angle of local kyphosis. Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences in the improvement of neurological function, loss of kyphotic correction, total incidence of complications, operative time, intraoperative blood loss and hospital stay between the two groups (P > 0.05). But there was greater correction of kyphosis, earlier bone fusion, lower incidence of poor wound healing, less interference with the normal spine and less internal fixation consumables and medical cost in the anterior group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Both anterior and posterior approaches are feasible for thoracic and lumbar tuberculosis. While for thoracic and lumbar tuberculosis patients with a single lesion limited in the anterior and middle columns of the spine without severe kyphosis, the anterior approach surgery may have greater advantages in kyphosis correction, bone fusion, wound healing, protection of the normal spine, and medical consumables and cost.


Assuntos
Cifose , Fusão Vertebral , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Desbridamento , Humanos , Cifose/cirurgia , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vértebras Torácicas/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia
9.
J Immunol Res ; 2022: 3881417, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35518570

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the association of ATG5 gene polymorphisms with autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) including Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and Graves' illness (GD) as well as their clinical features. Methods: rs6568431, rs548234, and rs6937876 were selected to investigate the correlation of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of ATG5 gene with AITDs. Their frequencies in 824 AITD patients, including 271 HT patients and 553 GD patients, and 764 healthy controls were tested using both ligase detection reaction and multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Results: Allele A frequency of rs6568431 in AITDs patients (p = 0.016, OR = 1.201, 95% CI = 1.034 - 1.394) and allele G frequency of rs6937876 in AITDs patients (p = 0.009, OR = 1.223, 95% CI = 1.052 - 1.422) and in GD patients (p = 0.009, OR = 1.247, 95% CI = 1.056 - 1.473) were significantly higher than those in the healthy controls. The frequency of G allele (p = 5.42E - 18, OR = 0.242, 95% CI = 0.173 - 0.339) of rs6937876 was significantly higher in GD patients with ophthalmopathy. However, no relationship was found between family history, age onset, and the three SNPs. Conclusion: The study is the first to reveal the association between AITDs and ATG5 polymorphisms, and ATG5 gene is considered as a predisposing gene to AITDs, especially GDs.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , Doença de Graves , Oftalmopatia de Graves , Doença de Hashimoto , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Doença de Graves/genética , Oftalmopatia de Graves/genética , Doença de Hashimoto/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/genética
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 145, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35519157

RESUMO

Introduction: Mzilikazi clinic had an upsurge of diarrhoea cases with 41 cases from the 28th to the 30th of September 2020, against a threshold of 11. We therefore, investigated the risk factors associated with this outbreak to recommend prevention and control measures. Methods: we conducted a 1:1 unmatched case-control study. A case was any person who suffered from diarrhoea, and was resident in the clinic´s catchment since the 21st of September 2020. Demographic data, knowledge and practices related to diarrhoea were collected using a standard questionnaire for both cases and controls. Environmental assessment, water quality and stool testing was also done. We conducted univariate and multivariate analysis at 95% confidence interval, to determine factors independently associated with contracting diarrhoea. Results: the median age was 30 years (Q1=12, Q3=46) for cases and 30 years (Q1=22, Q3=48) for controls. The dominant gender was female for cases and male for controls. The independent risk factors were: drinking borehole water [adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR)=2.66; 95%CI=(1.41-5.00)], storing water in open container [aOR=2.76; 95%CI=(1.38-5.53)] and being under-five years old [aOR=5.73; 95%CI=(2.06-15.89)]. Boiling drinking water [aOR=0.39; 95%CI=(0.20-0.75)] was protective. Coliforms were detected from boreholes and stored water samples, and Shigella flexneri was isolated from 2 of the 13 stool specimens collected. Residents accessed water from decommissioned boreholes due to severe municipal water rationing. Conclusion: being under-five years old, drinking borehole water and storing water in open containers were independent risk factors. Health education on home water treatment, distribution of water storage containers, and Aquatabs was done.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Surtos de Doenças , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 133, 2022.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35519171

RESUMO

The identification of allergens is essential in the management of allergic rhinitis. Sugarcane produces anemophilic pollen. The purpose of our study is to assess the role of sugarcane pollen in the occurrence of allergic rhinitis. We conducted a case-control analytical study of patients living in a Malagasy rural commune in which sugarcane cultivation and processing are important sources of employment, from July 2017 to June 2018. We enrolled 182 patients (91 cases and 91 controls). Factors associated with the occurrence of symptoms of allergic rhinitis were: a distance of less than 500 meters between homes and sugarcane fields (OR = 1.50), being a sugarcane worker (OR=1.16) and having a family history of allergic rhinitis (OR=13.67). In addition, exposure to wind gusts (OR=0.84) and outdoor occupation (OR=0.92) were protective factors. Exposure of patients to sugarcane pollen is associated with clinical manifestations of allergic rhinitis and confirms the role of this allergen in the occurrence of the disease. Avoidance and hygiene measures are the basis of treatment.


Assuntos
Rinite Alérgica Sazonal , Rinite Alérgica , Saccharum , Alérgenos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Pólen , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/diagnóstico , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/tratamento farmacológico , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/epidemiologia
12.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 30: e20210567, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507987

RESUMO

The association between Periodontitis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) has been primarily based on their similar pathophysiology and both are associated with genetic polymorphisms. OBJECTIVES: To investigate an association between the methylation-related gene polymorphisms DNMT3B (rs2424913) and MTHFR (rs1801133) to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Periodontitis. METHODOLOGY: In total, 196 individuals of all genders aged 24 to 60 years old were allocated into four groups based on their systemic and periodontal status, namely: Healthy control (n=60), periodontitis (n=51), SLE (n=47), and SLE + periodontitis (n=38). Individuals with SLE were stratified according to disease activity (SLEDAI) in inactive or active. We performed polymorphism analysis using PCR-RFLP with genomic DNA from mouthwash. We analyzed data using Fisher's Exact, Chi-square test, and regression models. RESULTS: Periodontal status were similar in subjects with periodontitis alone and combined with SLE. SLE patients with periodontitis had a longer SLE diagnosis than SLE only (p=0.001). For DNMT3 B polymorphism, the periodontitis, SLE, and Inactive SLE + periodontitis groups showed a higher frequency of T allele and TT genotypes compared to healthy controls (p<0.05). Regression analyses showed that the TT genotype is a strong risk factor for periodontitis (OR=4.53; CI95%=1.13-18.05) and also for SLE without periodontitis (OR=11.57; CI95%=3.12-42.84) and SLE with periodontitis (OR=5.27; CI95%=1.25-22.11) when compared to control. CONCLUSION: SLE patients with periodontitis had a longer length of SLE diagnosis. The DNMT3B (rs2424913) polymorphism was associated with periodontitis and SLE alone or combined with periodontitis. Our study contributes to understanding the genetic mechanisms involved in periodontitis and SLE susceptibility.


Assuntos
DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Periodontite , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodontite/etiologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7409, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523805

RESUMO

The role of the bifurcation angle in progression of saccular intracranial aneurysms (sIAs) has been undetermined. We, therefore, assessed the association of bifurcation angles with aneurysm progression using a bifurcation-type aneurysm model in rats and anterior communicating artery aneurysms in a multicenter case-control study. Aneurysm progression was defined as growth by ≥ 1 mm or rupture during observation, and controls as progression-free for 30 days in rats and ≥ 36 months in humans. In the rat model, baseline bifurcation angles were significantly wider in progressive aneurysms than in stable ones. In the case-control study, 27 and 65 patients were enrolled in the progression and control groups. Inter-observer agreement for the presence or absence of the growth was excellent (κ coefficient, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.61-1.0). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that wider baseline bifurcation angles were significantly associated with subsequent progressions. The odds ratio for the progression of the second (145°-179°) or third (180°-274°) tertiles compared to the first tertile (46°-143°) were 5.5 (95% CI, 1.3-35). Besides, the bifurcation angle was positively correlated with the size of aneurysms (Spearman's rho, 0.39; P = 0.00014). The present study suggests the usefulness of the bifurcation angle for predicting the progression of sIAs.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Intracraniano , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Angiografia Cerebral , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Razão de Chances , Ratos , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 860880, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35528009

RESUMO

Background: Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is an autoimmune disease which may result in extensive damage of the thyroid gland. Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), is the most frequent HT-associated disorder, with anti-parietal cell autoantibodies (APCA) being a screening test for autoimmune CAG. The aim of this study was to investigate, in a cohort of HT patients: a) the prevalence of APCA in an attempt to define their clinical phenotype and b) any possible associations of APCA with other autoimmune diseases and malignancies. Methods: This is a single-center, case-control study, conducted at a University Hospital. The study included patients with HT diagnosed between November 2017 and November 2020. Excluded were patients <18 years old, with sonographic features of HT but negative thyroid peroxidase (TPOAbs) or thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAbs), Graves' disease, Down or Turner's syndrome. Results: A total of 840 patients with HT were included in the study, from whom 180 (21.4%) had positive APCA. A total of 79 patients (9.4%) had one or more organ-specific autoimmune diseases and 61 (7.3%) had a systemic autoimmune disease. Autoimmune diseases were more frequent in female than in male patients (17.9% versus 10.9%, p = 0.05). APCA-positive patients were older than APCA-negative (54.1 ± 13.5 versus 49.0 ± 14.6, p <0.001) and had more often positive TPOAbs (93.3% versus 83.9%, p=0.001). Gastric neoplasms were documented only in APCA-positive patients (p <0.001). A higher frequency of organ-specific autoimmune diseases was observed in the APCA-positive group (14.4% versus 8%, p = 0.024). In the subgroup of patients with additional autoimmune diseases (n = 140), younger age and positive APCA were independently associated with the presence of organ-specific autoimmunity (OR 0.954, 95% CI 0.927-0.982 and OR 3.100, 95% CI 1.256-7.652, respectively). Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) occurred in 3.5% of patients (26/29 women). Positive family history for thyroid autoimmunity and negative TPOAbs were the only independent risk factors for PTC among women (OR 3.228, 95% CI 1.173-8.887 and 0.315, 95% 0.113-0.881, respectively). Conclusion: This study reveals for the first time an association of APCA with organ-specific autoimmunity in HT patients. APCA together with patient age were independently associated with the presence of organ-specific autoimmunity. Finally, this study showed an association between APCA and gastric neoplasms in these patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , Doença de Graves , Doença de Hashimoto , Neoplasias Gástricas , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Autoanticorpos , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Doença de Hashimoto/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
17.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(5): 1556-1563, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502026

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate corneal densitometry (CD) of patients with arcus senilis (AS) and its association with the serum lipid markers. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, case-control study. The AS diagnosis was made clinically. Forty-five eyes of 45 patients with AS and 38 eyes of 38 age-matched control subjects with no noticeable AS were enrolled in the study. All participants underwent detailed ophthalmologic examination along with corneal Scheimpflug imaging with CD measurement. The evaluated serum lipid markers of the participants included total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). The Spearman correlation analysis was used to correlate the serum lipid values and the CD. P < 0.05 was defined as statistically significant. Results: The male to female ratio was 26/19 and 14/24 in the study and control groups, respectively (P = 0.057). The mean age was 59.56 ± 8.7 and 56.47 ± 8.6 years in the study and control groups, respectively (P = 0.117). The mean total CD values in the zones extending from 2 to 12 mm were higher in the study group than in the control group (P < 0.001). The serum HDL level was found to be significantly decreased in the study group compared to the control group (P = 0.048 and Z = -1.976). There was a significant positive correlation between the serum triglyceride level and the CD value of the outermost zone (10-12 mm) (r = 0.334 and P = 0.025). Conclusion: The CD of patients with AS was found to increase not only in the peripheral zone but also in the cornea's paracentral zone compared to the healthy controls. The serum triglyceride level should give an insight into the intensity of arcus senilis. The serum HDL levels were decreased in patients with AS.


Assuntos
Arco Senil , Idoso , Arco Senil/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Córnea , Estudos Transversais , Densitometria , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos
18.
Can Vet J ; 63(5): 528-534, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502250

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically important diseases affecting the swine industry. The main objective of this study was to assess whether sow farm distance to slaughterhouses and meteorological variables were associated with PRRS outbreaks. This case-control study paired 104 sow farms with or without a reported PRRS outbreak (N = 208) during the same period. Data on the distance to the closest slaughterhouse, swine density, presence of an air filtration system, or a neighboring farm, and weather conditions were collected, and a multivariable conditional logistic regression model was created to investigate the association between variables of interest and the occurrence of a PRRS outbreak. Swine density, presence of an air filtration system, presence of a neighboring farm, and PRRS herd-level status before the outbreak were associated with the occurrence of PRRS outbreaks. Farms in areas with higher swine density and nearby swine farms had increased odds of reporting an outbreak compared to farms in low swine density areas and farms having no neighbors. Under the conditions of this study, none of the meteorological variables or the distance to the closest slaughterhouse were associated with occurrence of PRRS outbreaks.


Enquête sur la distance aux abattoirs et les paramètres météorologiques dans l'apparition d'épidémies de syndrome reproducteur et respiratoire porcin dans les troupeaux reproducteurs de porcs aux États-Unis. Le syndrome reproducteur et respiratoire porcin (SRRP) est l'une des maladies les plus importantes sur le plan économique affectant l'industrie porcine. L'objectif principal de cette étude était d'évaluer si la distance entre les élevages de truies et les abattoirs et les variables météorologiques étaient associées aux épidémies de SRRP. Cette étude cas-témoin a apparié 104 élevages de truies avec ou sans éclosion de SRRP déclarée (N = 208) au cours de la même période. Des données sur la distance à l'abattoir le plus proche, la densité porcine, la présence d'un système de filtration d'air ou d'une ferme voisine et les conditions météorologiques ont été recueillies, et un modèle de régression logistique conditionnelle multivariable a été créé pour étudier l'association entre les variables d'intérêt et l'occurrence d'une épidémie de SRRP.La densité porcine, la présence d'un système de filtration de l'air, la présence d'une ferme voisine et le statut du troupeau relativement au SRRP avant l'épidémie ont été associés à l'apparition d'épidémies de SRRP. Les fermes situées dans des zones à forte densité porcine et d'autres fermes porcines à proximité avaient plus de chances de signaler une épidémie que les fermes situées dans des zones à faible densité porcine et les fermes sans voisins. Dans les conditions de cette étude, aucune des variables météorologiques ni la distance à l'abattoir le plus proche n'étaient associées à la survenue d'épidémies de SRRP.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Doenças dos Suínos , Matadouros , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Feminino , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Suínos , Tempo (Meteorologia)
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e056669, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504644

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the determinants of neonatal sepsis in the neonatal intensive care units of public hospitals in Hawassa City Administration, Sidama Region, Ethiopia, in 2020. DESIGN: Institutional-based, unmatched, case-control study. SETTING: The study was conducted in three public hospitals (Hawassa University Teaching Hospital, Adare General Hospital and Hawela Tula Primary Hospital) of Hawassa City, Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 331 (110 cases and 221 controls) neonates with their index mothers were included in the study from 1 August to 30 September 2020. OUTCOME MEASURES: A pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaire and data extraction checklist were used to collect data. Data were coded and entered into EpiData V.3.1 before being exported to SPSS V.20 for analysis. The factors associated with neonatal sepsis were assessed using bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. P value of less than 0.05 was used to establish statistically significant association of variables. RESULTS: Caesarean section delivery (adjusted OR (AOR)=2.56, 95 % CI 1.3 to 5.00), maternal anaemia (AOR=2.58, 95 % CI 1.45 to 4.6) and lack of vaccination with tetanus toxoid (AOR=3.5, 95% CI 2.07 to 6.19) were all identified as factors significantly associated with neonatal sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: Caesarean section delivery, maternal history of anaemia and lack of vaccination with tetanus toxoid were found to be risk factors for neonatal sepsis. Establishing preconception care practice, strengthening the quality of antenatal care and standardising infection prevention practice are needed to improve neonatal health.


Assuntos
Sepse Neonatal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cesárea , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Sepse Neonatal/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Toxoide Tetânico
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 869444, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493478

RESUMO

Objectives: B cell-activating factor (BAFF), which is critical in the activation and differentiation of B cells, is a candidate diagnostic and predictive biomarker for antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). We aimed to investigate the value of serum soluble BAFF (sBAFF) for the diagnosis and risk stratification of ABMR after kidney transplantation. Methods: In the diagnostic study, sBAFF level among ABMR (n = 25), T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) (n = 14), 4 other pathological lesions (n = 21), and stable allograft function group (n = 15) were compared. In the nested case-control study, kidney allograft recipients with de novo donor-specific antibody (DSA) or ABMR (n = 16) vs. stable allograft function (n = 7) were enrolled, and sBAFF was measured preoperatively, at D7, M1, M3, M6, M9, M12, M18 posttransplant and at allograft biopsy. Results: There was no significant difference in sBAFF level at biopsy between ABMR and non-ABMR groups. Longitudinal study showed that the sBAFF levels decreased dramatically at D7 in both groups. The sBAFF level in the DSA group started to increase within M1, while in the stable group, it maintained a low level until M3 and M6. The sBAFF levels of the DSA group were significantly higher than that of the stable group at M1 [1,013.23 (633.97, 1,277.38) pg/ml vs. 462.69 (438.77, 586.48) pg/ml, P = 0.005], M3 [1,472.07 (912.79, 1,922.08) pg/ml vs. 561.63 (489.77, 630.00) pg/ml, P = 0.002], and M6 [1,217.95 (965.25, 1,321.43) pg/ml vs. 726.93 (604.77, 924.60) pg/ml, P = 0.027]. sBAFF levels at M3 had the best predictive value for the DSA/ABMR with the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve value of 0.908. The predictive performance of the maximum (max) change rate from D7 to the peak within M3 was also excellent (AUROC 0.949, P = 0.580). Conclusion: We clarified by a diagnostic study that sBAFF is not a diagnostic biomarker for ABMR in kidney transplantation and revealed by a nested case-control study that sBAFF values at M3 posttransplant and dynamic changes in sBAFF within M3 posttransplant have a good predictive value for the DSA/ABMR. It provides a useful tool for early screening of low-risk patients with negative preoperative DSA for the risk of developing postoperative DSA in kidney allograft recipients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos , Rejeição de Enxerto , Aloenxertos , Fator Ativador de Células B , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fibrinogênio , Humanos , Rim , Estudos Longitudinais , Medição de Risco
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