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1.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(17): 2526-2530, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29527955

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the antidepressant-like effects of the hexane (HCP), ethyl acetate (ECP) and methanol (MCP) extracts of the roots of Casimiroa pubescens Ramírez (Rutaceae) using the forced swim test (FST). In an initial experiment, each extract was orally administered to mice only once 60 min before to the FST. In a second experiment, doses were administered 24, 7 and 1 h before testing. Our results showed that the triple administration of the extracts provided a stronger effect than single administration. However, the combination of HCP at 7.5 mg/kg and imipramine (IMI) at 12.5 mg/kg showed the greatest effect. The coumarins 3-(1',1', dimethyl allyl)-herniarin, auraptene, 8-geranyl-oxy psoralen, isopimpinellin and the flavonoid zapotin were isolated from the extracts. The hexane extract of C. pubescens showed an antidepressant-like activity, which may inspire further studies on developing new antidepressant agents.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Casimiroa/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Cumarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Solventes/farmacologia , Natação , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Chem Biodivers ; 15(4): e1700528, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29411525

RESUMO

Flavonoids are agents with strong antioxidant properties and ameliorate many diseases associated with oxidative stress. Leaves of Casimiroa sapota were investigated for components and antioxidant/anti-inflammatory activities against lead acetate ((AcO)2 Pb) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Three groups of male albino rats were administrated orally with vehicle or C. sapota (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w/day) for 28 days; other group was injected with sub-acute dose (100 mg/kg b.w/day) of (AcO)2 Pb. Three protective groups were injected with (AcO)2 Pb (100 mg/kg b.w/day) for 7 days at day 22 after treatment with either C. sapota (100 or 200 mg/kg b.w/day) or silymarin (SILY) for 28 days. We isolated and identified, from C. sapota, a new compound for the 1st time in nature; 5,6,2',3'-tetramethoxyflavone in addition to the rare compound 5,6,3'-trimethoxyflavone (second report of isolation from nature) and the known compound 5,6,2',3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone. There is an improvement in all hemato-biochemical parameters, antioxidant defense system and anti-inflammatory cytokines of protective groups, which received C. sapota in dose dependent manner. The percentage of changes in all parameters measured in (AcO)2 Pb groups that received vehicle, CS100, CS200 or SILY were 109.2, 37.3, 12.5%, and 1.2% compared with the healthy control group. The C. sapota groups confer a better antioxidant activity by preventing oxidative stress and inflammation in (AcO)2 Pb treated rats. The compounds isolated are responsible at least in part for the observed protective effects.


Assuntos
Casimiroa/química , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Flavonas/farmacologia , Compostos Organometálicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Flavonas/química , Flavonas/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Organometálicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 78(2): 296-300, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25036684

RESUMO

Casimiroa edulis is known as cochitzapotl, and it belongs to a species of tropical fruiting tree in the family Rutaceae, native to eastern Mexico and Central America south to Costa Rica. In this study, we isolated two furocoumarins and two polymethoxyflavones from leaves of C. edulis and evaluated the functions of glucose and lipid metabolism activity with 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We discovered that the addition of furocoumarins increased glucose uptake and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte. These results suggest that furocoumarin compounds can be used as functional food-derived compounds, to regulate adipocyte functioning for the management of metabolic syndrome, which is associated with dysfunctions of glucose and lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Casimiroa/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos
4.
Phytomedicine ; 21(5): 586-94, 2014 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24309287

RESUMO

Hypertension is a very widespread condition which is not strictly considered as an illness but if not countered, progressively causes damage to all tissues and loss in their functionality. For this reason the find of new antihypertensive agents is prominent and medicinal plants and their derivatives are valuable for the purpose. The genus Casimiroa (Rutaceae) includes plants from Central America and Mexico; among these, Casimiroa edulis Llave et Lex. and Casimiroa pubescens Ramirez are the most relevant species, even for their medicinal uses. The decoction of leaves and seeds is traditionally taken as a tea mainly to lower blood pressure. The object of this research was the study of vascular activity of coumarinic and flavonoid compounds isolated from seeds of Casimiroa spp. in comparison with Casimiroa edulis and Casimiroa pubescens extracts. The phenolic compounds isolated from Casimiroa were herniarin (Her), imperatorin (Imp), 8-geranyloxypsoralen (GOP) and 5,6,2',3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF). All these compounds induced vasorelaxation on rat arterial tissues although with different effectiveness. To study the cellular mechanisms of the vasorelaxation exhibited by imperatorin, we used selective inhibitors of different receptors and enzymes, such as atropine, pyrilamine, nifedipine, L-NAME and DETC. In a further step of this research, we evaluated the radical-scavenging activity of Casimiroa extracts and isolated compounds by means of DPPH assay. In general, we observed that the scavenging activities increased in a concentration-dependent manner for all substances. The phenolic compounds highlight a synergism of vasodilation and antioxidant activity which may be very useful in the management of cardiovascular diseases. Among the evaluated compounds, imperatorin shows a significant vasorelaxant activity even higher than acetylcholine and similar to nitrite, and also useful antiradical capabilities. All these properties suggest its possible role against hypertension and vasculopathies, even if in vivo studies are needed to determine the actual applications.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/análise , Casimiroa/química , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/análise , Furocumarinas/farmacologia , Vasodilatadores/análise , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Flavonas/isolamento & purificação , Flavonas/farmacologia , Furocumarinas/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/química , Umbeliferonas/isolamento & purificação , Umbeliferonas/farmacologia
5.
Phytother Res ; 26(3): 452-7, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22173732

RESUMO

The phytochemical investigation of Casimiroa edulis Llave et Lex (Rotaceae) afforded four coumarins: umbelliferone (1), esculetin (2), imperatorin (3) and xanthotoxol (4). The identification of these compounds was achieved by using a combination of m.p., UV, EI-mass, ¹H NMR and ¹³C NMR spectroscopy. Essential oil extracts were analysed by GC/MS leading to the identification of 60 components. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons accounted for the major make up of the oil. Microbiological screenings of the oil and successive plant fractions were performed, showing promising activity against a number of microorganisms with Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) comparable to the standard antibiotics such as chloramphenicol and kanamycin. The plant ethanol extract (400 mg/kg) and the isolated coumarins (60 mg/kg) showed anticoagulant activity. Analyses to determine the activity of the extracts on liver and kidney function were performed, revealing no negative or detrimental effects.


Assuntos
Casimiroa/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Umbeliferonas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/química , Furocumarinas/química , Furocumarinas/isolamento & purificação , Furocumarinas/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Sesquiterpenos/química , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Umbeliferonas/química , Umbeliferonas/farmacologia
6.
Nat Prod Res ; 25(11): 1067-73, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21726129

RESUMO

The hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the seeds of Casimiroa edulis cultivated in Sardinia (Italy) have been assayed on the two enzymatic-associated activities of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), the RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (RDDP) and the ribonuclease H. In biochemical assays, the extract inhibited both activities in a dose-dependent manner, showing a 10-fold more potent inhibition of the HIV-1 RT RDDP activity. Furthermore, the extract was cytotoxic on K562 cell replication.


Assuntos
Casimiroa/química , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por RNA/metabolismo , Ribonuclease H/metabolismo
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 137(1): 934-6, 2011 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21726621

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Leaf and seed decoctions of Casimiroa spp. are used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat high blood pressure. Previous researches showed as Casimiroa extracts are able to induce relaxation of rat aortic and caudal arteries. To study the influence of the aging, we determined the vascular effect induced by extracts of Casimiroa edulis and Casimiroa pubescens in arterial tissues from young and old rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The activity of Casimiroa edulis extracts: hexanic-leaf (Ce5), methanolic-leaf (Ce6), hexanic-seed (Ce7) and methanolic-seed (Ce8), and Casimiroa pubescens: hexanic-leaf (Cp9), methanolic-leaf (Cp10), hexanic-seed (Cp11) and methanolic-seed (Cp12) were investigated in precontracted caudal arteries of young (4 months) and old (20 months) rats. RESULTS: The Casimiroa extracts tested at 20 µg/ml induced vasorelaxation in phenylephrine-precontracted arterial tissues both in young and old arterial tissues. Methanolic seed extracts of Casimiroa edulis (Ce8) and Casimiroa pubescens (Cp12) caused a higher relaxation in young than in old arterial tissues. Nifedipine (0.01 µM) did not change the vasorelaxation induced by Casimiroa edulis extract either in young and old rat arterial tissues. CONCLUSIONS: The vasorelaxation induced by Casimiroa edulis and Casimiroa pubescens extracts is decreased from aging since the effects were higher in young than in old rat arterial tissues. However, the methanolic-seed extracts of both plant species induced a relevant vasorelaxation also in old arterial tissues. Thus the results support the traditional use of Casimiroa decoctions as antihypertensive, also in elderly.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Artérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Casimiroa , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/isolamento & purificação , Casimiroa/química , Hexanóis/química , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Metanol/química , México , Nifedipino/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta , Plantas Medicinais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sementes , Solventes/química , Vasodilatadores/química , Vasodilatadores/isolamento & purificação
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 134(3): 637-43, 2011 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21236328

RESUMO

AIM OF THE STUDY: Casimiroa spp. are Mexican plants traditionally used for treatment of hypertension. To study their antihypertensive action, we determined the arterial dilatation induced by extracts from leaves and seeds of Casimiroa calderoniae F. Chiang & Medrano, Casimiroa edulis Llave et Lex, and Casimiroa pubescens Ramirez. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The vascular effects of Casimiroa spp. extracts were investigated on rat caudal and aortic arteries. In addition, the extracts were characterized by HPLC using heraclenol, isopimpinellin, heraclenin and phellopterin as external standards. The methanolic extract of Casimiroa pubescens seeds (Cp12) was also studied by H-NMR and LC-MS (ESI-TOF) for the determination of casimiroin and zapotin. RESULTS: The hexanic and methanolic extracts of Casimiroa spp. (20 µg/ml) showed vasorelaxation in arterial tissues precontracted by phenylephrine (0.5 µM); the extracts from seeds always caused a greater relaxation in comparison to those from leaves. The most active were the methanolic seed extracts of Casimiroa edulis (Ce8) and Casimiroa pubescens (Cp12). To study the pharmacological mechanisms of vasodilatation we used various inhibitors selective to different receptor subtypes or intracellular enzymes. The vasorelaxant effect of Ce8 (20 µg/ml) remained unaffected by the pretreatment with pyrilamine (10 µM), an antagonist of histamine H(1) receptors, but was inhibited by atropine (0.1 µM), a muscarinic receptor antagonist. Therefore, to determine muscarinic receptor subtypes, we used pirenzepine (1 µM), a selective inhibitor of M(1) receptor, and 4-diphenylacetoxyl-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (DAMP, 0.01 µM), a selective inhibitor of M(3) receptor. Only the latter reduced the vasodilatation by Ce8 and Cp12. To investigate the role of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS), we used N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 10 µM), a selective NOS inhibitor, which decreased the dilatation induced by Ce8 and Cp12. Finally, we studied the action of (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one) (ODQ, 3 µM), a selective guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, which inhibited the dilatation by Casimiroa extracts. CONCLUSION: The data show that methanolic seed extracts of Casimiroa edulis (Ce8) and Casimiroa pubescens (Cp12) induce vasorelaxation by M(3) receptor through the activation of cGMP-dependent NO signaling. These results support the traditional use of Casimiroa decoctions for antihypertensive treatments in the Mexican ethnomedicine.


Assuntos
Casimiroa/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Resistência Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
9.
Nat Prod Commun ; 4(3): 425-6, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19413126

RESUMO

The leaf essential oil of Casimiroa edulis (Rutaceae), collected from Monteverde, Costa Rica, has been obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The leaf oil was dominated by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, predominately germacrene D (16-22%) and (E)-caryophyllene (16-17%), consistent with the traditional use of this plant as a sedative, sleep inducer and hypotensive.


Assuntos
Casimiroa/química , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Costa Rica , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação
10.
J Med Chem ; 52(7): 1873-84, 2009 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19265439

RESUMO

An efficient method has been developed to synthesize casimiroin (1), a component of the edible fruit of Casimiroa edulis, on a multigram scale in good overall yield. The route was versatile enough to provide an array of compound 1 analogues that were evaluated as QR2 and aromatase inhibitors. In addition, X-ray crystallography studies of QR2 in complex with compound 1 and one of its more potent analogues has provided insight into the mechanism of action of this new series of QR2 inhibitors. The initial biological investigations suggest that compound 1 and its analogues merit further investigation as potential chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Aromatase/síntese química , Benzodioxóis/síntese química , Casimiroa/química , Quinolonas/síntese química , Quinona Redutases/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Aromatase/química , Inibidores da Aromatase/química , Inibidores da Aromatase/farmacologia , Benzodioxóis/química , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Frutas/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Quinolonas/química , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
11.
Fitoterapia ; 79(6): 446-50, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18538506

RESUMO

The Casimiroa pringlei essential oil was analyzed to determine its chemical composition. Its effect on rat uterine smooth muscle was studied and compared with verapamil. Pure commercial piperitone, eucalyptol, and alpha-terpineol, the major constituents of C. pringlei essential oil, were tested on the uterine tonic contraction induced by high-potassium depolarizing solution (KCl 60 mM).


Assuntos
Casimiroa , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Parassimpatolíticos/farmacologia , Contração Uterina/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Variância , Animais , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Casimiroa/química , Cromatografia Gasosa , Feminino , Espectrometria de Massas , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Parassimpatolíticos/química , Parassimpatolíticos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cloreto de Potássio/farmacologia , Ratos , Verapamil/farmacologia
12.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 21(1): 1-6, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18166510

RESUMO

The present study deals with the aphrodisiac actions of the aqueous extract of the seeds of the hypotensive plant Casimiroa edulis on the sexual behavior of normal male rats. In this investigation 30 healthy male Wister strain white albino rats showing the brisk sexual activity age 15 weeks, weighing 400-450 grams were included. Female rats were artificially brought into estrous by hormonal treatment. Receptivity was checked by exposing them to the male rats and the most receptive females were selected for the stud The mating responses including Mounting Frequency (MF), Intromission Frequency (IF), Mounting Latency (ML), Intromission Latency (IL), Ejaculatory Latency in first and second series (EL1 and EL2) and Post Ejaculatory Interval (PEI) were recorded after treating the animals with 250 mg/kg casimiroa edulis extract (test reference) and 5 mg/kg sildenafil citrate (standard reference) respectively orally per day for 7 days. Both the groups exhibited a significant increase in Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency, and first and second ejaculatory latencies, where as Mounting and Intromission latencies and the Post Ejaculatory Interval showed a significant reduction than the controls. Although a similar pattern of mating behavior was observed among the test and the standard groups, however in all the cases as expected, sildenafil produced greater activity than the casimiroa edulis extract. These results suggest the possibility of a similar mode of action of casimiroa edulis and sildenafil citrate on mating behavior in these animals. Our work reported in this research thus provide preliminary evidence that the aqueous seed extract of casimiroa edulis possesses alphrodisiac activity and may be used as an alternative drug therapy to restore sexual functions probably via a neurogenic mode of action.


Assuntos
Afrodisíacos/farmacologia , Casimiroa , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Afrodisíacos/administração & dosagem , Copulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ejaculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Purinas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sementes , Citrato de Sildenafila , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
13.
J Med Chem ; 50(2): 350-5, 2007 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17228877

RESUMO

An efficient method has been developed to synthesize zapotin (5,6,2',6'-tetramethoxyflavone), a component of the edible fruit Casimiroa edulis, on a multigram scale. The synthesis utilizes a regioselective C-acylation of a dilithium dianion derived from a substituted o-hydroxyactophenone to afford a beta-diketone intermediate that can be cyclized to zapotin in good overall yield, thus avoiding the inefficient Baker-Venkataraman rearrangement pathway. Zapotin was found to induce both cell differentiation and apoptosis with cultured human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60 cells). In addition, the compound inhibits 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity with human bladder carcinoma cells (T24 cells), and TPA-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activity with human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells (HepG2 cells). These data suggest that zapotin merits further investigation as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos/síntese química , Casimiroa/química , Flavonas/síntese química , Anticarcinógenos/química , Anticarcinógenos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Indução Enzimática , Flavonas/química , Flavonas/farmacologia , Humanos , NF-kappa B/biossíntese , Ornitina Descarboxilase/biossíntese , Fase S/efeitos dos fármacos , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/farmacologia
14.
J Econ Entomol ; 99(6): 1994-2001, 2006 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17195665

RESUMO

The behavioral and electrophysiological responses of nonirradiated male and female Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to white sapote, Casimiroa edulis Oerst. (Rutaceae), volatiles were investigated. Females flew upwind and landed more often on fruit than on artificial fruit in wind tunnel bioassays. Males flew upwind (but not landed) more frequently on fruit than on artificial fruit. Porapak Q volatile extracts of white sapote also elicited upwind flight and landing on artificial fruit for both sexes. Gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection analysis of white sapote extracts revealed that antennae of both sexes responded to eight compounds. Two peaks were unidentified because they did not separate from the solvent. Subsequent peaks were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as styrene, myrcene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,8-cineole, and linalool in a proportion of 50: 21: 0.5: 27: 1.5, respectively. Eight peaks were tentatively identified as beta-trans-ocimene. The number of A. ludens captured in multilure traps baited with the synthetic white sapote blend was higher than the flies captured by the multilure unbaited traps (control) in field cages. However, the number of flies captured by traps baited with the white sapote blend was not different from that of flies captured by traps baited with hydrolyzed protein. Using standard chemical ecology techniques, we found potential attractants from wild sapote fruit for monitoring and management of A. ludens population.


Assuntos
Casimiroa/química , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Masculino
15.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 57(9): 1081-5, 2005 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16105228

RESUMO

The Maya of the Yucatán peninsula commonly use the leaves of Casimiroa tetrameria for treating gastrointestinal disorders, notably diarrhoea and dysentery, as well as gastrointestinal cramps. The phytochemical investigation resulted in the isolation of 13 compounds: eight polymethoxylated flavonoids (two as minor components with a main constituent), four flavonoid glycosides and one furanocoumarin. In this study we used two well-established models in order to assess the gastrointestinal effects of C. tetrameria extracts and isolated compounds: the USSING-chamber, a pharmacological model for diarrhoea, and the isolated guinea pig ileum, a model for modulatory effects on ileum contraction. Extracts and the class of polymethoxylated flavonoids showed strong inhibitory effects in both models, which provides ex-vivo evidence for the use of this botanical drug in the treatment of several gastrointestinal problems, most notably diarrhoea. The crude extract, polymethoxylated flavonoid-rich fractions and the polymethoxylated flavonoids tested showed prominent antisecretory activity. Polymethoxylated flavonoid-rich fractions also inhibited the histamine-induced contractions in the guinea pig model. The effects are not due to a single compound, but to a large number of structurally related compounds that all contribute to the effect.


Assuntos
Antidiarreicos/farmacologia , Casimiroa , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional , Parassimpatolíticos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Antidiarreicos/química , Antidiarreicos/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Etanol/química , Etanol/farmacologia , Ácido Gástrico/metabolismo , Cobaias , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Helicobacter pylori/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/patologia , México/etnologia , Relaxamento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relaxamento Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Parassimpatolíticos/química , Parassimpatolíticos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química
16.
Phytochemistry ; 66(6): 649-52, 2005 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15771884

RESUMO

As part of an ongoing study of the medicinal plants of the Yucatec Maya, Casimiroa tetrameria was investigated for its phytochemistry. From an ethyl acetate partition of an ethanol extract of the leaves, eight flavonoids and a furanocoumarin were isolated and characterised as 5,6,2',3',5',6'-hexamethoxyflavone, 5,6,2',3',6'-pentamethoxyflavone and 5-methoxy-8-(3''-hydroxymethyl-but-2''-enyloxy)-psoralen using a combination of 1H, 13C NMR and NOESY spectroscopy.


Assuntos
Casimiroa/química , Ficusina/isolamento & purificação , Flavonas/isolamento & purificação , México , Estrutura Molecular , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/química
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 97(2): 191-7, 2005 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15707751

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the effects produced by the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves from Casimiroa edulis on the central nervous system, different behavioral tests and animal models of depression and anxiety were performed. The extract was administered intraperitoneally in male and female rats and tested on spontaneous motor activity, locomotor activity, exploration of an elevated plus-maze (EPM) and in the forced swimming test (FST). In addition, the extract was administered orally in male and female mice and evaluated in the following tests: general observation, pentobarbital-induced hypnosis, EPM, rota-rod, hole-board, and marble-burying. The results revealed that, in rats, the extract caused considerable reduction of locomotor and exploratory activities and increased the exploration of the EPM open arms in a similar way that diazepam. In the FST, the extract was as effective as fluoxetine in inducing shortening of immobility, along with a significant increase on climbing duration. On the other hand, in mice, the extract prolonged pentobarbital-induced hypnosis, increased exploration of the EPM open arms and partially protected from the pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions. No significant effect was evident on motor coordination, hole-board and marble-burying tests. These results suggest that the hydroalcoholic extract of Casimiroa edulis may contain sedative principles with potential anxiolytic and antidepressant properties, which need further investigation.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Casimiroa , Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Ansiolíticos/isolamento & purificação , Etnofarmacologia , Feminino , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Natação
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 95(2-3): 163-7, 2004 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15507330

RESUMO

The vasorelaxing activity of the aqueous extracts of Casimiroa edulis seeds F(AECe) on mesenteric arterial bed (MAB) of rats was studied. MAB precontracted with methoxamine was mounted on a tissue bath and exposed to plant extracts (bolus 50, 500, 2500 and 5000 microg). The bolus injections of AECe significantly inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the maximal contractile response induced by methoxamine (30 microm) in MAB. After endothelium removal, the vascular ability of Casimiroa edulis aqueous extract was significantly changed. Treatment with an inhibitor of NO synthase (L-NOA, 10 microM) also modified the AECe effect. The guanilate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue (MB, 100 microM) inhibited the AECe-induced vasodilatation. These results suggest the involvement of NO of endothelial source (or related factors) in this vasodilator effect.


Assuntos
Casimiroa , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Artérias Mesentéricas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Liofilização/métodos , Masculino , Artérias Mesentéricas/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sementes , Vasodilatação/fisiologia , Água/farmacologia
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 93(1): 93-8, 2004 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15182911

RESUMO

Anxiolytic-like actions of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Casimiroa edulis (Ce) La Llave ex Lex. (Rutaceae) were studied in male Wistar rats in the elevated plus-maze test, whether effect on locomotion were studied in the open-field task, and its possible antidepressant-like actions in the forced swimming task. In the elevated plus-maze test, diazepam (Dz) (1.30 mg/kg; P < 0.05) and Casimiroa edulis (25.0 mg/kg, P < 0.05; 35.0 mg/kg, P < 0.05) increased open arms exploration (i.e., anxiolytic-like action). Doses of 45.0 mg/kg (P < 0.05) and 55.0 mg/kg (P < 0.05) of Casimiroa edulis reduced locomotion in the elevated plus-maze test and in the open-field test. In the forced swimming task, desipramine (dmi) (32.0 mg/kg; P < 0.05) reduced immobility (i.e., antidepressant-like action). Conversely, as compared to control rats, neither diazepam (Dz) (1.30 mg/kg) nor Casimiroa edulis (25.0 mg/kg) modified immobility in the forced swimming task. However, diazepam (P < 0.05) or Casimiroa edulis (P < 0.05), when co-administered, canceled the antiimmobility actions of desipramine. In conclusion, the leaves of Casimiroa edulis (Rutaceae) produced anxiolytic-like actions in male Wistar rats, with several side actions, namely, reduced locomotion and neutralization of the antidepressant-like actions of desipramine.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Casimiroa , Animais , Ansiolíticos/isolamento & purificação , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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