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1.
Food Chem ; 398: 133936, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027659

RESUMO

This study investigated the impact of seed coats from peas (PC) and chickpeas (CC) (at 15 % and 30 % levels) on rice-based co-extruded snacks. Using PC and CC reduced the content of soluble (29 %) and cell-wall bound phenolic acids (21 %), but it enhanced the amount and the profile of flavonoids of rice-based snacks (up to 16 times with PC), resulting in significantly higher antioxidant activity (134 %). Snacks with 15 % CC showed a higher section area (about 335 versus 191 mm2) and a lower average pore radius (20.1 versus 23.9 mm) than PC-snacks; however, such features did not affect either texture or porosity. At 30 % level, PC resulted in a more porous structure (porosity: 73.1 versus 66.7 %) with smaller pores (17.2 versus 27.3 mm) and high firmness (55.9 versus 40.1 N). Consumers' acceptability evaluation revealed that samples containing pulse seed coat were comparable and preferred to the control (i.e., 100 % polished rice).


Assuntos
Cicer , Oryza , Cicer/química , Oryza/química , Ervilhas/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Sementes , Lanches
2.
Food Chem ; 399: 134011, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36044826

RESUMO

Avocado seeds account for 13% of the waste from industrial production of cold-pressed avocado oil (CPAO). Therefore, the aim of this study was to valorise avocado seeds by converting it into an extruded snack product using a friction cooker and comparing their textural and physical characteristics to extruded brown rice and malted barley ready to eat (RTE) snacks. Concentration of toxins; amygdalin and persin were compared in extruded avocado seed and fresh avocado seeds. Avocado seed extrudates were significantly lower in lateral expansion, apparent density, porosity, hardness, and crispiness compared to brown rice extrudates. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) was highest in freeze-dried avocado seeds. Antioxidant capacity and TPC of avocado seed extrudates were significantly higher than brown rice and malted barley. The concentrations of both amygdalin and persin in the RTE avocado seed snack were present at non-toxic levels (2.6 × 10-6 mg/g and 0.68 mg/g respectively).


Assuntos
Amigdalina , Hordeum , Persea , Antioxidantes , Álcoois Graxos , Fenóis , Sementes , Lanches
3.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 51(4): 596-603, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the fat and fatty acid composition of Fujian characteristic snacks, and to evaluate their nutritional value. METHODS: The fat and fatty acid composition of Fujian characteristic snacks were analyzed by the national standards, and analyzed by statistics such as correlation analysis, nonparametric test and cluster analysis. The nutritional value of fatty acid was evaluated by unsaturated index(UI), atherogenic index(AI), thrombosis index(TI). RESULTS: The contents of crude fat and total fatty acid were 0.11-26.35 g/100 g and 0.08-17.85 g/100 g. The correlation coefficient r=0.915(P<0.01), crude fat and total fatty acid in poultry and livestock meats were higher than those in seafood(P<0.05). The main saturated fatty acids(SFA) were palmitic acid(21.80%-34.00%)and stearic acid(7.72%-21.45%), and the main unsaturated fatty acids(UFA)were oleic acid(5.38%-41.17%) and linoleic acid(2.99%-23.54%). The content of eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA) in fish noodle(0.71%) and docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) in fried fish roll, fish slide, fish noodles(0.41%, 2.12%, 1.59%)were far higher than other snacks. Polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids(PUFA/SFA)ratios were 0.10-0.69, there were 8 kinds of snacks with PUFA/SFA ratio value>0.4. The n-3 PUFA/n-6 PUFA ratios were 0.01-0.75, n-6 PUFA/n-3 PUFA ratios were 1.33-74.31. The n-6 PUFA/n-3 PUFA ratios of fish slide(1.33) and fish noodle(2.13) conform to the ideal ratio stipulated by the British Health Organization, and the ratio of flat food(6.36) conform to the recommended ratio of Food and Agriculture Organization. The SFA∶monounsaturated fatty acids(MUFA)∶PUFA ratios were 0.8∶1.0∶0.5-2.4∶1.0∶0.2, the ratios of pork zongzi, meat yan silk, spicy meat, pressed salted duck and fried oyster(1.2∶1.1∶0.5, 0.8∶1.0∶0.6, 1.0∶1.0∶0.7, 0.8∶1.0∶0.5 and 1.1∶1.1∶0.5) were close to 1∶1∶1. The UI of 15 snacks was 48.37-90.67. The AI was 0.40-1.44, and the TI was 0.97-2.32. When the distance scale was 9, snacks were divided into three categories, namely fish noodle, fish slide and others. Fish noodle was high EPA and DHA type, and fish slide was high DHA type. CONCLUSION: The fat and total fatty acid contents of the 15 snacks were wide, which were closely related to the raw materials and cooking style. Nutrition and health value of fish slide, fish noodles food, meat yan silk and spicy meat were high.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Ácidos Graxos , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Peixes , Lanches
4.
Chronobiol Int ; 39(10): 1329-1339, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36004426

RESUMO

The postprandial glycemic response is an important metabolic health factor, which, from laboratory studies, is known to change from low to high over the course of the day, and from which negative health outcomes have been linked to nightly eating. We applied interstitial continuous glucose monitoring to examine the glycemic response to a standardized carbohydrate-rich snack (198 kcal) across the day in a real-life setting. Twenty-four healthy participants (12 men, 12 women, 27-61 y old) consumed the snack nine times during 6 d in a crossover design, altering the time of consumption between morning, afternoon and evening. The snack was consumed in the participant's own environment with a preceding fast of at least 2.5 h between their customary main meals and practices. Linear mixed models were used with fixed effect of timing, and participant as random effect, to assess incremental area under the curve, peak value and time-to-peak of the glycemic response. Overall, the highest glycemic excursions were observed in the morning, while a more dampened but prolonged response was observed in the evening. These findings do not concur with previously published laboratory studies. This implies that results obtained under controlled experimental conditions in laboratories cannot be generalized directly to predict chrononutritional effects on the glycemic response in healthy individuals and their daily routines.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Lanches , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico/fisiologia , Humanos , Insulina , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Lanches/fisiologia
5.
Appetite ; 178: 106185, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921863

RESUMO

The prevalence of childhood obesity remains high, even among young children under 5 years of age. As parents are usually the key providers of food within the home for young children, it is important to understand influences on parental snack and beverage provision. Previous research in this domain is yet to investigate the role of both rational and automatic processes in parents' provision of unhealthy snacks and beverages to their children. Subsequently, the aim of this study was to explore the influence of both habit and self-regulation on parents' behaviours related to providing unhealthy snacks to their child. Two-hundred and forty-nine parents of a child between two and three years of age were recruited via CloudResearch for this prospective study. Parents completed self-report measures of their intention, habit, and self-control related to snack and beverage provision to their child at time-one. One week later, parents self-reported their unhealthy snack and beverage provision over the previous week. Two hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the role of parents' intention, habit, and self-control in predicting their unhealthy snack and beverage provision. Results suggest that both habit and self-control influence parents' unhealthy snack and beverage provision. However, self-control plays an important role in strengthening the intention-behaviour relationship, and in limiting the impact of opposing habits on behaviour. Interventions that focus on modifying self-control would be useful for improving unhealthy snack and beverage provision among parents with young children.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Autocontrole , Bebidas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Alimentar , Hábitos , Humanos , Intenção , Pais , Estudos Prospectivos , Lanches
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954725

RESUMO

Portion sizes of many energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods and drinks have increased in the past decade, whereas our understanding of the pattern of changes in package sizes remains limited. This study aimed to determine changing trends in sales and package sizes of savoury snacks in Australia, the USA, Japan and Hong Kong, and to investigate industry perspectives for these changes. Sales data (units per capita) between 2006-2020 on savoury snacks were extracted from the Euromonitor International database. Industry perspectives on package size changes were extracted systematically from selected databases, company reports and related websites following the PRISMA-ScR guidelines. The findings showed that sales per capita of savoury snacks of all package sizes increased across all four countries/regions between 2006-2020. Although changes in the proportion of smaller (<100 g) versus larger (>100 g) package size sales in each country/region over time were modest, Japan and Hong Kong exhibited a consistently higher proportion of smaller package sales compared with Australia and the USA (83.3%, 64.4%, 44.3%, 20.2%, respectively). Industry perspectives showed that increasing consumer health consciousness, demands for convenience and portion control were the main contributors to decreasing package sizes of savoury snacks. Industry reports from 2020 showed an increase in larger package size sales due to consumer purchasing behaviour amidst the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Lanches , Comércio , Humanos , Pandemias , Tamanho da Porção
7.
Nutr Bull ; 47(1): 79-92, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045077

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify meal and snack patterns in Brazilian schoolchildren and assess their stability over 3 years. This is a repeated cross-sectional study carried out in 2013, 2014 and 2015 with 6353 schoolchildren aged 7-12 years from public schools in Florianópolis, Brazil. Previous-day food consumption data for six pre-defined meals (breakfast, mid-morning snack, lunch, mid-afternoon snack, dinner and evening snack) were collected using the validated Web-CAAFE (Food Consumption and Physical Activity of Schoolchildren) questionnaire. Latent class analysis was performed to derive meal and snack patterns. The stability of patterns was analysed using multinomial logistic regression, and the probability of belonging to a meal pattern was calculated for each year. Three patterns were identified for breakfast and four patterns for a mid-morning snack, lunch, mid-afternoon snack, dinner and evening snack. Most meal and snack patterns were stable over the 3-year evaluation period. In the total sample, for a mid-afternoon snack, there was an increase in the probability of the children belonging to the 'Fruits and porridge' pattern (14.5%, 95% CI 12%-17% in 2015 vs. 9.2%, 95% CI 6.8%-11.7% in 2013) and a reduction in the 'Ultra-processed' pattern (42.5%, 95% CI 39.4%-45.6% in 2015 vs. 51.3%, 95% CI 46.5%-56.1% in 2013). These results appear to be in line with the recommendations of the Brazilian Dietary Guidelines and regional policies to increase the intake of healthy foods and limit that of ultra-processed, high fat, sugar and salt foods.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Lanches , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/métodos , Humanos , Refeições
8.
Appetite ; 178: 106181, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35870536

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated that response inhibition training can modify the appeal of palatable and energy-dense foods, thus serving as a potential intervention for weight management, via changes in food selection and intake. However, empirical findings of efficacy have been inconsistent across studies due to heterogenous approaches to measuring salient appetitive outcomes, training implementation strategies, and sample recruitment. Systematic assessment of both affective and motivational components of food reward may help characterise to what extent devaluation can be generalised to nutritionally similar foods post-training. In this mixed factorial experiment, a non-clinical, adult sample completed time-matched single sessions with mobile app-based response inhibition training and control tasks of short (12 min; n = 27) or long (20 min; n = 25) duration. Participants were assessed on two discrete facets of food reward pre- and post-training: pleasure (i.e., explicit liking) and desire (i.e., implicit wanting) for non-specific (i.e., novel) food stimuli differing in energy-density. Consumption of snacks categorised by energy density was also assessed in a laboratory ad libitum taste test post-training. No significant differences were found between intervention and control sessions on explicit liking or implicit wanting for non-specific energy-dense foods. Moreover, participants ate a similar volume of snack foods during both sessions. Training duration did not significantly moderate differences between intervention and control sessions in primary outcomes. Variance between intervention and control sessions in chocolate intake and frequency of choice for energy-dense foods, but not explicit liking, was associated with a higher BMI. Methodological and theoretical implications for appropriate intervention implementation and underlying mechanisms, respectively, are discussed.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Adulto , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Humanos , Recompensa , Lanches/psicologia , Paladar
9.
Nutrients ; 14(15)2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35893917

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate whether dietary habits at age 2 associate with sleep duration trajectories through age 5 in children from north and central Appalachia. A total of 559 children from the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) cohort 2 were followed via caregiver phone interviews up to six times between ages 2 and 5. Exposures included data from the year 2 interview: sleep habits, household and demographic characteristics, meal patterns and consumption frequencies of fruits, vegetables, water, juice, milk, and soda. Sleep duration trajectories were identified using group-based trajectory models from ages 2 to 5. Three distinct nightly sleep duration trajectories were identified: short, increasing duration (4.5% of the study population); steady, 9 h of sleep (37.3%); and longer, slightly decreasing sleep duration (58.2%). Using multinomial logistic models that accounted for confounders, children with consistent meal patterns (i.e., meals and snacks at same time every day) and with higher fruit and vegetable consumption were more likely to follow the longer duration sleep trajectory compared to the steady sleep trajectory. In contrast, children who drank milk more frequently at age 2 were less likely to be in the longer duration sleep trajectory than the steady sleep trajectory.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Pré-Escolar , Frutas , Humanos , Sono , Lanches , Verduras
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1417, 2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35883126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to food and non-alcoholic beverage advertisements (F&B ads) on television, which can affect children's nutrition knowledge, food consumption, diet quality, and purchasing preferences, is one aspect of the obesogenic environment. This aspect has been well-studied and assessed in many countries. In China, however, only few studies have been done in earlier years and all of them were focus on regular days. This study aimed to assess the extent and nature of F&B ads on television (TV) during the public holiday directed towards children aged 4-14 years in Beijing. METHOD: Top 3 channels viewed by children aged 4-14 years in Beijing were selected by TV viewership data, survey, and expert consultation. Each channel was recorded for 7 days (24 h) during the public holiday of the Chinese New Year in 2019. F&B ads were coded and analyzed following the adapted food promotion module of INFORMAS protocol. Three nutrient profile models were used to classify F&B ads as healthy or unhealthy F&B ads. RESULTS: Of the 10,082 ads in 504-hour recorded programs, 42.9% were F&B ads. The hourly average ads and F&B ads per channel were 19.8 (SD 15.32) and 8.6 (SD 9.84), while that was higher on the national children's channel (17.15, SD 12.25) than other channels (p < 0.05). Of F&B ads classified with the three nutrient profile models, more than 55% were unhealthy for children. The categories most frequently advertised were savory snacks, milk drinks, nonpermitted milk drinks, cakes/sweet biscuits, and beverages. Unhealthy F&B ads were more likely to use promotional characters, brand benefit claims, and health claims than permitted F&B ads (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Children in Beijing were exposed to a high proportion of unhealthy F&B ads during the Chinese New Year holiday. Our findings support the need to assess and regulate TV F&B ads marketing for children.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Televisão , Pequim , Bebidas , Criança , China , Alimentos , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , Lanches
11.
Nature ; 607(7918): 246, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35821424
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12347, 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35853931

RESUMO

Presentation of foods is essential to promote the acceptance of diversified and novel products. This study examined the color profile, browning index (BI), and structural properties of 3D-printed and traditional biscuits from whole-grain (WG) sourdough and germinated flours. The processed flours and composite/multigrain flours comprising cowpea sourdough (CS) and quinoa malt (QM) were used to prepare the snacks, and their structural characteristics were determined. Compared with the traditional biscuits, the 3D-printed biscuits showed considerable distinction in terms of consistent structural design and color intensities. The in-barrel shearing effect on dough biopolymers, automated printing of replicated dough strands in layers, and expansion during baking might have caused the biscuits' structural differences. The composite biscuit formulations had a proportional share of CS and QM characteristics. The 80% CS and 20% QM printed biscuit had a low redness and BI, increased cell volume, average cell area, and total concavity. The 60% CS and 40% QM printed snack showed improved lightness and yellowness, increased average cell elongation, and less hardness. The 3D-printed composite biscuits may be recommended based on their unique structural characteristics. Such attributes can enhance the acceptability of printed foods and reinvent locally prepared meals as trendy, sustainable, and functional foods.


Assuntos
Farinha , Vigna , Farinha/análise , Impressão Tridimensional , Lanches , Vigna/química , Grãos Integrais
13.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 521, 2022 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Very few older adults meet current muscle strengthening exercise guidelines, and several barriers exist to supervised, community-based resistance exercise programs. Older adults therefore require access to feasible resistance exercise modalities that may be performed remotely. This pilot study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of undertaking a four-week home-based resistance 'exercise snacking' intervention (performed either once, twice, or thrice daily) when delivered and monitored remotely in older adults. METHODS: Thirty-eight community-dwelling older adults [mean ± SD age 69.8 ± 3.8 y, 63% female] were randomised to complete resistance 'exercise snacks' (9-minute sessions) either once (n = 9), twice (n = 10), or thrice (n = 9) daily, or allocated to usual-activity control (n = 10). Exercise adherence and adverse events were assessed using an exercise diary, and acceptability of the intervention was explored using an online questionnaire. Physical function [balance, 5-times sit-to-stand (STS), and 30-second STS tests] was assessed remotely at baseline and follow-up using videoconferencing. RESULTS: The intervention was feasible and safe, with 100% participant retention, high adherence (97, 82, and 81% for once, twice, and thrice daily, respectively), and only two adverse events from a total of 1317 'exercise snacking' sessions. The exercise intervention was rated as enjoyable (75% reported their enjoyment as ≥4 on a 5-point Likert scale), easy to perform, and most (82%) planned to continue similar exercise at home. We also found it was feasible to assess measures of physical function via videoconferencing, although effect sizes for 4-week changes in both 5-STS (d range, 0.4-1.4) and 30-STS (d range, 0.7-0.9) following the exercise intervention were similar to controls (d = 1.1 and 1.0 for 5-STS and 30-STS, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Resistance 'exercise snacking' may be a feasible strategy for engaging older adults in home-based resistance exercise when delivered and monitored remotely. The findings of this pilot feasibility trial support the need for longer-term studies in larger cohorts to determine the effectiveness of resistance 'exercise snacking' approaches for improving physical function in older adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was retrospectively registered on 10/11/2021 with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ( ACTRN12621001538831 ).


Assuntos
Vida Independente , Lanches , Idoso , Austrália , Terapia por Exercício , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
14.
Food Res Int ; 157: 111220, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35761542

RESUMO

This study aimed to use the internal design of 3D food printing (3DFP) technology to obtain freeze-dried pumpkin with controllable crispness and higher shape fidelity. Two internal structural variables, namely filling pattern (honeycomb, rectilinear, grid, and triangular) and filling rate (25, 50, 75, and 100%), were studied to assess the impact on the shape fidelity and crispness characteristic of the product. As the filling rate decreased, the printing accuracy of the samples increased. Regardless of the filling patterns, the 75% filled samples exhibited the greatest deformation. The crispness of the samples was closely related to the filling pattern and filling rate. In the case of the high filling rate, the internal structure of the samples was dense. It was less likely to be broken under the action of force and the crispness was reduced. In addition, the internal structure of the sample influenced its physical properties, and the crispness customization of the product can be achieved by designing the porosity. Morphological differences between printed and cast samples suggested that 3DFP was beneficial for the processing and preparation of highly viscoelastic materials. The crispness of cast sample was obviously less than that of the 100% filled printed samples. The results opened an interesting perspective to create crisp foods with high shape fidelity that meet specific texture requirements and provide new sensory perceptions.


Assuntos
Cucurbita , Lanches , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Liofilização , Impressão Tridimensional
15.
Food Res Int ; 156: 111172, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35651095

RESUMO

Acrylamide is a process contaminant and neurotoxic with growing evidence of cancer in human. Potato-based products majorly contribute towards acrylamide dietary intake thereby posing major food safety threat that necessitates formulation of acrylamide reduction strategies. This review highlights the recent research work on acrylamide formation mechanism, dietary intake, toxicity and potential reduction strategies at various levels in the food supply chain to ensure safety of potato-based products. Acrylamide formation in potato-based products depends on several factors involved in potato supply chain. Depending on the variety, application of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization may show positive, negative, or no effect on acrylamide formation. Heat and water stress faced by potato crops may increase the risk of acrylamide formation in processed products. Various pre-processing (e.g., blanching, chemical treatments etc.) and processing (e.g., methods, temperature, time) strategies may also reduce acrylamide formation (37-98%) in potato-based products at commercial and domestic levels. The acrylamide reduction strategies from farm to fork level have been discussed with special emphasis on mechanism of chemical treatments with pictorial representation.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Solanum tuberosum , Ingestão de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Lanches
16.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1129, 2022 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unhealthy snacking habits in adolescents are typically triggered by obesogenic food environments and possibly perpetuated through interactions between socio-environmental factors and personal perceptions, attitudes, and motivations to change eating behaviors. This study attempted to address the knowledge gap regarding the association of intrapersonal, socioeconomic, and food environmental characteristics with unhealthy snack consumption in Indian adolescents, presenting several targets for effective interventions. METHODS: A representative sample of 10-12 years old adolescents (n 712) completed a cross-sectional survey including eating habits, characteristics of school and home food environments, and perceptions related to affordability, convenience, and barriers within the food environments. The frequency of unhealthy snack consumption was assessed using a validated qualitative food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate regression analyses determined the associated factors of unhealthy snack consumption in adolescents attending private and public schools. RESULTS: The mean age of adolescents was 10.9 (1.1) years, 48.2% were girls and 53.9% attended private schools. The most frequently consumed unhealthy snacks were biscuits/ cookies (5.2d/wk) followed by wafers (3.4d/wk) and Indian fried snacks- samosa/ vada pav (2.8 d/wk). Among the public-school adolescents, the odds of unhealthy snack consumption were 0.89 times lower when meals were had frequently at the dinner table and 4.97 times higher when the perceived barriers related to the affordability of healthy snacks were greater. Maternal education (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.66-0.82, p < 0.001), family income (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.98-2.32, p < 0.001), availability of unhealthy snacks (OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.36-3.46, p < 0.001) and fruits (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.49-0.69, p < 0.001) at home, having evening meals together (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.63-0.81, p 0.031), and perceived parental control during mealtimes (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.62-0.72, p < 0.001) were associated with unhealthy snack consumption in adolescents attending private schools. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlighted a pervasiveness of unhealthy snacks in adolescents' food environments. Improving provisions and affordability of fruits and healthy snacks at schools, encouraging family mealtimes, and limiting the availability of unhealthy snacks at home whilst addressing the perceived barriers within food environments, and inculcating self-efficacy skills can improve snacking habits in Indian adolescents, irrespective of socioeconomic backgrounds.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Lanches , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684046

RESUMO

A significant increase in the prevalence of short sleep among children has been observed. Short sleep may be associated with unhealthy breakfast and snacking behaviors. The purpose of the current study was to explore the associations of short sleep with breakfast and snacking behaviors among children. Data were obtained from the 2010-2012 China National Nutrition and Health Surveillance (CNNHS). A total of 5254 children aged 6 to 17 years were included. Sleep duration was classified into three categories: moderate sleep, slightly short sleep, and severely short sleep. Breakfast behaviors included skipping breakfast, food diversity, intake of energy and macronutrients, and their proportion of daily total intake. Snack behaviors included snack consumption rate/frequency, types, intake of energy and macronutrients, and proportion of daily total intake. Multiple linear regression and multivariate logistic regression were used for analysis, with models adjusted for the potential effects of gender, age, region, and family income level. The bootstrapping method was used to calculate the 95% confidence intervals of the model statistics. Results showed that slightly short sleep (OR = 1.15, 95%CI: 1.00, 1.33)) and severely short sleep (OR = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.04, 1.77) was related to higher rates of skipping breakfast compared to moderate sleep. Severely short sleep was associated with higher energy (ß = 28.44, 95%CI: 31.97, 44.70), carbohydrate (ß = 6.62, 95%CI: 8.29, 8.84) and protein (ß = 1.17, 95%CI: 1.44, 1.70) intake at breakfast and breakfast accounted for a higher proportion of total daily energy (ß = 1.39, 95%CI: 1.48, 2.52), protein (ß = 2.26, 95%CI: 3.16, 5.84) and carbohydrate (ß = 0.83, 95%CI: 0.07, 3.41). Severely short sleep was associated with higher energy (ß = 27.4, 95%CI: 18.64, 69.41), protein (ß = 0.8, 95%CI: 0.48, 2.40), and fat (ß = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.21, 3.16) intake at snacks and snacks accounted for a higher proportion of total daily protein intake (ß = 1.23, 95%CI: 0.71, 3.58) and fat intake (ß = 2.74, 95%CI: 3.13, 6.09). Slightly short sleep was associated with higher energy (ß = 7.28, 95%CI: 0.15, 28.13) and carbohydrate (ß = 1.67, 95%CI: 0.86, 5.73) intake at snacks and snacks accounted for a higher proportion of total daily carbohydrate intake. Children with severely short sleep were more likely to choose sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) as snacks (16.5%) and intake them more frequently, at a daily consumption of 204.7 g and 26.7 g per night. Overall, short sleep was associated with unhealthy breakfast patterns and snack behaviors among children. Children with short sleep had higher intake of energy and macronutrients at breakfast and snacks compared with those with moderate sleep. Promoting adequate sleep among children may have a positive effect on developing healthy eating behaviors.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Lanches , Carboidratos , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Sono
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 877906, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35677765

RESUMO

Objective: Describing the availability and nutritional composition of the most commonly available street foods in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. Methods: One hundred sixty-one street food vending sites (six public markets) were assessed, through a collection of data on vending sites' characteristics and food availability, and samples of commonly available foods (21 homemade; 11 industrial), for chemical analysis. Results: Fruit, beverages, and food other than fruit were available in 6.8, 29.2, and 91.9% of all vending sites, respectively. Regarding the latter, 52.7% of the vending sites sold only homemade products (main dishes, snacks, cakes, biscuits and pastries, bread, ice-cream chocolate and confectionery, savory pastries and sandwiches), 37.2% only industrial (ice-cream, chocolate and confectionery, cakes, biscuits and pastries, snacks, bread and savory pastries) and 10.1% both. Homemade foods presented significantly higher total fat [homemade 11.6 g (range 6.6-19.4 g); industrial 6.2 g (range 4.0-8.6 g), p = 0.001], monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and trans-fat, and sodium and potassium content per serving. Industrial wafers presented the highest mean saturated (11.8 g/serving) and trans-fat (2.32 g/serving) content. Homemade hamburgers presented the highest mean sodium content (1889 mg/serving). Conclusions: Strategies to encourage the production and sales of healthier street foods, especially homemade, are needed to promote healthier urban food environments in urban Turkmenistan.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Lanches , Valor Nutritivo , Sódio , Turcomenistão
19.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 73(2): 173-181, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35748534

RESUMO

Background: A properly balanced diet should provide multiple valuable nutrients necessary for the proper functioning of the body through the proper frequency of consuming food products that are their source. This is particularly important during the pandemic when there is a need to support the immune system. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of consumption of selected groups of food products and to determine whether this frequency differs among medical and non-medical students in the period before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and methods: The study was conducted among 435 Polish and Turkish students using an original questionnaire. The proper study was preceded by a pilot study in 40 participants.The Wilcoxon test was used to assess the differences in the frequency of consumption of selected groups of products among medical and non-medical students both during and before the pandemic. A value of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Significant differences were observed in the frequency of consumption of: sweets (p=0.02 among medical students), salty snacks (p=0.03 among both groups of students), fast food products (p=0.00 among medical and p=0.01 among non-medical students) and energy drinks (p=0.02 among medical and p=0.00 among non-medical student) in the analysed periods of time before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: The study showed that during the pandemic, the frequency of food products consumption in the study groups of students from medical and non-medical faculties is mostly satisfactory. There were significant differences in the frequency of consumption of sweets, salty snacks, fast food products and energy drinks in both groups of students.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comportamento Alimentar , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , Lanches
20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 881899, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35677657

RESUMO

Early childhood caries (ECC) is not only the most common chronic childhood disease but also disproportionately affects underserved populations. Of those, children living in Thailand have been found to have high rates of ECC and severe ECC. Frequently, the cause of ECC is blamed on a handful of cariogenic organisms, such as Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. However, ECC is a multifactorial disease that results from an ecological shift in the oral cavity from a neutral pH (~7.5) to an acidic pH (<5.5) environment influenced by the host individual's biological, socio-behavioral, and lifestyle factors. Currently, there is a lack of understanding of how risk factors at various levels influence the oral health of children at risk. We applied a statistical machine learning approach for multimodal data integration (parallel and hierarchical) to identify caries-related multiplatform factors in a large cohort of mother-child dyads living in Chiang Mai, Thailand (N=177). Whole saliva (1 mL) was collected from each individual for DNA extraction and 16S rRNA sequencing. A set of maternal and early childhood factors were included in the data analysis. Significantly, vaginal delivery, preterm birth, and frequent sugary snacking were found to increase the risk for ECC. The salivary microbial diversity was significantly different in children with ECC or without ECC. Results of linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) analysis of the microbial community demonstrated that S. mutans, Prevotella histicola, and Leptotrichia hongkongensis were significantly enriched in ECC children. Whereas Fusobacterium periodonticum was less abundant among caries-free children, suggesting its potential to be a candidate biomarker for good oral health. Based on the multimodal data integration and statistical machine learning models, the study revealed that the mode of delivery and snack consumption outrank salivary microbiome in predicting ECC in Thai children. The biological and behavioral factors may play significant roles in the microbial pathobiology of ECC and warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Microbiota , Nascimento Prematuro , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Saliva/microbiologia , Lanches , Streptococcus mutans/genética , Tailândia/epidemiologia
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