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1.
J Med Philos ; 47(5): 638-652, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36409312

RESUMO

Disability rights advocates have traditionally denigrated charity as politically counterproductive and inherently demeaning. This article argues that this perspective mischaracterizes charity of a religious kind. Religious charity, I argue, must be understood immanently, through an exploration of the virtues cultivated in particular religious organizations. I consider two Catholic charities: L'Arche, a community for intellectually disabled people, and the end-of-life care facility Our Lady of Perpetual Help Home. At each organization, individual acts of charity are emblematic of an underlying virtue that I call caritas or charity-love. This transforms them into gestures that advance goals that are consonant with those of the disability rights movement. In the case of Our Lady, this is even true of pity, perhaps the most despised emotion of the disability rights tradition. But while disability rights advocates have characterized pity as essentially devaluing disabled people, at Our Lady, it is an emotion that freely circulates, undoing hierarchical distinctions between ability and disability, and even human and divine. This redefined notion of pity-which I term misericordia-can, I conclude provide a new foundation for disability politics, one that radicalizes the goals of the disability rights movement, while also positing objectives that go beyond legal compliance.


Assuntos
Instituições de Caridade , Pessoas com Deficiência , Humanos , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Política , Catolicismo , Emoções
2.
Hist Psychiatry ; 33(4): 459-466, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36408545

RESUMO

This article explores the relationship between the Catholic Church and animal magnetism. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Catholic Church had first tried to stem the rise of animal magnetism in a vague manner, but after a few decades, it eventually put a genuine veto in place. This measure was founded upon the dangers to morality and faith arising from the progressive polarization of the original doctrine in forms related to esotericism. Among the causes of the condemnation by the Congregation of the Holy Office, the primary ones were the naturalist interpretation of the miracles described in the Gospels and in the New Testament, and the possibility of falling under the control of a demonic spirit.


Assuntos
Catolicismo , Humanos , Animais , Catolicismo/história , Itália
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1020007, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36420015

RESUMO

Previous studies indicate that perceptions of nature and thought-provoking silence can have positive consequences for individual functioning. The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationships between religious coping (assessed with the Brief RCOPE), perceptions of nature and silence (a subscale of the Perception of Change Questionnaire), well-being (the World Health Organization's five-item Well-Being Index) and life satisfaction (the Brief Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale). An online questionnaire was completed between 2021-2022 by 1,010 Polish Catholics ages 18 to 73, 61% of whom were women. Structural equation modeling showed that positive religious coping was positively related to well-being (ß = 0.08, p = 0.011) and life satisfaction (ß = 0.22, p < 0.001). In contrast, negative religious coping was related to reduced well-being (ß = -0.07, p = 0.040) and life satisfaction (ß = -0.25). In addition, more frequent perceptions of nature and reflective times of silence partially mediated the associations of positive religious coping with well-being (ß = 0.04, p = 0.011) and life satisfaction (ß = 0.04, p = 0.008). The data might suggest that interventions that help people develop an ability or awareness for nature as an exceptional encounter and may help to strengthen the ways they can utilize their religiosity as a resource and thus contribute to well-being and life satisfaction among Catholics.


Assuntos
Satisfação Pessoal , Religião e Psicologia , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Catolicismo , Polônia , Adaptação Psicológica , Percepção
4.
Int J Paleopathol ; 39: 64-69, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36242994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To document skin lesions on a mummified individual from the XIX century and to diagnose the pathology based historical documentation and physical examination. MATERIALS: Marie Leonie Martin (1863-1941) was a Roman Catholic nun. Her naturally mummified body is currently preserved in the Monastery of the Visitation in Caen (France). On the occasion of her beatification, the body was exhumed, studied and restored for conservation purposes. METHODS: The mummy was analyzed histologically and with CT imaging. RESULTS: The examination of the body noted areas of skin discoloration of reddish color; the paleopathological investigations revealed the presence of skin lesions (pustules) distributed throughout the body, with the exception of the face, abdomen and palms. The histological analyses of the pustules showed the presence of a central duct for the leakage of exudate, hyperkeratosis of the stratum corneum and a proliferation of cells in the spinous layer (acanthosis) of the epidermis. CONCLUSIONS: The red discoloration of the skin is typical of extensive erythema. SIGNIFICANCE: Our understanding of skin conditions in the past is extremely limited. This study provides the first paleopathological case of diagnosed unclassified endogenous eczema and provides insight into the antiquity and effects of the disease. LIMITATIONS: It was not possible to carry out a genetic analysis due to DNA contamination of the mummy.


Assuntos
Dermatite , Múmias , Freiras , Feminino , Humanos , Múmias/história , Catolicismo , Paleopatologia/história
5.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 80(8): 862-866, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36252595

RESUMO

Paul Bouts (1900-1999) was a Belgian pedagogue, a Roman Catholic priest, and the founder of Psychognomy, which is a personality diagnostic system combining phrenology and several related practices - typology, craniofacial measurements, physiognomy, graphology etc. Bouts had a fragile health; therefore, it is unlikely that he travelled to Brazil. Despite this, his most famous book, rich in conservative and religious thoughts, was translated to Portuguese and published with ecclesiastic support in 1943, and the doctrine acquired good reputation among Brazilian members of the clergy, politicians, teachers, and military personnel. Lay scholars and medical doctors founded a Brazilian institute devoted to the study and diffusion of psychognomy in 1949. They published two volumes of a psychognomy treatise, and the institute was active until the early 1960s, when social interest in the subject rapidly vanished.


Paul Bouts (1900­1999) foi um pedagogo e padre católico belga que criou a psicognomia, um sistema de análise caracterológica que combinava elementos da frenologia, tipologia, medições craniofaciais, fisionomia, grafologia etc. Suas teorias influenciaram acadêmicos, religiosos, políticos e militares brasileiros. Bouts tinha uma saúde frágil, e não há evidências de que tenha estado no Brasil. Seu livro mais famoso, Psicognomia, foi publicado no país em 1943 com aval da censura eclesiástica e com apêndices especiais. A doutrina levou, ainda, à criação, em 1949, de um instituto privado de divulgação e estudos de psicognomia com sede no Rio de Janeiro, que publicou dois volumes de um tratado sobre o tema e permaneceu ativo até o início da década de 1960, quando o interesse pelo assunto rapidamente desapareceu na sociedade.


Assuntos
Catolicismo , Frenologia , Brasil , Clero , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade
6.
J Hist Ideas ; 83(4): 601-611, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36189658

RESUMO

The History of Political Thought is a discipline which is very closely aligned with the Anglophone liberal political tradition. It has not, consequently, ever had very much to say about warfare. Richard Tuck's important research marks an exception in this field, but Tuck's work is marked by significant omissions. He defined Catholic scholasticism too narrowly, omitting the Franciscan followers of John Duns Scotus, and excluded Protestant scholasticism (except the work of Hugo Grotius) entirely from consideration. Remedying these omissions leaves us with an early modern theorization of war that appears much less ripe for secularization than scholars have previously supposed.


Assuntos
Catolicismo , Protestantismo , História do Século XX , Guerra
7.
J Hist Ideas ; 83(4): 629-642, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36189660

RESUMO

This article seeks to contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between Catholic and Protestant theories of mission by examining the influence of the Jesuit José de Acosta on the De conversione Indorum et gentilium (1669), one of the first comprehensive handbooks of Protestant missiology, written by Johannes Hoornbeeck. It is demonstrated that Acosta's Thomist emphasis on the willing acceptance of a new faith made his ideas particularly attractive to Hoornbeeck and are the reason why the latter preferred Jesuit sources to Franciscan thinkers and writings, since these were more Scotist in their outlook.


Assuntos
Autonomia Pessoal , Protestantismo , Catolicismo
8.
J Hist Ideas ; 83(4): 643-658, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36189661

RESUMO

Can a war can be just on both sides? Within the Western just war tradition, Catholic theologians traditionally held wars on both sides to be logically impossible. This view went unchallenged until questioned by two seventeenth-century Irish Franciscan Scotists. These were Aodh Mac Cathmhaoil (Hugo Cavellus) and John Punch. In this paper I lay out the Scotist theological grounds that led them to admit to the possibility of wars just on both sides. I also conjecture on possible reasons why Punch refrained from revising traditional just war theory in light of his own far-reaching theological conclusions.


Assuntos
Catolicismo , Teologia
9.
Perspect Sex Reprod Health ; 54(3): 109-115, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071610

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study addressed deficient information on the provision of infertility care in obstetrics and gynecology clinics. We additionally evaluated the availability of these services based on clinic affiliations or stated sexual orientation. METHODOLOGY: We performed a national cross-sectional "mystery caller" survey of 293 general obstetrics and gynecology clinics in 2017-2018. We matched clinics identified by web-based search engine in a 1:1 ratio by Catholic hospital affiliation, after determining number of clinics based on state-population densities. A standard call script included questions regarding provision of infertility services, ovulation induction methods, and information about the caller's sexual orientation. We performed descriptive frequencies and compared responses based on hospital affiliations. RESULTS: Of the 293 clinics included, 49% were affiliated with Catholic and 17% with academic hospitals. The majority offered infertility care (85%, 248/293), and of these 97% (240/248) offered ovulation induction. Only 3% (6/240) reported they would not provide to women in same-sex relationships. Most clinics not offering infertility evaluations (43/45, 96%) cited it was outside of their scope of care and of these 33% (15/45) did not provide information for self-referral. Clinics affiliated with academic (aOR 0.23) or Catholic (aOR 0.34) hospitals were less likely to provide evaluations. Those with academic affiliation were more likely to provide information for self-referral (aOR 19.2). DISCUSSION: Most general obstetrics and gynecology practices offered appointments for infertility evaluation and ovulation induction. Clinics rarely denied services to women reporting a same-sex partnership, regardless of hospital affiliation. These findings provide reassurance to same-sex couples seeking fertility care.


Assuntos
Hospitais Religiosos , Infertilidade , Catolicismo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Infertilidade/terapia , Masculino , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
10.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273929, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36121835

RESUMO

The idea of biological evolution is not accepted by many people around the world, with a large disparity amongst countries. Some factors may act as obstacles to the acceptance of evolution, such as religion, a lack of openness to experience, and not understanding the nature of science. Although the strength of the association between evolution acceptance and non-scientific factors varies among studies, it is often assumed that resistance to evolution is the byproduct of a religious background. Some studies are even more specific and try to associate the acceptance of evolution with precise religious affiliations. We aimed to explore the strength of associations among nationality, religion, and the acceptance of evolution by students using multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and statistical tools, with nationwide samples from two different countries. Here, we show that wider sociocultural factors predict the acceptance of evolution to a higher degree than a religious background. We carried out two nationwide data collections that allowed us to compare differences in the acceptance of evolution in Italy and Brazil by high school students who declare to belong to the same religion in the two countries. Roman Catholic students showed significant differences between the two countries, and the gap between them was wider than between Catholics and non-Catholic Christians within Brazil. Our conclusions support those who argue that religious affiliation is not the main factor in predicting the level of evolution acceptance. The sociocultural environment and the level of evolutionary knowledge seem to be more important in this regard. These results open up new interpretative perspectives and provide a better understanding of attitudes towards evolution.


Assuntos
Atitude , Estudantes , Brasil , Catolicismo , Humanos , Itália
11.
Hist Sci ; 60(3): 348-382, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037031

RESUMO

In the late 1940s in Spain, a group of young scholars, most of them newly appointed university lecturers, gained control of Arbor, the promotional journal of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC: The Spanish National Research Council), the institution that General Franco had founded after the Spanish Civil War (1936-9) to organize Spanish science. This group constituted the intellectual core of the more reactionary, Catholic traditionalist faction of Franco's regime, and they coveted greater political power, in competition with other factions of the regime. Lacking the opportunity to launch an overt political campaign within a dictatorship, the group started a fight for the cultural conquest of Spain. In this cultural struggle for hegemony, journals, magazines, cultural associations, publishing houses, newspapers, and cultural centers became their weapons. By analyzing this faction's views on and activities within the popularization of science, particularly regarding theories of evolution, this article argues that popular discourse on science played a critical role in the cultural struggle both as a "safe" channel in which to forward their claims and as a tool to gather popular attention through topics of general interest. A covert political campaign was conducted through the popularization of science and this, in turn, fueled the construction of a public sphere for science in a dictatorial context. Scientific popularization became a much-appreciated tool to achieve cultural hegemony and, as such, it also became a central element in constructing and legitimating the ideological foundations of Franco's regime.


Assuntos
Catolicismo , Sistemas Políticos , Humanos , Espanha
12.
Soins ; 67(865): 43-46, 2022 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35995501

RESUMO

Working in a palliative care unit raises a number of questions for carers relating to suffering and death. This case study of a Catholic nurse investigates the link between spirituality and caregiving by exploring her subjective relationship to the work of caregiving.


Assuntos
Catolicismo , Espiritualidade , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos , Religião
13.
J Relig Health ; 61(5): 4245-4259, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35902543

RESUMO

In 2020, many places of worship closed due to COVID-19 restrictions, raising questions about rates of return to worship after COVID-19. This survey-based study of 806 Australian churchgoing Catholics explores relationships between a range of variables and the rate of return to Mass attendance after church closures. Pre-closure Mass attendance rate strongly and significantly predicted real-life worship during church closures and higher rates of return to Mass attendance after churches reopened. Real-life worship during COVID-19 also strongly predicted return to Mass attendance, and positively mediated the relationship between pre- and post-closure Mass attendance rates. Virtual worship engagement did not significantly predict return to Mass attendance, but positively mediated the relationship between pre- and post-closure Mass attendance rates, with a smaller effect size.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Catolicismo , Austrália , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
J Relig Health ; 61(4): 3363-3383, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790579

RESUMO

The Viennese psychiatrist Rudolf Allers was one of the principal authors that studied character and contributed to understanding its development and education, including the neurotic character. His psychological observations were based on his own clinical experience, his individual psychology, phenomenological and existential philosophies, and, above all, the doctrine of the Fathers of the Catholic Church and Thomas Aquinas. This paper presents Allers's main ideas about self-improvement as a process of personal changing toward self-perfection, that is, toward the best version of oneself. For Allers, self-perfection implies the modification of insane aspects of character such as egocentricity, pride, and untidy love for oneself, which are the most important impediments to self-improvement.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , Catolicismo , Existencialismo , Humanos , Amor , Filosofia
15.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 33(1): 19-26, 2022.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35723997

RESUMO

How has the Catholic Church participated in the debate on major global issues related to health, ecology and climate change? The Encyclical “Laudato Si: Caring for the Common Home (2015)” awakens his attention, his energies and joins the great inter- national scientific community to discuss together, in as partners, of the ecological question and the future of life on the planet.


Assuntos
Catolicismo , Planetas , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Princípios Morais
16.
Reprod Health ; 19(1): 126, 2022 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care services are essential to improving the lives of women and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. In Cameroon, the Catholic Church is one the largest non-governmental suppliers of health care, but its role in providing SRH care is restricted by religious norms. METHODS: This study explored doctors' experiences and perceptions of providing SRH care at Catholic hospitals in a conflict-affected area in Cameroon by using 10 in-depth interviews with doctors from three Catholic hospitals in the North-West region. Qualitative coding was done with NVivo, and data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three themes and seven categories were identified. The respondents described strict rules and a broad range of challenges to providing comprehensive sexual and reproductive health care services. Nonetheless, there is evidence of doctors overcoming obstacles to providing SRH care despite the religious and political climate. However, whilst attempting to overcome challenges, participants described numerous examples of poor SRH care and health outcomes. CONCLUSION: The study highlights the importance of understanding the intersect between religion and women's health, particularly in improving access to SRH for vulnerable populations in conflict-affected areas. It further provides insight into doctors' motivations in practicing medicine and how doctors cope and make efforts to provide care and minimize harm.


Assuntos
Saúde Reprodutiva , Saúde Sexual , Camarões , Catolicismo , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(25): e27340, 2022 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35758344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most Christian parents living with children with low vision have reported to be experiencing psychological disturbances that are affecting the family health. As a result, the quality of family life is being impaired. The experience of parents catering for children with low vision is mainly influenced by psychosocial factors that could determine the quality of family life of such parents. This present study is to investigate the efficacy of rational emotive family health therapy in reducing poor quality of family life among Christian parents of children with low vision in Nsukka Catholic Dioceses. METHOD: This is a randomized pretest and posttest control trial. Participants were 88 parents of children living with low vision in Nsukka Catholic Dioceses, Nigeria. The power of the sample size was determined using Gpower statistical software. The participants in rational emotive family health therapy programme-group were exposed to a 12-session treatment programme whereas their counterparts in waitlisted control group did not receive anything. A family quality of life scale was utilized in assessing the participants. Data analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: It was found that rational emotive family health therapy had a significant positive effect on increasing quality of family life among the study participants compared to those in the waitlisted control group. CONCLUSION: This study contributed and validated the efficacy of rational emotive family health therapy in improving quality of family life among parents of children with low vision.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Baixa Visão , Catolicismo , Criança , Saúde da Família , Humanos , Pais
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has dominated health, economic, and geopolitical issues for many months, but it also has great influence on individuals and families. The aim of this study was to verify whether the pandemic of COVID-19 changed religious practices and how religiosity moderated the influence of the pandemic on family interactions and attitudes towards health issues in adolescents. METHODS: The study groups included 561 adolescent high school students (314 females and 247 males) from two kinds of high schools: public and Catholic. RESULTS: Most Catholic school students have not changed their religious practices during the pandemic or just changed the form of attendance to TV or internet (59.7%). Moreover, 8.6% of them stopped the practices, in comparison with 12.9% of public school students, most of whom had not attended a mass before and during the pandemic. The results showed that in adolescents' opinions the pandemic caused family relations to be stronger, however this effect was modified by religiosity. CONCLUSION: Attending Catholic school and being a practicing believer influenced some aspects of faith and family relations during the pandemic, but in most aspects, they did not influence attitudes toward health issues. The results of the study highlight the need to secure, especially for non-believing adolescents, family support during the pandemic, while in believers faith may provide such support.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Catolicismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Polônia/epidemiologia , Religião , Estudantes
19.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 63(1): E104-E108, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35647379

RESUMO

Using the case of the vaccine against smallpox as an example, this article explores how the attitude and the politics of the Vatican State towards vaccination changed between the 18th and 19th century. Despite some notable exceptions, the Catholic Church became progressively involved in supporting vaccination in Italy, exerting its temporal and spiritual authority to develop healthcare policies and to convince a population that still considered the vaccine as potentially harmful. The brief historical overview on vaccine and vaccination shows that during the XIX century the Catholic church and in particular, the political decision of the Pope, engaged temporal and spiritual power, high authority and persuasive influence to encourage the population, more than anyone the hesitant people, to get vaccine against smallpox. Although with the due differences determined by the path of time and by the scientific, educational and social advances of modern-day, this view from the past can provide us, with actual COVID pandemic, a reason of deep thinking and also how to face the present COVID-19 pandemic and to prepare for forcoming future. Actually, it shows us how the terrible smallpox epidemic was handled and finally overcome, thanks to vaccination.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Varíola , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Catolicismo/história , Humanos , Itália , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Varíola/história , Varíola/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
20.
J Hist Ideas ; 83(2): 207-227, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603611

RESUMO

In the summer of 1660, Mount Vesuvius began to erupt. After about a month, the volcano quieted down, but a strange and upsetting phenomenon started to manifest: all over the city of Naples and in the neighboring communities, a series of red and black crosses appeared on people's linens, clothes, and bodies. This essay focuses on this mysterious appearance and on the debate it provoked, using it as a case study to investigate the relationship between credulity, credibility, and belief in post-Reformation Catholicism.


Assuntos
Catolicismo , Desastres , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho , Emoções , Humanos , Estações do Ano
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