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1.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 52(1): 107-119, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838246

RESUMO

Advances in gene sequence technology and data analysis have enabled the detection and taxonomic identification of microorganisms in vivo based on their unique RNA or DNA sequences. Standard culture techniques can only detect those organisms that readily grow on artificial media in vitro. Culture-independent technology has been used to provide a more accurate assessment of the richness (total number of species) and diversity (relative abundance of each species) of microorganisms present in a prescribed location. The microbiome has been defined as the genes and genomes of all microbial inhabitants within a defined environment. Microorganisms within a microbiome interact with each other as well as with the host. A microbiome is dynamic and may change over time as conditions within the defined environment become altered. In oral health, neither gingivitis nor periodontitis is present, and the host and microbiome coexist symbiotically without evoking an inflammatory response. The circumstances that cause a shift from immune tolerance to a proinflammatory response remain unknown, and a unified, all-encompassing hypothesis to explain how and why periodontal disease develops has yet to be described. The purpose of this review is to clarify the current understanding of the role played by the oral microbiome in dogs and cats, describe how the microbiome changes in periodontal disease, and offer guidance on the utility of systemic antimicrobial agents in the treatment of periodontitis in companion animals.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Microbiota , Doenças Periodontais , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Disbiose/veterinária , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Periodontais/veterinária
2.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 52(1): 139-158, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838248

RESUMO

Developmental dental and oral disorders are present in juvenile patients less than 12 months of age. The conditions are diverse ranging from cosmetic only to requiring advanced surgical intervention to alleviate pain and secondary complications. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and appropriate treatment of dental abnormalities including abnormalities in the number, structure, size, and shape of teeth, as well as oral abnormalities including malocclusions, congenital cleft lip and palate, developmental abnormalities resulting in bony proliferation, and soft-tissue abnormalities of the lip and tongue are discussed throughout the article.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Doenças do Cão , Má Oclusão , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Fenda Labial/veterinária , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Má Oclusão/terapia , Má Oclusão/veterinária
3.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 52(1): 159-184, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838249

RESUMO

Severe oral inflammatory disease is not uncommon in the mouths of canine and feline patients. An approach to oral diagnosis is offered. This article discusses a brief review of important points in the oral diagnosis and management of main canine (canine chronic ulcerative stomatitis (CCUS), eosinophilic stomatitis, and Wegener's granulomatosis (WG)) and feline diseases (feline gingivostomatitis/caudal stomatitis, oral eosinophilic lesions, pyogenic granuloma, and autoimmune diseases with oral manifestations), and-whereby possible-information about the current understanding of disease pathogenesis and treatment is offered.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Estomatite , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Estomatite/veterinária
4.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 52(1): 67-105, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838256

RESUMO

This article describes the technical principles and indications for the most often encountered diagnostic imaging modalities in veterinary dentistry and oral surgery; with extensive coverage of intraoral (and extraoral) dental radiographic imaging and interpretation through detailed example figures of common dental and maxillofacial diseases in the dog and cat. Multidetector/multislice computed tomography (MDCT/MSCT) and emergent technologies such as cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) are presented here in detail. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diagnostic ultrasound, which are used less frequently, are briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Gatos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Radiografia
5.
Ann Anat ; 239: 151842, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The detailed morphology and topography of the sympathetic cardiac nerves (SCNs) and ganglia with their surrounding structures in Syrian hamsters were examined to document the general topography and morphology and variations and to discuss the comparative anatomy between the SCNs and ganglia in Syrian hamsters and other rodents, as well as their comparative morphology and macroscopic evolutionary changes among rodents, rabbits, domestic animals (cats, dogs, sheep, goats, oxen, pigs and horses), primates, and humans. METHODS: The composition of the cervical and thoracic parts of the sympathetic trunks and ganglia was bilaterally microdissected in twenty-eight sides of 14 adult male and female Syrian hamsters under a stereomicroscope. RESULTS: The general morphology of the SCNs and related ganglia in Syrian hamsters was obtained and noted as follows: (1) the absence of the vago-sympathetic trunk, (2) the absence of the middle cervical ganglion (MG), (3) constant presence of the cervicothoracic ganglion (CT) comprising generally from the caudal cervical ganglion and 1-2 thoracic ganglia and locating over the lateral surface of the longus colli muscle ventral to the heads of the first two ribs and communicating to the eight cervical and first two thoracic spinal nerves (C8-T2) in addition to the vertebral nerve, (4) extensive coverage of the lateral surface of the CT by branches of the subclavian artery, (5) the cranial and caudal limbs of the ansa subclavia (AS) joining the CT to the caudal end of the cervical sympathetic trunk, (6) the presence of an independent thoracic ganglion from the 2nd or 3rd to the 13th and connecting by single interganglionic branches, and communicating to each thoracic spinal nerve, (7) close relationship between the caudal portion of the thoracic sympathetic trunk and the psoas minor muscle, (8) the primary cardiac nerves (CNs) arising from the CT, and (9) the absence of CNs originating generally from the cervical sympathetic trunk, AS, MG, or independent thoracic ganglia or their interganglionic branches. Individual variations of the SCNs and ganglia in Syrian hamsters were noted, including the absence of the ansa subclavia on 5/28 sides (17.86%), the presence of the intermediate ganglia (IG) placed on the C7 on 3/28 sides (10.71%) or the C8 on 3/28 sides (10.71%), and no CNs arising from the IG as well as the presence of the double thoracic sympathetic trunk on 5/28 sides (17.86%). The anatomical characteristics of the SCNs and related ganglia were also exhibited sex and laterality differences. CONCLUSIONS: From a comparative anatomy viewpoint, the general morphology of the SCNs and related ganglia in Syrian hamsters was very similar to that in rats but was considerably different from that in guinea pigs, especially concerning the MG, cranial position and composition of the CT. The general morphology of the SCNs and related ganglia in Syrian hamsters and other laboratory rodents resembled that of rabbits but was essentially different from that in rabbits with respect to the cranial position and composition of the CT. The general morphology of the SCNs and ganglia exhibited significant morphological differences and similarities among laboratory rodents, rabbits, domestic animals, primates, and humans. The main differences include the relationship between the cervical parts of the vagus nerve and sympathetic trunk, the presence of the MG, the position and composition of the CT, the origins and frequencies of the cardiac nerves, and the primary sympathetic contributor. From macroscopic evolutionary change, the expansion of the range of the SCNs origin has occurred from laboratory rodents, rabbits, domestic animals, and primates to humans.


Assuntos
Gânglios Simpáticos , Sistema Nervoso Simpático , Animais , Gatos , Cricetinae , Cães , Feminino , Cobaias , Cavalos , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Pescoço , Coelhos , Ratos , Ovinos , Tórax
6.
Theriogenology ; 177: 56-62, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662840

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the cryopreservation effects on the semen of oncilla (Leopardus guttulus, n = 5, 15 ejaculates) and ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, n = 5, 17 ejaculates) and compare two extenders (commercial and non-commercial extender). An andrological exam was conducted (testicle measurements and penis evaluation), including semen collection by electroejaculation. After collection, the semen was assessed to volume, color, pH, sperm motility, vigor, sperm number in the ejaculate, viability, membrane integrity, and sperm morphology. Samples were centrifuged (300 g for 10 min) and pellet diluted in two extenders (TRIS/glucose/egg yolk and BotuCRIO®), packed into 0.25 mL French straws (20 × 106 spermatozoa/mL), equilibrated at 5 °C for 1 h (<0.5 °C/min), freezing in nitrogen vapor for 20 min. Thawing was achieved at 46 °C for 15 min. Thawed samples were evaluated to the same characteristics and ultrastructural analysis. There is no difference for extenders, but in ocelot the spermatozoa maintained higher quality after thawing. Major defects were increased in thawed samples, especially acrosome injuries, in both species. Semen contamination by urine was remarkable to oncilla (53% of the ejaculates) which can have reduced sperm cryoresistance of this species. Ultrastructural analysis endorsed morphological analysis under light microscopy and identified cells with acrosome vesiculation. In conclusion, the spermatozoa of ocelot were more cryoresistent and the extender commercial and non-commercial were suitable for their cryopreservation. Other extenders should be investigated for oncilla.


Assuntos
Preservação do Sêmen , Acrossomo , Animais , Gatos , Criopreservação/veterinária , Crioprotetores , Gema de Ovo , Masculino , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Contagem de Espermatozoides/veterinária , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides
7.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 268: 95-99, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136960

RESUMO

Conjunctivitis is a frequent disease of the eye with the typical clinical sign being the "red eye" and comprises a very heterogeneous group with different causes. In general, infectious conjunctivitis must be strictly differentiated from non-infectious conjunctivitis. Allergic conjunctivitis is a subtype of non-infectious conjunctivitis and imposes as an acute, intermittent or chronic, inflammation which is most frequently caused by airborne allergens. The leading clinical sign is chemosis, and patients typically complain about itching. Allergic conjunctivitis is often a reaction to topical and systemic drugs or cosmetics as well as animal hairs from cats and/or dogs. Allergic conjunctivitis is sub-classified into the following forms: seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (also termed: hay fever conjunctivitis), atopic conjunctivitis, vernal conjunctivitis, upper limbal (kerato-) conjunctivitis, and conjunctivitis associated with various oculomucocutaneous syndromes. In each form, there are distinctive features in: clinical appearance, generating agent(s), as well as treatment as listed here.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite Alérgica , Animais , Gatos , Conjuntivite Alérgica/diagnóstico , Conjuntivite Alérgica/tratamento farmacológico , Conjuntivite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos
8.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118364, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648838

RESUMO

The ARG profiles in pet feces, such as cat and dog feces, and their potential threat to environmental safety are still unclear. In this study, ARGs in 45 cat and 28 dog fecal samples were detected, and a diffusion experiment was performed to assess the risk of ARGs diffusion into the air. The results showed that the abundances of ARGs in cat feces and dog feces were high, and the abundance in dog feces (0.89 ± 0.17 copies/bacterial cell) was significantly higher than that in cat feces (0.46 ± 0.09 copies/bacterial cell) (P < 0.05). The bacterial community, especially Firmicutes and Desulfobacterota in cat feces, and Proteobacteria in dog feces, was the main factor affecting the variation in the ARG profiles, contributing to 31.6% and 32.4% of the variation in cat feces and dog feces, respectively. Physicochemical factors (especially NH4+-N) and age also indirectly affected the variation in the ARG profiles by affecting the bacterial community. In addition, the ARGs in cat feces and dog feces diffused into the air, but there was no evidence that this diffusion posed a threat to environmental safety and human health. These results can provide reference data for healthy animal breeding and the prevention and control of ARG pollution.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Genes Bacterianos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Gatos , Cães , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Fezes
9.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(10): 1140-1147, 2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To gather and evaluate veterinarians' perspectives about the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the use of veterinary telehealth and on cat owners' versus dog owners' attitudes toward transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from their pets. SAMPLE: 93 respondent veterinarians (47 in primary care practice and 46 in specialty practice). PROCEDURES: An online survey was conducted between June 15 and July 15, 2020, and included 21 questions concerning demographics, use of telehealth before and after the onset of the pandemic (before March 15, 2020, and between March 15 and June 15, 2020, respectively), changes in caseloads, and perception of clients' concerns about potential for transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from pets. Reported zip codes informed the collection of census data. RESULTS: The level of poverty was significantly lower in zip code areas for respondents who reported telehealth services were (vs were not) offered before the pandemic. The percentage of respondents who reported their practice offered telehealth services increased from 12% (11/93) before the pandemic to 38% (35/93) between March 15 and June 15, 2020. Although most respondents reported owner-expressed concerns over SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission from their pets, most also reported increased caseloads, seeing newly adopted pets, and few discussions of surrender of pets for reasons related to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings indicated that caseloads increased and telehealth services expanded during the pandemic but that there was no evidence of differences in respondent-reported owner concern for SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission from cats versus dogs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Telemedicina , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Atitude , COVID-19/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Propriedade , Pandemias , Percepção , Animais de Estimação , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Helminthol ; 95: e65, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758891

RESUMO

The present report describes two cases of infection by Molossinema wimsatti in the brain of Pallas's mastiff bats (Molossus molossus). The first bat was captured and killed by a domestic cat in a suburban area of the municipality of Patos, Paraiba, northeastern Brazil. The second bat was found crawling on the ground in the same area before dying. No gross lesions were found at necropsy. Histology of the central nervous system revealed filarioid nematodes in the brain ventricles and cerebellum. There were adults, subadults and eggs, the latter sometimes containing microfilariae. No inflammatory response was observed in bat 1, while bat 2 presented a mild lymphoplasmacytic meningoencephalitis. Three nematodes were recovered and submitted for parasitological examination. The diagnosis of M. wimsatti infection was based on the histomorphological and parasitological characteristics of the agent and its location in the brain ventricular system of insectivorous bats. The infection likely occurs in other insectivorous bats from South American and Caribbean countries but may be overlooked.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Brasil , Gatos
11.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(10): 1163-1170, 2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727086

RESUMO

CASE DESCRIPTION: During the same week, 3 sequential patients (a 10-year-old 8.7-kg spayed female poodle cross [dog 1], 13-year-old 2.6-kg spayed female domestic longhair cat, and 13-year-old 9.0-kg castrated male mixed-breed dog [dog 2]) underwent CT-angiography (day 0) and transarterial embolization (day 1) for nonresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 2) or prostatic carcinoma (1). CLINICAL FINDINGS: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) was suspected in all animals on the basis of higher serum creatinine concentrations after contrast medium administration (exposure), compared with baseline concentrations before exposure, consistent with CIN definitions. The total dose of contrast medium was < 3 mL/kg for each exposure. For all 3 patients, creatinine concentration peaked at a median of 3 days (range, 2 to 3 days) after the first exposure (day 0), and the median absolute and relative increases in creatinine concentration after exposure (vs baseline concentrations before exposure) were 2.9 mg/dL (range, 2.2 to 3.7 mg/dL) and 410% (range, 260 to 720%), respectively. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: The patients received individually tailored supportive care for acute kidney injury. Serum creatinine concentrations began to improve at a median of 4 days (range, 3 to 4 days) and returned to within reference limits at a median of 7 days (range, 3 to 13 days) following initial exposure. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: CIN should be considered as a potential complication following IV administration of contrast medium. Short-term outcome following CIN can be excellent with supportive care.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Nefropatias , Neoplasias , Injúria Renal Aguda/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/veterinária , Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Angiografia Coronária , Creatinina , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Feminino , Nefropatias/veterinária , Masculino , Neoplasias/veterinária , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
12.
Parasite ; 28: 74, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723788

RESUMO

Echinococcus multilocularis eggs are deposited on the ground with the faeces of the carnivore definitive hosts. A reliable assessment of the spatial distribution of E. multilocularis eggs in environments used by humans is crucial for the prevention of alveolar echinococcosis (AE). This study was conducted in 192 rural and 71 urban vegetable gardens in AE endemic areas of north-eastern France. Its objective was to explore the relationship between the spatial distribution of E. multilocularis estimated from the collection and molecular analysis of two types of samples: faeces and soil. A total of 1024 carnivore faeces and 463 soil samples were collected and analysed by real-time PCR. No fox droppings and no positive soil samples were collected from the urban gardens. Positive soil samples, positive carnivore faeces, or both, were found in 42%, 24% and 6% of the sampled rural gardens, respectively. No significant association was found between the detection of E. multilocularis in soil samples collected from 50 gardens during a single sampling session and the extent and frequency of deposits of fox and cat faeces collected during repeated sampling sessions conducted in the previous months. In 19/50 gardens, E. multilocularis was detected in the soil while no positive faeces had been collected in the previous 12 months. Conversely, in 8/50 gardens, no soil samples were positive although positive faeces had been collected in the previous months. Collecting and analysing faeces provide information on soil contamination at a given time, while analysing soil samples provides an overview of long-term contamination.


Assuntos
Echinococcus multilocularis , Fezes/parasitologia , Solo , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Raposas , Jardins , Solo/parasitologia , Verduras
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1348: 325-335, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807427

RESUMO

Though soft tissue disorders have been recognized and described to some detail in several types of domestic animals and small mammals for some years, they remain uncommon. Because of their low prevalence, not much progress has been made not only in improved diagnosis but also in our understanding of the biochemical basis and pathogenesis of these diseases in animals. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) described in dogs already in 1943 and later in cats has only minor impact on the well-being of the dog as its effects on skin of these animals are rather limited. The involved skin is thin and hyperextensible with easily inflicted injuries resulting in hemorrhagic wounds and atrophic scars. Joint laxity and dislocation common in people are less frequently found in dogs. No systemic complications, such as organ rupture or cardiovascular problems which have devastating consequences in people have been described in cats and dogs. The diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and on light or electron microscopic features of disorganized and fragmented collagen fibrils. Several case of bovine and ovine dermatosparaxis analogous to human Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIIC were found to be caused by mutations in the procollagen I N-proteinase (pnPI) or ADAMTS2 gene, though mutations in other sites are likely responsible for other types of dermatosparaxis. Cattle suffering from a form of Marfan syndrome (MFS) were described to have aortic dilatation and aneurysm together with ocular abnormalities and skeletal involvement. As in people, mutations at different sites of bovine FBN1 may be responsible for Marfan phenotype. Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA), or hyperelastosis cutis, has been recognized in several horse breeds as affecting primarily skin, and, occasionally, tendons. A mutation in cyclophilin B, a chaperon involved in proper folding of collagens, has been identified in some cases. Warmblood fragile foal syndrome (WFFS) is another Ehlers-Danlos-like disorder in horses, affecting primarily Warmbloods who present with skin fragility and joint hyperextensibility. Degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis (DSLD) affects primarily tendons and ligaments of certain horse breeds. Data from our laboratory showed excessive accumulation of proteoglycans in organs with high content of connective tissues. We have identified increased presence of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) in active foci of DSLD and an abnormal form of decorin in proteoglycan deposits. Our most recent data obtained from next generation sequencing showed disturbances in expression of genes for numerous proteoglycans and collagens.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos , Síndrome de Marfan , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Gatos , Bovinos , Cães , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/genética , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/veterinária , Cavalos , Ligamentos , Proteoglicanas , Ovinos
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(4): e013021, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730707

RESUMO

To a better insight into the epidemiology and genetic diversity of protozoan hemoparasites infections in wild mammals, this study aimed to the post mortem detection of DNA from species of the order Piroplasmida (Babesia sp., Cytauxzoon sp., and Theileria sp.) and suborder Adelorina (Hepatozoon sp.) using polymerase chain reaction based on the 18S rRNA gene followed by genetic sequencing of blood and spleen samples collected from carcasses of 164 free-ranging and captive wild mammals from Mato Grosso state. Among them, one Leopardus pardalis, three Panthera onca, two Puma concolor were positive for Cytauxzoon sp., and six Tapirus terrestris tested positive for Piroplasmida, while one L. pardalis was positive for Hepatozoon sp. Furthermore, an uncharacterized piroplasmid genetically related to Theileria sp. previously detected in cats from Brazil was described in lowland tapirs. Despite the controversy regarding the epidemiological threat of these protozoa, the detection of these tick-borne agents in wild free-living and captive mammals, even when asymptomatic, demonstrates the importance of monitoring, particularly in hotspots such as the state of Mato Grosso, to verify the circulation and genetic diversity, to anticipate the possible emergence of diseases, and even their consequences to other animals as well as humans.


Assuntos
Babesia , Panthera , Piroplasmida , Animais , Babesia/genética , Brasil , Gatos , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Filogenia , Piroplasmida/genética
15.
J Vet Dent ; 38(2): 81-92, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723676

RESUMO

Immature permanent teeth with crown fractures present a unique challenge in human and animal patients. Immature permanent teeth have not yet developed completely, often presenting with thin dentin walls, incomplete apical formation, and increased crown-to-root ratios. Loss of pulp function at this stage has devastating long-term implications for these teeth. Ideally, attempts should be made to preserve pulp vitality in immature permanent teeth to allow for continued dental development. The range of treatment options for vital teeth includes odontoplasty with bonding and sealing +/- restoration, indirect pulp capping, and direct pulp capping/vital pulp therapy. These treatments have long been established in human and veterinary medicine, and cases have been reported in dogs and cats. Apexification using calcium hydroxide is a well-established treatment for nonvital immature teeth. The advent of mineral trioxide aggregate and other bioceramic materials for use in vital pulp therapy and apexification has reduced treatment sessions and improved outcomes. Recent developments in the field of regenerative endodontic therapy further expand treatment options and provide the possibility for continued development of a formerly nonvital tooth. Selecting the appropriate treatment based on the severity of tooth fracture and status of pulp vitality can avoid a lifetime of poor structure and function for the affected tooth. This article provides multiple step-by-step protocols for the management of immature permanent teeth with crown fractures in small animals.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Apexificação/veterinária , Gatos , Coroas/veterinária , Necrose da Polpa Dentária/veterinária , Cães , Humanos
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 351, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of increasing dosages of a commercial product composed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (YAM), with active metabolites, which are beta glucans, nucleotides, organic acids, polyphenols, amino acids, vitamins and minerals (Original XPCtm, Diamond V, IOWA, USA) added to a commercially available dry cat food. Apparent digestibility of dietary nutrients, fecal microbiota, fecal fermentation products and immunological parameters were evaluated. Twenty-seven healthy cats of mixed sexes, with a mean body weight of 4.19 ± 0.83 kg and a mean age of 9.44 ± 5.35 years were distributed by age in an unbalanced randomized block design, consisting of three experimental treatments: CD (control diet), YAM 0.3 (control diet with 0.3% yeast with active metabolites) and YAM 0.6 (control diet with 0.6% yeast with active metabolites). RESULTS: The inclusion of the additive elevated the apparent digestibility of crude fiber (p = 0.013) and ash (p < 0.001) without interfering feed consumption, fecal production and fecal characteristics. Regarding fermentation products present in the feces, prebiotic inclusion increased lactic acid concentration (p = 0.004) while reducing isovaleric acid (p = 0.014), only in the treatment YAM 0.3. No differences were noticed on biogenic amines (BA), fecal pH, ammonia concentration, total and individuals short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and total and individuals branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) (except isovaleric acid in YAM 0.3). As regards to fecal microbiota, prebiotic inclusion has resulted in the reduction of Clostridium perfringens (p = 0.023). No differences were found in the immunological parameters evaluated. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that the additive, at the levels of inclusion assessed shows prebiotic potential and it has effects on fecal fermentation products and microbiota without interfering on crude protein and dry matter digestibility. More studies evaluating grater inclusion levels of the prebiotic are necessary to determine optimal concentration.


Assuntos
Gatos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Parede Celular , Digestão , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Prebióticos
17.
Vet Rec ; 189(10): 386, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796931
18.
Acta Vet Scand ; 63(1): 45, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary laryngeal neoplasms are rare in cats, with lymphoma and squamous cell carcinoma being the most commonly diagnosed tumour types. These tumours are usually highly aggressive, difficult to treat, and have a poor prognosis. Here an undifferentiated laryngeal carcinoma with hyaline bodies in a cat is reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 13-year-old cat was presented for progressive respiratory signs. Diagnostic procedures revealed a partially obstructive laryngeal mass. Cytology was compatible with a poorly differentiated malignant tumour, with neoplastic cells frequently containing large intracytoplasmic hyaline bodies. After 1 month the patient was euthanised due to a worsening clinical condition and submitted for post-mortem examination, which confirmed the presence of two laryngeal masses. Histopathology confirmed the presence of an undifferentiated neoplasm with marked features of malignancy. Strong immunolabelling for pancytokeratin led to a diagnosis of undifferentiated carcinoma, however, histochemical and immunohistochemical investigations could not elucidate the origin of the large intracytoplasmic hyaline bodies observed in tumour cells, which appeared as non-membrane bound deposits of electron-dense material on transmission electron microscopy. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of primary undifferentiated laryngeal carcinoma in a cat. Our case confirms the clinical features and the short survival that have been reported in other studies describing feline laryngeal tumours. Moreover, for the first time in feline literature, we describe the presence of intracytoplasmic hyaline bodies in neoplastic cells that were compatible with the so-called hyaline granules reported in different human cancers and also in the dog.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Doenças do Gato , Neoplasias Laríngeas , Laringe , Animais , Carcinoma/diagnóstico , Carcinoma/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Gatos , Hialina , Neoplasias Laríngeas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Laríngeas/veterinária , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/veterinária
19.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 847, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fundamental knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms in developing testicular tissues is critical to better understand gonadal biology and responses to non-physiological conditions. The objective of our study was to (1) analyze transcriptome dynamics in developing testis of the domestic cat and (2) characterize age effects on the initial response of the tissue to vitrification. Tissues from adult and juvenile cats were processed for histology, DNA integrity, and RNA sequencing analyses before and after vitrification. RESULTS: Transcriptomic findings enabled to further characterize juvenile period, distinguishing between early and late juvenile tissues. Changes in gene expression and functional pathways were extensive from early to late juvenile to adult development stages. Additionally, tissues from juvenile animals were more resilient to vitrification compared to adult counterparts, with early juvenile sample responding the least to vitrification and late juvenile sample response being closest to adult tissues. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study reporting comprehensive datasets on transcriptomic dynamic coupled with structural analysis of the cat testis according to the age and exposure to cryopreservation. It provides a comprehensive network of functional terms and pathways that are affected by age in the domestic cat and are either enriched in adult or juvenile testicular tissues.


Assuntos
Testículo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Gatos , Criopreservação , Masculino , Vitrificação
20.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 24(3): 451-459, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730303

RESUMO

This article is an attempt to gather available literature regarding the use of tiletamine and zolazepam combination in anaesthesia in dogs and cats. Although tiletamine and zolazepam mixture has been known in veterinary practice for a long time, the increased interest in these drugs has been observed only recently. Tiletamine, similarly to ketamine, is a drug which belongs to the phencyclidine group. Ketamine has considerable popularity in veterinary practice what suggests that other dissociative anaesthetic drugs, such as tiletamine, could also prove effective in cats' and dogs' anaesthetic care. Zolazepam is a widely used benzodiazepine known for its muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant properties. While conducting an electronic search for articles regarding the use of tiletamine-zolazepam combination in dogs and cats, it has been discovered that the literature on the subject (tiletamine-zolazepam combination in dogs and cats) is quite scarce. Very few articles were published after 2010. Databases used were: Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed. Most of the adverse effects, including those affecting the cardiovascular, nervous, and respiratory systems, were strictly dose-dependent. Tiletamine-zolazepam combination can be safely used as a premedication agent, induction for inhalation anaesthesia, or an independent anaesthetic for short procedures. Contraindications using tiletamine-zolazepam mixture include central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as epilepsy and seizures, head trauma, penetrative eye trauma, cardiovascular abnormalities (hypertrophy cardiomyopathy in cats, arrythmias or conditions where increase of heart rate is inadvisable), hyperthyroidism, pancreatic deficiencies or kidney failure.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Dissociativos/farmacologia , Gatos/fisiologia , Cães/fisiologia , Tiletamina/farmacologia , Zolazepam/farmacologia , Anestésicos Dissociativos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Ansiolíticos/administração & dosagem , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Tiletamina/administração & dosagem , Zolazepam/administração & dosagem
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