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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142046, 2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982158

RESUMO

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a distinct spatiotemporal pattern in the United States. Patients with cancer are at higher risk of severe complications from COVID-19, but it is not well known whether COVID-19 outcomes in this patient population were associated with geography. Objective: To quantify spatiotemporal variation in COVID-19 outcomes among patients with cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This registry-based retrospective cohort study included patients with a historical diagnosis of invasive malignant neoplasm and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between March and November 2020. Data were collected from cancer care delivery centers in the United States. Exposures: Patient residence was categorized into 9 US census divisions. Cancer center characteristics included academic or community classification, rural-urban continuum code (RUCC), and social vulnerability index. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. The secondary composite outcome consisted of receipt of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and all-cause death. Multilevel mixed-effects models estimated associations of center-level and census division-level exposures with outcomes after adjustment for patient-level risk factors and quantified variation in adjusted outcomes across centers, census divisions, and calendar time. Results: Data for 4749 patients (median [IQR] age, 66 [56-76] years; 2439 [51.4%] female individuals, 1079 [22.7%] non-Hispanic Black individuals, and 690 [14.5%] Hispanic individuals) were reported from 83 centers in the Northeast (1564 patients [32.9%]), Midwest (1638 [34.5%]), South (894 [18.8%]), and West (653 [13.8%]). After adjustment for patient characteristics, including month of COVID-19 diagnosis, estimated 30-day mortality rates ranged from 5.2% to 26.6% across centers. Patients from centers located in metropolitan areas with population less than 250 000 (RUCC 3) had lower odds of 30-day mortality compared with patients from centers in metropolitan areas with population at least 1 million (RUCC 1) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.31; 95% CI, 0.11-0.84). The type of center was not significantly associated with primary or secondary outcomes. There were no statistically significant differences in outcome rates across the 9 census divisions, but adjusted mortality rates significantly improved over time (eg, September to November vs March to May: aOR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.17-0.58). Conclusions and Relevance: In this registry-based cohort study, significant differences in COVID-19 outcomes across US census divisions were not observed. However, substantial heterogeneity in COVID-19 outcomes across cancer care delivery centers was found. Attention to implementing standardized guidelines for the care of patients with cancer and COVID-19 could improve outcomes for these vulnerable patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , População Rural , Vulnerabilidade Social , População Urbana , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Censos , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Sistema de Registros , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise Espacial , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
S D Med ; 75(1): 6-15, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015937

RESUMO

The total number of 2020 resident births in South Dakota continues to decline with a 4 percent decrease from the previous year yielding the state's lowest crude birth rate (12.3 per 1,000 population) since its first recording in 1910. Currently, similar to the U.S., approximately one-quarter of all births are minority. The percentage of American Indian births is decreasing in its contribution to this population of the state with a growing percent of African American and multi-race newborns comprising the minority population in the state. South Dakota had one more infant death in 2020 (n=81) compared to 2019. The decrease in births led to a non-significant increase in the state's infant mortality rate (IMR) from 7.0 to 7.4 that is significantly higher than the U.S. rate (5.6) in 2019. An increase in nine sudden unexpected infant deaths (SUID) from 2019 to 2020 contributed to the rising IMR. Compared to the U.S., South Dakota has a lower percent of its infant deaths among those who are low birth weight (55 vs. 66 percent). Approximately one-third of white infant deaths occurred after the first 27 days of life; this was true for approximately half of all minority infants. Overall, South Dakota's minority infants have significantly higher rates of neonatal and post neonatal death than its whites, specifically due to perinatal causes, SUID, and accidents/homicide. How SUID contributes to the state's IMR is an area for needed attention as these deaths are increasingly known to accompany risks that, if alleviated, could prevent loss of early life. An examination of data from the year 2020 is the first opportunity to see possible relationships between perinatal outcomes and the pandemic that spanned approximately three-quarters of this year. Drawing causal relationships is not possible, but several observations about the impact of the pandemic are made as natality and infant mortality data for this year are explored in this annual report.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Morte Súbita do Lactente , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Causas de Morte , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , South Dakota/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 37, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nearly half of HIV-related deaths occur in East and Southern Africa, yet data on causes of death (COD) are scarce. We determined COD and associated factors among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in rural Tanzania. METHODS: PLHIV attending the Chronic Diseases Clinic of Ifakara, Morogoro are invited to enrol in the Kilombero and Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort (KIULARCO). Among adults (≥ 15 years) enrolled in 2005-2018, with follow-up through April 2019, we classified COD in comprehensive classes and as HIV- or non-HIV-related. In the subset of participants enrolled in 2013-2018 (when data were more complete), we assessed cause-specific mortality using cumulative incidences, and associated factors using proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Among 9871 adults (65% female, 26% CD4 count < 100 cells/mm3), 926 (9%) died, among whom COD were available for 474 (51%), with missing COD mainly in earlier years. The most common COD were tuberculosis (N = 127, 27%), non-AIDS-related infections (N = 72, 15%), and other AIDS-related infections (N = 59, 12%). Cardiovascular and renal deaths emerged as important COD in later calendar years, with 27% of deaths in 2018 attributable to cardiovascular causes. Most deaths (51%) occurred within the first six months following enrolment. Among 3956 participants enrolled in 2013-2018 (N = 203 deaths, 200 with COD ascertained), tuberculosis persisted as the most common COD (25%), but substantial proportions of deaths from six months after enrolment onwards were attributable to renal (14%), non-AIDS-related infections (13%), other AIDS-related infections (10%) and cardiovascular (10%) causes. Factors associated with higher HIV-related mortality were sex, younger age, living in Ifakara town, HIV status disclosure, hospitalisation, not being underweight, lower CD4 count, advanced WHO stage, and gaps in care. Factors associated with higher non-HIV-related mortality included not having an HIV-positive partner, lower CD4 count, advanced WHO stage, and gaps in care. CONCLUSION: Incidence of HIV-related mortality was higher than that of non-HIV-related mortality, even in more recent years, likely due to late presentation. Tuberculosis was the leading specific COD identified, particularly soon after enrolment, while in later calendar years cardiovascular and renal causes emerged as important, emphasising the need for improved screening and management.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
4.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131590, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between blood volatile organic aromatic compounds (VOACs) across adulthood and mortality. METHODS: A total of 16,968 participants from the National health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 1988-1994 and 1999-2014) were included in the present study. Cox proportional hazards models were used to explore the associations between VOACs and total or cause-specific mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1,282 deaths occurred among 16,968 participants with a median follow-up of 8.06 years. We observed significant positive dose-response relationship between VOACs including benzene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m-/p-xylene and BEX (the sum of benzene, ethylbenzene, m-/p-and o-xylene concentrations) and total mortality, the multiple adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 1.24 (1.13, 1.36), 1.15 (1.04, 1.27), 1.10 (1.00, 1.23), 1.09 (1.01, 1.19) and 1.21 (1.08, 1.35), respectively. In addition, all VOACs significantly elevated risk of the mortality from cancer, and benzene was associated with risk of the mortality from heart disease and the HRs and 95% CIs was 1.39 (1.09-1.77). For non-smokers, benzene, ethylbenzene and BEX were associated with elevated risk of total mortality and the mortality from cancer, and benzene was associated with risk of the mortality from heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: Blood VOACs are associated with increased risks of total and specific-cause mortality, which are also observed among non-smokers.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Adulto , Benzeno/toxicidade , Causas de Morte , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Environ Res ; 203: 111865, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update the analysis of mortality of a cohort of talc miners and millers in Northern Italy. METHODS: We analyzed overall mortality and mortality from specific causes of death during 1946-2020 of 1749 male workers in a talc mine where asbestos was not detected (1184 miners and 565 millers) employed during 1946-1995. RESULTS: The overall standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 1.21 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.28); no deaths were observed from pleural cancer. Mortality from lung cancer was not increased (SMR = 1.02 95 % CI 0.82-1.27), while mortality from pneumoconiosis was (SMR 9.55; 95 % CI 7.43-12.08), especially among miners (SMR 12.74; 95 % CI 9.79-16.31). There was a trend in risk of pneumoconiosis with increasing duration of employment in the overall cohort, and the SMR for 25+ years of employment was 15.12 (95 % CI 10.89-20.43). CONCLUSIONS: This uniquely long-term follow up confirms the results of previous analyses, namely the lack of association between exposure to talc with no detectable level of asbestos and lung cancer and mesothelioma. Increased mortality from pneumoconiosis among miners is related to past exposure to silica.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Talco , Causas de Morte , Seguimentos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Talco/toxicidade
6.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962579

RESUMO

The cause of death statistics is an elementary basis for determining important indicators such as death rates, years of life lost, and avoidable deaths as well as their changes over time. The results are used in epidemiological and medical research and provide important recommendations for prevention programs and for health policy in general.This article first gives an overview of the history, legal basis, and methodology of the cause of death statistics in Germany. This is followed by the presentation of the data on suicides in Germany with a focus on the year 2019. These data are mapped based on the characteristics of age, gender, region, and method of suicide. Comparisons with older data available since 1980 are made. The outlook gives an overview of the further development of the cause of death statistics, the reasons for current weaknesses in the data collection process, and possible solutions.


Assuntos
Suicídio , Causas de Morte , Coleta de Dados , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Suicídio/prevenção & controle
7.
Int J Cancer ; 150(1): 67-72, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431525

RESUMO

The growing population of long-term childhood cancer survivors is at increased risk for severe, therapy-related late effects and premature mortality. The cardiac and vascular late sequelae in long-term survivors of childhood cancer (CVSS) study is a cohort of patients from Germany diagnosed with a neoplasia prior to 15 years of age in the time period 1980 to 1990. Late mortality was evaluated in a total of 4505 individuals who survived 5 years or more after the initial diagnosis (5-year survivors). Survivors with a second primary tumor were excluded. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated. By December 2014, 400 patients had died. Available cause of death information from 188 individuals was used to estimate cause-specific mortality for all deceased persons. Compared to the population of (former) West Germany, we observed an excess overall mortality risk (SMR = 9.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.62-10.51). After correcting for missing cause of death information, an increased cancer mortality (SMR = 43.50, 95% CI = 25.79-73.50) in the 5-year survivors was detected. Cardiac death was ascertained in 14 individuals, resulting in an SMR of 10.85 (95% CI = 2.80-32.02) after correcting for missing values. In conclusion, childhood cancer survivors diagnosed in Germany in 1980 to 1990 have a higher mortality risk overall and an elevated risk of dying from cancer and cardiac causes in particular. The results are consistent with those of international cohort studies. However, the reported results are based on few cases and individuals with secondary cancers were excluded.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Mortalidade/tendências , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Neoplasias/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261036, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While dementia has been associated with specific causes of death, previous studies were relatively small autopsy series or population-based studies lacking autopsy confirmation and were restricted to Non-Latinx Whites. Here, we examine the association of dementia with autopsy-verified causes of death in racially-diverse older Brazilians. METHODS: As part of the Pathology, Alzheimer´s and Related Dementias Study (PARDoS), a community-based study in Brazil, we included 1941 racially-diverse deceased, 65 years or older at death. We conducted a structured interview with legal informants including the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) Scale for dementia proximate to death. Causes of death were assessed after full-body autopsy and macroscopic examination of the brain, thoracic and abdominal/pelvic organs. Up to four causes of death were reported for each decedent. Causes of death were classified as circulatory, infectious, cancer and other. Logistic regression was used to determine associations of dementia with cause of death, controlling for age, sex, race, and education. RESULTS: Dementia was associated with a higher odds of an infectious cause of death (OR = 1.81, 95%CI:1.45-2.25), and with a lower odds of a circulatory disease as cause of death (OR = 0.69, 95%CI:0.54-0.86) and cancer as cause of death (OR = 0.41, 95%CI:0.24-0.71). Dementia was associated with a higher odds of pneumonia (OR = 1.92, 95%CI:1.53-2.40) and pulmonary embolism (OR = 2.31, 95%CI:1.75-3.05) as causes of death and with a lower odds of acute myocardial infarction (OR = 0.42, 95%CI:0.31-0.56) and arterial disease (OR = 0.76, 95%CI:0.61-0.94) as causes of death. CONCLUSION: Racially-diverse older Brazilians with dementia had a higher odds of an infectious cause of death and a lower odds of cancer and circulatory disease as causes of death than those without dementia.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Demência/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autopsia , Brasil , Demência/etnologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2140071, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932104

RESUMO

Importance: The Mobile Health Technology for Improved Screening and Optimized Integrated Care in Atrial Fibrillation (mAFA-II) trial is a prospective cluster randomized trial that found a significant reduction in the composite clinical outcome of stroke or thromboembolism, all-cause death, and rehospitalization among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who used a mobile health (mHealth) technology that implemented the Atrial Fibrillation Better Care (ABC) pathway (ie, A, anticoagulation/avoid stroke; B, better symptom control; and C, cardiovascular disease and comorbidity management) compared with those receiving usual care. Multimorbidity (defined as ≥2 chronic long-term conditions) is common in older patients with AF, but the impact of integrated or holistic care (based on the ABC pathway) on clinical outcomes in this population is uncertain. Objective: To evaluate whether implementation of the integrated ABC pathway, supported by mHealth technology, would reduce AF-related adverse events in patients with multimorbidity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prespecified ancillary analysis of data from the extended follow-up of the mAFA II trial was conducted between June 2018 and April 2021. Adult patients with AF were included in the analysis if they had at least 2 comorbidities. Participants were enrolled across 40 centers in China. Intervention: Integrated care supported by mHealth technology (mAFA intervention) vs usual care. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was the composite outcome of stroke or thromboembolism, all-cause death, and rehospitalization. Cox proportional hazard modeling was performed for adverse outcomes after adjusting for cluster effect and baseline risk factors. Results: Of 1890 patients, 833 (mean [SD] age, 72.0 [12.0] years; 278 [33.4%] women) with multimorbidity were allocated to the intervention group (ABC pathway), with a mean (SD) follow-up of 419 (257) days, and 1057 patients (mean [SD] age, 72.8 [13.0] years; 443 [41.9%] women) with multimorbidity were allocated to usual care, with a mean (SD) follow-up of 457 (154) days. Compared with usual care, the composite outcome of stroke or thromboembolism, all-cause death, and rehospitalization was significantly reduced in the intervention group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.37; 95% CI, 0.26-0.53; P < .001), as were rehospitalizations alone (HR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.27-0.64; P < .001). For the C criterion of the ABC pathway, rates of acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, and uncontrolled blood pressure during follow-up were lower in the intervention group than the usual care group (27 patients [3.2%] vs 145 patients [13.7%]; HR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.19-0.45; P < .001). Subgroup analyses by age, prior stroke, and sex demonstrated consistently lower HRs for the primary composite outcome and rehospitalization for patients with AF allocated to the intervention group compared with patients receiving usual care. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, mHealth technology-based integrated care that facilitated the implementation of the ABC pathway reduced meaningful clinical adverse events in older patients with AF and multimorbidity vs usual care. Trial Registration: WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) Registration number: ChiCTR-OOC-17014138.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Telemedicina , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Multimorbidade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Tromboembolia/etiologia
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2140352, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34940865

RESUMO

Importance: More than 50 000 youths are incarcerated in the United States on any given day, and youth incarceration has been linked to lasting adverse outcomes, including early mortality. Improving our understanding of the factors associated with early mortality among incarcerated youths can inform appropriate prevention strategies. Objective: To examine mortality rates and causes of death among youths previously incarcerated in the juvenile legal system. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective longitudinal population-based cohort study compared mortality rates between youths aged 11 to 21 years incarcerated from 2010 to 2017 with same-aged nonincarcerated Medicaid-enrolled youths in the state of Ohio. Data from January 2017 to December 2019 were collected from juvenile incarceration, Medicaid, and death certificate information in Ohio. Exposure: Incarceration in the state of Ohio's juvenile legal system. Main Outcomes and Measures: Number, characteristics, and causes of deaths. Poisson regression incidence rate ratios (IRRs) compared mortality rates between previously incarcerated and Medicaid-enrolled youths. Results: Among 3645 incarcerated youths, 3398 (93.2%) were male, 2155 (59.1%) Black, 1307 (35.9%) White, and 183 (5.0%) other race and ethnicity. Overall, 113 youths (3.1%) died during the study period. Homicide was the leading cause of death in formerly incarcerated youths (homicide: 63 [55.8%]; legal intervention [ie, death due to injuries inflicted by law enforcement]: 3 [2.7%]). All-cause mortality rates were significantly higher among previously incarcerated youths than Medicaid-enrolled youths (adjusted IRR [aIRR], 5.91; 95% CI, 4.90-7.13) in every demographic subgroup. Compared with Medicaid-enrolled youths, mortality rates for previously incarcerated youths were highest for homicide (aIRR, 11.02; 95% CI, 8.54-14.22), overdose (aIRR, 4.32; 95% CI, 2.59-7.20), and suicide (aIRR, 4.30; 95% CI, 2.22-8.33). Formerly incarcerated Black youths had a significantly higher risk of homicide (aIRR, 14.24; 95% CI, 4.45-45.63) but a lower risk of suicide (aIRR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.04-0.89) and overdose (aIRR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.10-0.99) than White youths who were incarcerated. Previously incarcerated youths aged 15 to 21 years were significantly more likely to die than youths aged 22 to 29 years, irrespective of cause of death (aIRR for youths aged 22-29 years, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.06-0.14). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, youths with a history of incarceration were significantly more likely to experience early mortality compared with nonincarcerated Medicaid-enrolled youths. Delinquency and violence prevention strategies that incorporate a culturally informed approach and consider sex and developmental level are critical.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Delinquência Juvenil , Mortalidade/tendências , Adolescente , Feminino , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Medicaid , Ohio/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959911

RESUMO

The Portfolio Diet has demonstrated its cardiovascular benefit from interventions, but the association between Portfolio Diet adherence and the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality has not been examined in Chinese population. The present study has collected Portfolio Diet adherence (assessed by food frequency questionnaire), lifestyle factors and mortality status of 3991 participants in the Mr. Osteoporosis (OS) and Ms. OS Study. Cox regression models were used to examine the association between the Portfolio Diet adherence and mortality risk (all-cause, cardiovascular disease or cancer). The highest quartile of the Portfolio Diet score was associated with a 28% lower risk of all-cause (hazard ratio, HR: 0.72) and cancer (HR: 0.72) mortality, respectively. The association between Portfolio Diet adherence and cardiovascular disease mortality did not reach statistical significance (HR: 0.90, 95% CI = 0.64, 1.26). Among male participants, the highest adherence to the Portfolio Diet was also associated with a lower risk of all-cause (HR: 0.63) and cancer mortality (HR: 0.59), and there was an inverse association between food sources of plant protein and the risk of cardiovascular mortality (HR: 0.50). However, most associations between the Portfolio Diet and mortality were not significant among females. The protection for cancer mortality risk might reach the plateau at the highest adherence to the Portfolio Diet for females. To conclude, greater adherence to the Portfolio Diet was significantly associated with a lower risk of mortality in Hong Kong older adults, and the associations appeared stronger among males.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Dieta Saudável , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Osteoporose/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 106, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932696

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to discuss the impact four different redistribution strategies have on the quantitative and temporal trends of cancer mortality assessment in Brazil. METHODOLOGY: This study used anonymized and georeferenced data provided by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (BMoH). Four different approaches were used to conduct the redistribution of ill-defined deaths and garbage codes. Age-standardized mortality rates used the world population as reference. Prais-Winsten autoregression allowed the calculation of region, sex, and cancer type trends. RESULTS: Death rates increased considerably in all regions after redistribution. Overall, Elisabeth B. França's and the World Health Organization methods had a milder impact on trends and rate magnitudes when compared to the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2010 method. This study also observed that, when the BMoH dealt with the problem of redistributing ill-defined deaths, results were similar to those obtained by the GBD method. The redistribution methods also influenced the assessment of trends; however, differences were less pronounced. CONCLUSIONS: Since developing a comparative gold standard is impossible, matching global techniques to local realities may be an alternative for methodological selection. In our study, the compatibility of the findings suggests how valid the GBD method is to the Brazilian context. However, caution is needed. Future studies should assess the impact of these methods as applied to the redistribution of deaths to type-specific neoplasms.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Neoplasias , Brasil/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Saúde Global , Humanos , Mortalidade
13.
NCHS Data Brief ; (425): 1-8, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895405

RESUMO

Heart disease was the leading cause of death nationally in 2019, consistent with historical patterns since 1921 (1,2). Age-adjusted death rates for heart disease have shown a steady decline since the mid-1960s, and death rates, as well as changes in rates, vary by state. This report examines changes in heart disease death rates from 2000 through 2019 for the United States and for each state and the District of Columbia (D.C.).


Assuntos
Cardiopatias , Causas de Morte , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Diving Hyperb Med ; 51(4): 345-354, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897599

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: New Zealand (NZ) diving-related fatalities have been reported since the 1960s. The aim is to identify contributing risk factors, including medical, and to inform appropriate preventative strategies. METHODS: NZ scuba diving fatalities from 2007 to 2016 were searched from multiple sources - the National Coronial Information System (NCIS); the NZ Chief Coroner's office; Water Safety NZ Drownbase™ and the NZ Police National Dive Squad records. For inclusion, a victim must have been wearing a scuba set (which may include a rebreather). A key word search of the NCIS was made and the results matched to the other databases. An Excel® database was created and a chain of events analysis (CEA) conducted. RESULTS: Forty-eight scuba diving fatalities were identified, 40 men and eight women, average age 47 years (range 17-68), 20 of Maori ethnicity. Thirty-five were classified as overweight (14) or obese (21). Pre-existing medical risk factors were identified, either pre dive or at autopsy, in 37 divers, the commonest being ischaemic heart disease (IHD, 20), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH, 18) and hypertension (seven). IHD, LVH and obesity were variously associated with each other. The likely commonest disabling conditions, identified in 32 cases, were asphyxia (15), cardiac (nine) and pulmonary barotrauma/cerebral arterial gas embolism (five). Multiple environmental and diving practice breaches and poor planning were identified in the CEA, similar to those seen in other studies. Thirty-eight divers had not released their weight belt. Information on resuscitation was limited. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity and cardiovascular disease were common and Maori appear to be over-represented, both as previously reported.


Assuntos
Mergulho , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Autopsia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(51)2021 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903648

RESUMO

Decades of air pollution regulation have yielded enormous benefits in the United States, but vehicle emissions remain a climate and public health issue. Studies have quantified the vehicle-related fine particulate matter (PM2.5)-attributable mortality but lack the combination of proper counterfactual scenarios, latest epidemiological evidence, and detailed spatial resolution; all needed to assess the benefits of recent emission reductions. We use this combination to assess PM2.5-attributable health benefits and also assess the climate benefits of on-road emission reductions between 2008 and 2017. We estimate total benefits of $270 (190 to 480) billion in 2017. Vehicle-related PM2.5-attributable deaths decreased from 27,700 in 2008 to 19,800 in 2017; however, had per-mile emission factors remained at 2008 levels, 48,200 deaths would have occurred in 2017. The 74% increase from 27,700 to 48,200 PM2.5-attributable deaths with the same emission factors is due to lower baseline PM2.5 concentrations (+26%), more vehicle miles and fleet composition changes (+22%), higher baseline mortality (+13%), and interactions among these (+12%). Climate benefits were small (3 to 19% of the total). The percent reductions in emissions and PM2.5-attributable deaths were similar despite an opportunity to achieve disproportionately large health benefits by reducing high-impact emissions of passenger light-duty vehicles in urban areas. Increasingly large vehicles and an aging population, increasing mortality, suggest large health benefits in urban areas require more stringent policies. Local policies can be effective because high-impact primary PM2.5 and NH3 emissions disperse little outside metropolitan areas. Complementary national-level policies for NOx are merited because of its substantial impacts-with little spatial variability-and dispersion across states and metropolitan areas.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Transportes , Emissões de Veículos/prevenção & controle , Poluentes Atmosféricos/economia , Poluição do Ar/economia , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Causas de Morte/tendências , Mudança Climática/economia , Mudança Climática/mortalidade , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Gases de Efeito Estufa/economia , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/economia , Exposição por Inalação/prevenção & controle , Material Particulado/economia , Transportes/classificação , Estados Unidos
16.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959986

RESUMO

Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) may promote oxidative stress and inflammation and have been linked to multiple chronic diseases, including cancer. However, the association of AGEs with mortality after colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis has not been previously investigated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals for associations between dietary intake of AGEs with CRC-specific and all-cause mortality among 5801 participant cases diagnosed with CRC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study between 1993 and 2013. Dietary intakes of AGEs were estimated using country-specific dietary questionnaires, linked to an AGE database, that accounted for food preparation and processing. During a median of 58 months of follow-up, 2421 cases died (1841 from CRC). Individually or combined, dietary intakes of AGEs were not associated with all-cause and CRC-specific mortality among cases. However, there was a suggestion for a positive association between AGEs and all-cause or CRC-specific mortality among CRC cases without type II diabetes (all-cause, Pinteraction = 0.05) and CRC cases with the longest follow-up between recruitment and cancer diagnosis (CRC-specific, Pinteraction = 0.003; all-cause, Pinteraction = 0.01). Our study suggests that pre-diagnostic dietary intakes of AGEs were not associated with CRC-specific or all-cause mortality among CRC patients. Further investigations using biomarkers of AGEs and stratifying by sex, diabetes status, and timing of exposure to AGEs are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Dieta/mortalidade , Ingestão de Alimentos , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 147: 111-126, 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913440

RESUMO

High maternal investment and extended inter-calving intervals in Florida manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris make calf survivorship critical to overall population growth. However, detailed patterns of causes of mortality in calves have not been reported and state agency statistics report portions of perinatal mortality based on body length rather than actual cause of death (COD). The objectives of this study were to categorize COD based on necropsy data and geographical location in Florida for 1209 manatee calf carcasses (<236 cm total length) examined between January 2009 and December 2017 and to describe factors contributing to calf mortality. Results indicated COD was attributed to natural causes (47%, n = 573), cold stress syndrome (38%, n = 457), watercraft injury (13%, n = 155), or other human-related causes (2%, n = 24). Natural causes were the leading COD for small calves <151 cm, with death due to stillbirth or dystocia most frequent (48%, n = 273/573). Enteric trematodiasis contributed to a large proportion of deaths from natural causes in large calves within the southwest region of Florida, with an increasing annual trend. Brevetoxicosis contributed substantially to natural causes within the southwest region exclusively and was commonly comorbid with enteric trematodiasis. Cold stress syndrome was the leading cause of death for large calves (151-235 cm), with the Atlantic region having the highest proportion of cases. Watercraft injury was a sustained threat to large calves, especially within the southwest region. This report provides details on specific health threats and patterns of mortality among manatee calves.


Assuntos
Trichechus manatus , Animais , Bovinos , Causas de Morte , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trichechus
18.
Lipids Health Dis ; 20(1): 179, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895256

RESUMO

Lipids have a wide variety and vital functions. Lipids play roles in energy metabolism, intracellular and extracellular signal traffic, and transport of fat-soluble vitamins. Also, they form the structure of the cell membrane. SARS-CoV-2 interacts with lipids since its genetic material contains lipid-enveloped ribonucleic acid (RNA). Previous studies have shown that total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels are lower in patients with severe novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) compared to patients with non-severe COVID-19.Na+/H+ Exchanger (NHE) is an important antiport that keeps the intracellular pH value within physiological limits. When the intracellular pH falls, NHE is activated and pumps H+ ions outward. However, prolonged NHE activation causes cell damage and atherosclerosis. Prolonged NHE activation may increase susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity of COVID-19.In COVID-19, increased angiotensin II (Ang II) due to angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) dysfunction stimulates NHE. Lipids are in close association with the NHE pump. Prolonged NHE activity increases the influx of H+ ions and free fatty acid (FFA) inward. Ang II also causes increased low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) levels by inhibiting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). Thus, intracellular atheroma plaque formation is accelerated.Besides, SARS-CoV-2 may replicate more rapidly as intracellular cholesterol increases. SARS-CoV-2 swiftly infects the cell whose intracellular pH decreases with NHE activation and FFA movement. Novel treatment regimens based on NHE and lipids should be explored for the treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Colesterol/metabolismo , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/metabolismo , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Gravidade do Paciente , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e050525, 2021 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34907049

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential impact of the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic on all cause and cause-specific mortality in Norway. DESIGN: Population-based register study. SETTING: The Norwegian cause of Death Registry and the National Population Register of Norway. PARTICIPANTS: All recorded deaths in Norway from March to May from 2010 to 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate (per 100 000) of all-cause mortality and causes of death in the European Shortlist for Causes of Death from March to May 2020. The rates were age standardised and adjusted to a 100% register coverage and compared with a 95% prediction interval (PI) from linear regression based on corresponding rates for 2010-2019. RESULTS: 113 710 deaths were included, of which 10 226 were from 2020. We did not observe any deviation from predicted total mortality. There were fewer than predicted deaths from chronic lower respiratory diseases excluding asthma (11.4, 95% PI 11.8 to 15.2) and from other non-ischaemic, non-rheumatic heart diseases (13.9, 95% PI 14.5 to 20.2). The death rates were higher than predicted for Alzheimer's disease (7.3, 95% PI 5.5 to 7.3) and diabetes mellitus (4.1, 95% PI 2.1 to 3.4). CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in the frequency of the major causes of death in the first wave of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic in Norway compared with corresponding periods 2010-2019. There was an increase in diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's deaths. Reduced mortality due to some heart and lung conditions may be linked to infection control measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Causas de Morte , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Turk Psikiyatri Derg ; 32(4): 246-252, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, it was aimed to define the clinical characteristics, causes of death, disease and treatment of patients who died while being followed for severe mental illness. METHOD: The study was carried out in ten community mental health centers from six provinces. The clinical characteristics, causes of death, course of the illness and treatment characteristics of the patients who had a death report from the date the community mental health centers were opened until the start date of the study were analyzed by retrospective file scanning method. RESULTS: In an average of 52 months, files of 3715 patients were examined. There were death declarations for 106 patients. The diagnosis of most patients with death declarations was schizophrenia (78%), most of them were male (66%), mean age was 57, mean disease duration was 24 years. The rate of multiple antipsychotic medication use was 61%. The most common comorbidities were metabolic syndrome (36%), hypertension (22%), diabetes (18%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (15%). The most frequently reported causes of death were cardiovascular diseases (39%), infectious diseases (14%) and cancer (11%). CONCLUSION: Individuals with severe mental illness followed up in community mental health centers are mostly die due to preventable natural causes of death. Therefore, a sensitive approach should be taken to evaluate psychiatric and other medical conditions together. In our country, there is a need for natural follow-up studies investigating the average age of death and causes of death of individuals with severe mental illness.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Causas de Morte , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
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