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1.
Biomedica ; 41(Supl. 1): 60-81, 2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111341

RESUMO

Introduction: Enteroparasites can cause problems in animals kept under human care in zoos and shelters. Wild animals have low parasitic loads but when sheltered in closed places they can be higher and lead to clinical manifestations, which increases the cost of medical treatments and care. On the other hand, some enteroparasites can represent a potential risk of zoonotic infection for their animal keepers, visitors, and other zoo animals. In addition, they could affect recovery programs for endangered species. Objectives: To establish the presence and prevalence of potentially zoonotic enteroparasites in primates of the Cebidae and Callitrichidae families at the Zoológico de Cali from September to November, 2017. Materials and methods: We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study. Serial samples from 50 individuals belonging to seven species and two primate families were analyzed by ova and parasite test, flotation, and Kinyoun stain between September and November, 2017. Results: In order of frequency, the parasite genera found in the seven primate species evaluated were Blastocystis spp., Trichomonas spp., Giardia spp., Entamoeba spp., Strongyloides spp., Cyclospora sp., and Trichuris sp. Conclusions: At least six of the parasite genera found have potential zoonotic implications. It is necessary to establish what are the infection sources at the Zoológico de Cali and implement management protocols to reduce the risk of transmission to both humans and other animals in the collection. Additionally, we offer relevant information on the zoonotic potential of each of the enteroparasites found.


Assuntos
Callitrichinae , Cebidae , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Callitrichinae/parasitologia , Cebidae/parasitologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Primatas , Estudos Prospectivos , Zoonoses
2.
Am J Primatol ; 83(5): e23246, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638563

RESUMO

Multiple behavioral and biomechanical analyses have demonstrated that capuchin monkeys (Cebus and Sapajus) are specialized for breaking down hard-object foods as compared to other cebid monkeys. In addition to a complex suite of craniodental adaptations, it has specifically been demonstrated that capuchins possess highly complex dental enamel, with extensive Hunter-Schreger banding and other decussation, that likely serve as an adaptation to resist crack propagation during hard-object feeding. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that robust capuchins (Sapajus spp., formerly Cebus apella) demonstrate further adaptation for hard-object feeding than other capuchins, routinely breaking down extremely mechanically challenging foods. However, there has been no comparison of dental enamel complexity in robust versus gracile capuchins, to assess whether the dental enamel in Sapajus follows this same pattern of further specialization. Therefore, this study compares dental enamel complexity in images of dental thin sections from a sample of robust versus gracile capuchins using image compression ratio (ICR) analysis. ICR is a variable that correlates with enamel complexity, such that higher ICR values are indicative of increased complexity in the form of enamel decussation. We found no significant difference between robust and gracile capuchins when assessing all teeth in our sample together, however, we did find that robust capuchins have significantly higher ICR values than gracile capuchins for canine teeth, specifically. Our results support prior studies suggesting that robust capuchins are specialized to generate increased masticatory loads with their anterior dentition, specifically, as compared to gracile species.


Assuntos
Cebidae , Sapajus , Animais , Cebus , Esmalte Dentário , Platirrinos
3.
Zootaxa ; 4820(2): zootaxa.4820.2.14, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056078

RESUMO

I review the nomenclatural history of the blond capuchin, Cebus flavius (Schreber), a Brazilian monkey species. The name was published in 1799, not 1774 as generally cited, so the species is correctly known as Cebus flavius (Schreber, 1799).


Assuntos
Cebidae , Animais , Cebus , Sapajus
4.
Anal Biochem ; 593: 113516, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794702

RESUMO

Alu elements are powerful phylogenetic markers. The combination of a recently-developed computational pipeline, polyDetect, with high copy number Alu insertions has previously been utilized to help resolve the Papio baboon phylogeny with high statistical support. Here, the polyDetect method was applied to the highly contentious Cebidae phylogeny within New World monkeys (NWM). The polyDetect method relies on conserved homology/identity of short read sequence data among the species being compared to accurately map predicted shared Alu insertions to each unique flanking sequence. The results of this comprehensive assessment indicate that there were insufficient sequence homology/identity stretches in non-repeated DNA sequences among the four Cebidae genera analyzed in this study to make this strategy phylogenetically viable. The ~20 million years of evolutionary divergence of the Cebidae genera has resulted in random sequence decay within the short read data, obscuring potentially orthologous elements in the species tested. These analyses suggest that the polyDetect pipeline is best suited to resolving phylogenies of more recently diverged lineages when high-quality assembled genomes are not available for the taxa of interest.


Assuntos
Elementos Alu , Cebidae , Filogenia , Animais , Cebidae/classificação , Cebidae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA
5.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 48(5): 498-504, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379040

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe the gross anatomy of the ventral rami of the thoracic spinal nerves in capuchin monkey (Sapajus apella) and compare with humans and other primate species. Eight specimens, prepared in 10% formalin solution and dissected following routine standard techniques, were used. The animals presented 13-14 pairs of thoracic spinal nerves emerging from the intervertebral foramen and divided into dorsal and ventral rami. The ventral rami of the first 12 or 13 pairs represented intercostal nerves and the latter referred to the subcostal nerve. The intercostal and subcostal nerves gave off muscular and cutaneous branches (lateral and ventral), which promote innervation of muscles and skin associated with the chest and abdominal wall. Atypical anatomy was verified for the 1st, 2nd and 7th to 13th intercostal nerves as well as for the subcostal nerve. The morphological characteristics were similar to those observed in humans and some non-human primates, especially in the absence of collateral branches.


Assuntos
Nervos Torácicos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Cebidae/anatomia & histologia , Sapajus apella
6.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(4): 1105-1116, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888417

RESUMO

Platy-1 elements are Platyrrhine-specific, short interspersed elements originally discovered in the Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset) genome. To date, only the marmoset genome has been analyzed for Platy-1 repeat content. Here, we report full-length Platy-1 insertions in other New World monkey (NWM) genomes (Saimiri boliviensis, squirrel monkey; Cebus imitator, capuchin monkey; and Aotus nancymaae, owl monkey) and analyze the amplification dynamics of lineage-specific Platy-1 insertions. A relatively small number of full-length and lineage-specific Platy-1 elements were found in the squirrel, capuchin, and owl monkey genomes compared with the marmoset genome. In addition, only a few older Platy-1 subfamilies were recovered in this study, with no Platy-1 subfamilies younger than Platy-1-6. By contrast, 62 Platy-1 subfamilies were discovered in the marmoset genome. All of the lineage-specific insertions found in the squirrel and capuchin monkeys were fixed present. However, ∼15% of the lineage-specific Platy-1 loci in Aotus were polymorphic for insertion presence/absence. In addition, two new Platy-1 subfamilies were identified in the owl monkey genome with low nucleotide divergences compared with their respective consensus sequences, suggesting minimal ongoing retrotransposition in the Aotus genus and no current activity in the Saimiri, Cebus, and Sapajus genera. These comparative analyses highlight the finding that the high number of Platy-1 elements discovered in the marmoset genome is an exception among NWM analyzed thus far, rather than the rule. Future studies are needed to expand upon our knowledge of Platy-1 amplification in other NWM genomes.


Assuntos
Cebidae/genética , Amplificação de Genes , Retroelementos , Animais
7.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 99, 2018 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30045748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enhancers play an important role in morphological evolution and speciation by controlling the spatiotemporal expression of genes. Previous efforts to understand the evolution of enhancers in primates have typically studied many enhancers at low resolution, or single enhancers at high resolution. Although comparative genomic studies reveal large-scale turnover of enhancers, a specific understanding of the molecular steps by which mammalian or primate enhancers evolve remains elusive. RESULTS: We identified candidate hominoid-specific liver enhancers from H3K27ac ChIP-seq data. After locating orthologs in 11 primates spanning around 40 million years, we synthesized all orthologs as well as computational reconstructions of 9 ancestral sequences for 348 active tiles of 233 putative enhancers. We concurrently tested all sequences for regulatory activity with STARR-seq in HepG2 cells. We observe groups of enhancer tiles with coherent trajectories, most of which can be potentially explained by a single gain or loss-of-activity event per tile. We quantify the correlation between the number of mutations along a branch and the magnitude of change in functional activity. Finally, we identify 84 mutations that correlate with functional changes; these are enriched for cytosine deamination events within CpGs. CONCLUSIONS: We characterized the evolutionary-functional trajectories of hundreds of liver enhancers throughout the primate phylogeny. We observe subsets of regulatory sequences that appear to have gained or lost activity. We use these data to quantify the relationship between sequence and functional divergence, and to identify CpG deamination as a potentially important force in driving changes in enhancer activity during primate evolution.


Assuntos
Atelidae/genética , Callitrichinae/genética , Cebidae/genética , Cercopithecidae/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Hominidae/genética , Hylobatidae/genética , Animais , Atelidae/classificação , Evolução Biológica , Callitrichinae/classificação , Cebidae/classificação , Cercopithecidae/classificação , Ilhas de CpG , Células Hep G2 , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Hominidae/classificação , Humanos , Hylobatidae/classificação , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Mutação , Filogenia
8.
Am J Primatol ; 79(6)2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28346692

RESUMO

Side biases observed in behavior are thought to reflect underlying asymmetric brain function or hemispheric specialization. Previous work in multiple species identified left side biases (associated with the right hemisphere) for processing social behavior. In highly social species such as primates, many behaviors may be categorized as social, yet differences between such behaviors have not been examined as a test of asymmetric brain function. Using Colombian spider monkeys (Ateles fusciceps rufiventris), we observed lateral positioning during two types of behaviors widely categorized as social affiliative: embracing and grooming, and identified a left bias for embracing, but not grooming. Our findings partially support prior research in hemispheric specialization, but suggest that there may be differences between social behaviors that drive specialization. We discuss these results in light of current theory on hemispheric specialization and highlight differences between embracing and grooming.


Assuntos
Atelinae , Asseio Animal , Comportamento Social , Animais , Cebidae , Dominância Cerebral , Lateralidade Funcional
9.
Am J Primatol ; 79(1): 1-7, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26713770

RESUMO

Social housing has often been recommended as one-way to address the psychological well-being of captive non-human primates. Published reports have examined methods to socialize compatible animals by forming pairs or groups. Successful socialization rates vary depending on the species, gender, and environment. This study presents a retrospective look at pairing attempts in two species of owl monkeys, Aotus nancymaae and A. azarae, which live in monogamous pairs in the wild. The results of 477 pairing attempt conducted with captive, laboratory housed owl monkeys and 61 hr of behavioral observations are reported here. The greatest success pairing these owl monkeys occurred with opposite sex pairs, with an 82% success rate. Opposite sex pairs were more successful when females were older than males. Female-female pairs were more successful than male-male (MM) pairs (62% vs 40%). Successful pairs stayed together between 3 and 7 years before the animals were separated due to social incompatibility. Vigilance, eating, and sleeping during introductions significantly predicted success, as did the performance of the same behavior in both animals. The results of this analysis show that it is possible to give captive owl monkeys a social alternative even if species appropriate social partners (i.e., opposite sex partners) are not available. The focus of this report is a description of one potential way to enhance the welfare of a specific new world primate, the owl monkey, under laboratory conditions. More important is how the species typical social structure of owl monkeys in nature affects the captive management of this genus. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22521, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Aotidae , Ligação do Par , Socialização , Animais , Cebidae , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comportamento Social
10.
Am J Primatol ; 79(3): 1-11, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27869316

RESUMO

Pitheciids, one of the major radiations of New World monkeys endemic to South and Central America, are distributed in the Amazon and Orinoco basins, and include Callicebus, Cacajao, Chiropotes, and Pithecia. Molecular phylogenetics strongly support pitheciid monophyly, whereas morphological analyses infer a range of phylogenies including a sister relationship between Aotus and Callicebus. We collected geometric morphometric cranial data from pitheciids and Aotus, and used cranial data for distance-based phylogenetic analysis and tests of phylogenetic signal. Phylogenetic analyses of pitheciids were repeated with Lagothrix, Callimico, and Saimiri outgroups for Procrustes shape with and without Aotus based on the whole cranium and six anatomical regions. All phylogenetic signal tests were significant, and tree lengths were shortest and had the least morphological change over the phylogeny for Procrustes residuals from the cranial base and palate. The majority of phylogenetic analyses of Procrustes shape for pitheciids without Aotus supported the molecular phylogeny, and with Aotus included the majority inferred an Aotus-Callicebus clade, although three analyses with Callimico as outgroup supported the molecular phylogeny. The morphological similarity of Aotus and Callicebus is likely a mix of plesiomorphy, allometry, and homoplasy, and future phylogenetic inference of living and extinct platyrrhine taxa should consider the impact of these factors alongside outgroup selection and cranial region.


Assuntos
Cebidae , Filogenia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Animais , América Central , Pitheciidae , Platirrinos
11.
Am J Primatol ; 78(8): 851-60, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27078687

RESUMO

Assessing manual lateralization in non-human primates could be an optimal way to understand the adaptive value of this asymmetry in humans. Though many studies have investigated hand preferences in Old and New World monkeys and apes, fewer studies have considered manual lateralization in strepsirrhines, especially in experimental tasks. This study investigated hand preferences for a unimanual and a bimanual task of 17 captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), housed at Parco Natura Viva (VR), Italy. The effect of age on handedness has been also investigated. The lemurs were tested on a unimanual task, in which subjects were restricted to using one hand to retrieve the food inside an apparatus, and on a bimanual task, in which lemurs had to use one hand to keep the apparatus door open while reaching with the other hand to retrieve the food inside it. At the population-level, our results revealed an asymmetrical hand use distribution, in particular a bias toward a right hand preference for food reaching in both the unimanual and the bimanual tasks. Furthermore, at the individual-level, the bimanual task seems to elicit a greater hand preference than the unimanual task. Results of this study underline the importance of experimental tasks in determining hand preference in strepsirrhines. Furthermore, as bimanual tasks elicited a stronger degree of lateralization, they appear to be more suited to investigate manual laterality. Finally, findings from this study highlight the presence of a right hand preference in ring-tailed lemurs, shedding new light on the evolution of human right handedness. Am. J. Primatol. 78:851-860, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional , Lemur , Animais , Cebidae , Mãos , Lemuridae
12.
Nature ; 533(7602): 243-6, 2016 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27096364

RESUMO

New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are a diverse part of modern tropical ecosystems in North and South America, yet their early evolutionary history in the tropics is largely unknown. Molecular divergence estimates suggest that primates arrived in tropical Central America, the southern-most extent of the North American landmass, with several dispersals from South America starting with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama 3-4 million years ago (Ma). The complete absence of primate fossils from Central America has, however, limited our understanding of their history in the New World. Here we present the first description of a fossil monkey recovered from the North American landmass, the oldest known crown platyrrhine, from a precisely dated 20.9-Ma layer in the Las Cascadas Formation in the Panama Canal Basin, Panama. This discovery suggests that family-level diversification of extant New World monkeys occurred in the tropics, with new divergence estimates for Cebidae between 22 and 25 Ma, and provides the oldest fossil evidence for mammalian interchange between South and North America. The timing is consistent with recent tectonic reconstructions of a relatively narrow Central American Seaway in the early Miocene epoch, coincident with over-water dispersals inferred for many other groups of animals and plants. Discovery of an early Miocene primate in Panama provides evidence for a circum-Caribbean tropical distribution of New World monkeys by this time, with ocean barriers not wholly restricting their northward movements, requiring a complex set of ecological factors to explain their absence in well-sampled similarly aged localities at higher latitudes of North America.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Fósseis , Platirrinos , Clima Tropical , Animais , Região do Caribe , Cebidae , Florestas , História Antiga , América do Norte , Oceanos e Mares , Panamá , Filogenia , Platirrinos/anatomia & histologia , Platirrinos/classificação
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26577193

RESUMO

Little is known about the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas in nonhuman primates (NHP). The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of and assess the phylogenetic position of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasma species infecting neotropical NHP from Brazilian Amazon. From 2009 to 2013, a total of 98 blood samples from NHP belonging to the Family Cebidae were collected in the island of São Luís, state of Maranhão, of which 87 NHP were from Wild Animal Screening Center (CETAS) in the municipality of São Luís, and 11 (9 Sapajus sp. and 2 Saimiri sciureus) were from NHP caught in the Sítio Aguahy Private Reserve. DNA samples were screened by previously described PCR protocols for amplifying Bartonella spp. and Mycoplasma spp. based on nuoG, gltA and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. Purified amplicons were submitted to sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Bacteremia with one or more Bartonella spp. was not detected in NHP. Conversely, 35 NHP were PCR positive to Mycoplasma spp. The Blastn analysis of seven positive randomly selected sequencing products showed percentage of identity ranging from 95% to 99% with other primates hemoplasmas. The Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analysis based on a 1510 bp of 16S rRNA gene showed the presence of two distinct clusters, positioned within Mycoplasma haemofelis and Mycoplasma suis groups. The phylogenetic assessment suggests the presence of a novel hemoplasma species in NHP from the Brazilian Amazon.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/genética , Cebidae/microbiologia , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/veterinária , Bartonella/classificação , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Genes de RNAr , Doenças dos Macacos/microbiologia , Mycoplasma/classificação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/sangue , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Clima Tropical
14.
Zoolog Sci ; 32(1): 97-104, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25660702

RESUMO

Sapajus apella is a wild monkey of South America distributed across almost all of Brazil. This species adapts to domesticated life and reproduces easily. The present study describes the macro- and microscopic morphology of male genital organs (penis, penis bone, glans penis, prepuce, bulb of penis, and urethra) of Sapajus apella. Four male monkeys were used in this study. For macroscopic description, the genitals were dissected, examined and photographed. For microscopic analysis, samples were stained by HE and Tricom Masson and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. The penis has a gutter shape with numerous spines on the free part of the penis and glans, and showed cavernous body elements in which mesenchymal cells appear. The glans penis is well developed with a broad crown shape. The prepuce does not cover the free part of the penis. The bulb displays well-developed muscle structure and the membranous urethra is very elongated. These results reveal that Sapajus apella shows specific male genital features, different from other primates.


Assuntos
Cebidae/anatomia & histologia , Genitália Masculina/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Masculino
16.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 298(1): 212-29, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25529242

RESUMO

Three-dimensional geometric morphometrics (3DGM) is a powerful tool for capturing and visualizing the "pure" shape of complex structures. However, these shape differences are sometimes difficult to interpret from a functional viewpoint, unless specific approaches (mostly based on biomechanical modeling) are employed. Here, we use 3DGM to explore the complex shape variation of the hamate, the disto-ulnar wrist bone, in anthropoid primates. Major trends of shape variation are explored using principal components analysis along with analyses of shape and size covariation. We also evaluate the phylogenetic patterning of hamate shape by plotting an anthropoid phylogenetic tree onto the shape space (i.e., phylomorphospace) and test against complete absence of phylogenetic signal using posterior permutation. Finally, the covariation of hamate shape and locomotor categories is explored by means of 2-block partial least squares (PLS) using shape coordinates and a matrix of data on arboreal locomotor behavior. Our results show that 3DGM is a valuable and versatile tool for characterizing the shape of complex structures such as wrist bones in anthropoids. For the hamate, a significant phylogenetic pattern is found in both hamate shape and size, indicating that closely related taxa are typically the most similar in hamate form. Our allometric analyses show that major differences in hamate shape among taxa are not a direct consequence of differences in hamate size. Finally, our PLS indicates a significant covariation of hamate shape and different types of arboreal locomotion, highlighting the relevance of this approach in future 3DGM studies seeking to capture a functional signal from complex biological structures.


Assuntos
Hamato/anatomia & histologia , Hamato/fisiologia , Haplorrinos/anatomia & histologia , Haplorrinos/fisiologia , Matemática , Filogenia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Cebidae , Hominidae , Humanos , Hylobates , Imageamento Tridimensional , Locomoção/fisiologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Punho/anatomia & histologia , Punho/fisiologia
17.
Am J Primatol ; 77(4): 368-75, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25387886

RESUMO

Three families of New World monkeys, the Pitheciidae, Atelidae, and Cebidae, are currently recognized. The monophyly of the Cebidae is supported unequivocally by the presence of ten unique Alu elements, which are absent from the other two families. In this paper, the five genomic regions containing these Alu elements were sequenced in specimens representing nine capuchin (Cebus, Sapajus) species in order to identify mutations that may help elucidate the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the cebids. The results confirmed the presence of previously described Alu elements in the capuchins. An Alu insertion present in the Cebidae2 genomic region belonging to the AluSc subfamily was amplified and sequenced only in Sapajus. No amplified or unspecific product was obtained for all other species studied here. An AluSc insertion present in the CeSa1 region was found only in Cebus, Sapajus, and Saimiri. Cebidae4 was characterized by two insertions, an AluSz6 shared by all cebids, and a complete SINE (AluSx3) found only in the capuchins (Cebus and Sapajus). The genomic region Cebidae5 revealed two insertion events, one of the AluSx subfamily, which was shared by all cebids, and another (AluSc8), that was unique to Cebus, offering a straightforward criterion for the differentiation of the two genera, Cebus and Sapajus. The Cebidae6 region showed four distinct insertion events: a 52-bp simple repeat ((TATG) n), two very ancient repeats (MIRc) and a TcMar-Tigger shared by all New World monkeys studied so far, and an Alu insertion of the AluSx subfamily present exclusively in the cebids. The phylogenetic tree confirmed the division of the capuchins into two genera, Cebus and Sapajus, and suggested the southern species Sapajus nigritus robustus and S. cay as the earliest and second earliest offshoots in this genus, respectively. This supports a southern origin for the Sapajus radiation.


Assuntos
Cebidae/classificação , Cebidae/genética , Elementos Alu , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 298(1): 29-47, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25339421

RESUMO

Cranial and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) form has been shown to reflect masticatory forces and mandibular range of motion, which vary in relation to feeding strategy. Similarly, the dentition, as the portion of the masticatory apparatus most directly involved in triturating food items, strongly reflects dietary profile. Fine control over condylar and mandibular movements guides the teeth into occlusion, while the topography and position of the dental arcade mediate mandibular movements. We hypothesize that masticatory, and particularly TMJ, morphology and dental form covary in predictable ways with one another and with diet. We employed three-dimensional geometric morphometric techniques to examine inter-specific variation in ten platyrrhine species. Landmarks were collected on six datasets describing the upper and lower molars, cranium, glenoid fossa, mandible, and mandibular condyle; two-block partial least squares analyses were performed to assess covariation between cranial morphology, dentition, and diet. Significant relationships were identified between the molars and the cranium, mandible, and glenoid fossa. Some of these shape complexes reflect feeding strategy; for example, higher crowned/cusped dentitions, as found in primates consuming larger quantities of structural carbohydrates (e.g., Alouatta and Saimiri), correspond to anteroposterior longer and deeper glenoid fossae. These results indicate strong covariance between dental and TMJ form, aspects of which are related to feeding behavior. However, other aspects of morphological variation display a strong phylogenetic signal; we must therefore examine further ways in which to control for phylogeny when examining covariation in interspecific masticatory form.


Assuntos
Cebidae/anatomia & histologia , Cebidae/fisiologia , Matemática , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/fisiologia , Articulação Temporomandibular/anatomia & histologia , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Alimentos/classificação , Masculino , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Mastigação/fisiologia , Filogenia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Articulação Temporomandibular/fisiologia , Dente/fisiologia
19.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(supl.1): 29-33, dez. 2014. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | ID: lil-778350

RESUMO

Com este estudo objetivou-se descrever a topografia do cone medular do macaco-prego (Sapajus libidinosus) a fim de fornecer suporte para que a realização de procedimentos anestésicos, bem como exames de mielografia e coleta de líquor, dentre outros procedimentos que utilizam a via epidural. Para tanto foram dissecados oito animais, sendo seis machos e duas fêmeas, de diferentes faixas etárias. Rebateu-se a pele para retirada da musculatura da região dorsal, exposição de toda a coluna vertebral e identificação das vértebras lombares e sacrais. Para estabelecer o final da medula espinhal e medir o comprimento do cone medular, foi aberto todo o canal vertebral lombossacro, seccionando-se lateralmente os arcos vertebrais. Em seguida a duramáter foi seccionada para visualização do cone medular e observação da relação topográfica deste com as vértebras. Todos os animais apresentaram cinco vértebras lombares e três vértebras sacrais. As vértebras se apresentaram, de forma geral, muito próximas e com os processos espinhosos bem desenvolvidos e direcionados em sentido cranial. O cone medular dos macacos-prego situou-se entre as vértebras L2 e L5, com a base localizando-se com maior frequência na altura da vértebra L3, enquanto o ápice em L4. O comprimento corporal (espaço interarcual occiptoatlântico até o espaço interarcual sacrocaudal) variou de 22,9 a 31,8cm, com média de 27,44 ±3,1cm enquanto que comprimento do cone medular variou de 1,70 a 3,51cm, com média de 2,47 ±0,57cm. Não houve correlação entre o tamanho do corpo e o comprimento do cone medular (r = 0,212). Conclui-se que apesar das variações do comprimento e posicionamento do cone medular, o seu ápice não ultrapassa a articulação lombossacral, tornando seguro o acesso ao espaço epidural por esta via.(AU)


This study aimed to describe the topography of the conus of capuchin monkey (Sapajus libidinosus) to provide support for anesthetic procedures, as well as examinations of myelography and CSF collection, among other procedures using the epidural route. Eight animals were dissected, six males and two females, of different ages. The skin was countered for removal of the dorsal musculature for exposure of the entire spine and identification of the lumbar and sacral vertebrae. To establish the end of the spinal cord and to measure the length of the conus medullaris, we opened the lumbosacral spinal canal through side section of the vertebral arches. The dura mater was sectioned to visualize the conus and to observe the topographical relation with the vertebrae. All animals showed five lumbar vertebrae and three sacral vertebrae. The vertebrae were in general very closed with the spinous processes well developed and directed cranially. The conus of capuchin monkeys was located between the L2 and L5 vertebrae, with the base mostly in the L3 vertebra, and the peak in L4. The body length (interarcual space occiptoatlântico until sacrocaudal interarcual space) ranged from 22.9 to 31.8cm, with a mean of 27.44±3.1cm while the medullary cone length ranged from 1.70 to 3.51cm, with a mean of 2.47±0.57cm. There was no correlation between body size and length of the medullary cone (r=0.212). It is concluded that despite the variations in length and positioning of the medullary cone, its height does not exceed the lumbosacral joint, making safe access to the epidural space in this way.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cebidae/anatomia & histologia , Espaço Epidural , Medula Cervical/anatomia & histologia , Anestesia Epidural/métodos , Esqueleto/patologia
20.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 153(1): 29-44, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24318939

RESUMO

Dental topographic analysis is the quantitative assessment of shape of three-dimensional models of tooth crowns and component features. Molar topographic curvature, relief, and complexity correlate with aspects of feeding behavior in certain living primates, and have been employed to investigate dietary ecology in extant and extinct primate species. This study investigates whether dental topography correlates with diet among a diverse sample of living platyrrhines, and compares platyrrhine topography with that of prosimians. We sampled 111 lower second molars of 11 platyrrhine genera and 121 of 20 prosimian genera. For each tooth we calculated Dirichlet normal energy (DNE), relief index (RFI), and orientation patch count (OPCR), quantifying surface curvature, relief, and complexity respectively. Shearing ratios and quotients were also measured. Statistical analyses partitioned effects of diet and taxon on topography in platyrrhines alone and relative to prosimians. Discriminant function analyses assessed predictive diet models. Results indicate that platyrrhine dental topography correlates to dietary preference, and platyrrhine-only predictive models yield high rates of accuracy. The same is true for prosimians. Topographic variance is broadly similar among platyrrhines and prosimians. One exception is that platyrrhines display higher average relief and lower relief variance, possibly related to lower relative molar size and functional links between relief and tooth longevity distinct from curvature or complexity. Explicitly incorporating phylogenetic distance matrices into statistical analyses of the combined platyrrhine-prosimian sample results in loss of significance of dietary effects for OPCR and SQ, while greatly increasing dietary significance of RFI.


Assuntos
Cebidae/anatomia & histologia , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Strepsirhini/anatomia & histologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Antropologia Física , Dieta , Ecologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Odontometria , Filogenia
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