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1.
J Med Primatol ; 51(1): 3-19, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-human primates can present oral diseases. However, differences among the dentition of the various species make it difficult to understand their dental features and associated diseases. This research hypothesizes that the prevalence of dental disorders varies in the species studied according to distinct types of diet. METHODS: Forty-five syncraniums of the species Alouatta caraya, Alouatta guariba clamitans, Sapajus nigritus, Callithrix jacchus, and Callithrix penicillata were evaluated by visual inspection, magnifying glasses, and on cone-beam computed tomography. RESULTS: Disorders identified consisted of missing teeth before death, agenesis, dental calculus, dental wear, dental staining, dental fracture, exposure of pulp chamber, alveolar bone resorption, tooth discoloration, and persistence of deciduous teeth. Alouatta guariba clamitans presented the most disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that neotropical primates have a high prevalence of dental changes, even in free-living conditions, and that the differences observed among them may be associated with different diet patterns.


Assuntos
Alouatta , Cebinae , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Callithrix , Prevalência , Crânio
2.
Microb Ecol ; 83(4): 886-898, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245330

RESUMO

The intensification of biological processes coping with salt stress became a major issue to mitigate land degradation. The Sine-Saloum Delta in Senegal is characterized by salt-affected soils with vegetation dominated by salt-tolerant grass Sporobolus robustus and shrubs like Prosopis juliflora. Plant experiments in controlled conditions suggested that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi might be the key actors of facilitation process observed between S. robustus and P. juliflora, but the AM fungal community determinants are largely unknown. The current field-based study aimed at (1) characterizing the environmental drivers (rhizosphere physico-chemical properties, plant type and season) of the AM fungal community along an environmental gradient and (2) identifying the AM fungal taxa that might explain the S. robustus-mediated benefits to P. juliflora. Glomeraceae predominated in the two plants, but a higher richness was observed for S. robustus. The pH and salinity were the main drivers of AM fungal community associated with the two plants, negatively impacting richness and diversity. However, while a negative impact was also observed on mycorrhizal colonization for S. robustus, P. juliflora showed opposite colonization patterns. Furthermore, no change was observed in terms of AM fungal community dissimilarity between the two plants along the environmental gradient as would be expected according to the stress-gradient and complementary hypotheses when a facilitation process occurs. However, changes in intraspecific diversity of shared AM fungal community between the two plants were observed, highlighting 23 AM fungal OTUs associated with both plants and the highest salinity levels. Consequently, the increase of their abundance and frequency along the environmental gradient might suggest their potential role in the facilitation process that can take place between the two plants. Their use in ecological engineering could also represent promising avenues for improving vegetation restoration in saline Senegalese's lands.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Prosopis , Cebinae , Plantas/microbiologia , Poaceae/microbiologia , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
4.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 92(3): 151-163, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350867

RESUMO

Vocal communication is an essential aspect of primate social behaviour. The bearded capuchin Sapajus libidinosus is endemic to Brazil, and some studies have described specific vocalisation types for this species; however, there is still no complete description of its vocal repertoire. Thus, this study aimed to describe the vocal repertoire of a group of S. libidinosus living in theParque Nacional de Brasília, a protected area in the Cerrado area of Central Brazil. We carried out focal samplings and recording of vocalisations of members of an S. libidinosus troop in different behavioural contexts. The call analyses revealed 25 different types of vocalisations, and each call presented significant structural variation. We grouped these vocalisations according to the context of the emission or acoustic structure into the following categories: contact calls (contact note, infant babbling, trill, teeth- and lip-smacking, and sirena); foraging calls (chihui, grgr, and patinado); whistle series (food-associated, long-distance, and intergroup encounter); aggressive calls (aggressive contact note, ascending rapid staccato, cough cough, and pip); calls in response to aggression (scream, squeal, and pulsed scream), sexual display calls (chuck and raspy oestrous call), and stress-related calls (alarm call/bark, hiccup, hip, double hip, and wah wah). S. libidinosus presented a very rich vocal repertoire, revealing a pattern consistent with the repertoire of other capuchin monkey species. This is the first comprehensive description of the S. libidinosus vocal repertoire and highlights the complexity of neotropical primate communication.


Assuntos
Cebinae/psicologia , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino
6.
Primates ; 62(5): 789-799, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176033

RESUMO

Variation in group spread can affect communication between individuals, synchrony of activity and collective decision-making. Most studies have measured this variation in large time scales, but the variables that influence group spread change as the social unit ranges over different areas throughout the day. Thus, our aim was to analyze the diurnal variation in group spread of a group of black capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus) inhabiting an area within the southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest, the Carlos Botelho State Park. We measured group spread as the distance between the coordinates of the location of the two most distant group members every 5 min during entire days. Using time series analysis, we found that the group spread varied within short periods of time (15 min) throughout the day, revolving around the average group spread distance of 36 m. Group members tended to decrease the interindividual distance over time when they were more than 36 m apart, and to increase the distance when they were at a distance of less than 36 m. In addition, group spread was higher when monkeys were eating fruit than during other activities. We conclude that the variation in group spread may reflect competition for discrete food resources and that increasing cohesion several times throughout the day can be a way of resuming social contact between individuals.


Assuntos
Cebinae , Cebus , Animais , Florestas , Haplorrinos , Sapajus
7.
Am J Primatol ; 83(5): e23251, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666265

RESUMO

Tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) are the only Neotropical Primates that regularly use tools in the wild, but only one population of bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) is known to habitually use sticks as probes. In this population, males are typically the only sex to use stick tools, something unexpected, since there are no obvious physical constraints, and females do use stone tools in the wild and sticks in experimental conditions. We investigated the development of probe tool use in eight infants to clarify whether social influences on learning varied between the sexes, as tool use learning by capuchin monkeys is a socially biased process. We found that in the first 10 months of age, females manipulate sticks as much as males, but after 10-12 months of age, males begin to manipulate them at higher frequencies. We examined if social connections-as opportunities for social learning-could explain this difference and verified that, on close distance social networks, infant males and females have similar connections with older males. However, males observe probe tool use events more often than females when close to such events. The higher frequency of manipulation of sticks, as well as the higher rates of probe tool use observation, appear to be the key to understand why only males are probe tool users in this population. Since there are only male potential models of probe use, a sex motivational bias could explain the sex difference in observation; a bias in observation could explain the differences in manipulation-and manipulation rates would certainly influence the chances of individual, trial-and-error learning (a case of "local/stimulus enhancement").


Assuntos
Cebinae , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas , Animais , Cebus , Feminino , Masculino , Sapajus apella , Caracteres Sexuais
8.
Primates ; 62(3): 463-466, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772692

RESUMO

We describe predation on an adult rodent rock cavy and sharing of the carcass by a group of male bearded capuchins. Despite many studies, such an interaction has never been observed in bearded capuchins. Rock cavies are large rodents weighing around 25% of the weight of an adult male bearded capuchin. The capuchins chased, caught, and shared the adult rock cavy. We observed no strong evidence of communication or division of roles in the successful capture, suggesting that the social hunting episode was not necessarily coordinated or collaborative. Instead, the individuals apparently tried to achieve the same goal of capturing the prey simultaneously (i.e., individuals synchronously performed similar actions to achieve the task), with the strongest individual emerging victorious and tolerating prey sharing afterwards. Our observations add to the understanding of cooperative behaviours such as social hunting and food sharing in bearded capuchins.


Assuntos
Cebinae , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Cebus , Alimentos , Cobaias , Masculino
9.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1819): 20190675, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423633

RESUMO

Non-human primates evaluate choices based on quantitative information and subjective valuation of options. Non-human primates can learn to value tokens as placeholders for primary rewards (such as food). With those tokens established as a potential form of 'currency', it is then possible to examine how they respond to opportunities to earn and use tokens in ways such as accumulating tokens or exchanging tokens with each other or with human experimenters to gain primary rewards. Sometimes, individuals make efficient and beneficial choices to obtain tokens and then exchange them at the right moments to gain optimal reward. Sometimes, they even accumulate such rewards through extended delay of gratification, or through other exchange-based interactions. Thus, non-human primates are capable of associating value to arbitrary tokens that may function as currency-like stimuli, but there also are strong limitations on how non-human primates can integrate such tokens into choice situations or use such tokens to fully 'symbolize' economic decision-making. These limitations are important to acknowledge when considering the evolutionary emergence of currency use in our species. This article is part of the theme issue 'Existence and prevalence of economic behaviours among non-human primates'.


Assuntos
Cebinae/psicologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Aprendizagem , Macaca/psicologia , Pan troglodytes/psicologia , Recompensa , Animais , Evolução Biológica
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(2): e20190802, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470383

RESUMO

Natural Sapajus libidinosus populations are in continuous decline due to fragmentation, habitat loss, and the illegal pet trade. They live in Caatinga scrub forests, which already lost over 50% of their original cover. The lack of studies on S. libidinosus population genetics means that we do not know how they are being affected by this striking habitat loss and other anthropogenic disturbances. Polymorphic markers are not available for the study of S. libidinosus diversity and population genetics. Thus, here we aimed to test the transferability of 14 microsatellite markers to S. libidinosus. These microsatellites were previously isolated from Cebus capucinus (white-faced capuchin), species belonging to the same subfamily (Cebinae) as the study species. We found that six of the tested microsatellite markers (tetra-nucleotide) were cross-amplified in our target species. All loci were polymorphic. The number of alleles varied from 4 to 7, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.588 to 0.869. The microsatellite markers transferred to S. libidinosus and characterised in our study will be valuable tools to evaluate the genetic variability of both wild and captive populations. They will considerably reduce the costs of microsatellite isolations, helping to prioritise currently limited research and conservation budgets in Brazil.


Assuntos
Cebinae , Animais , Brasil , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Filipinas
11.
J Med Primatol ; 50(1): 3-8, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is an important anthropozoonosis. The study investigated the presence of anti-Leptospira antibodies and detection of Leptospira spp DNA in the urine as well as the biochemical profile in Neotropical wild primates living in a forest reserve from Southeast São Paulo State, Brazil. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 50 adult tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus). Urine samples were obtained only from male primates. The screening for antibodies against Leptospira spp was evaluated by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Leptospira DNA in the urine was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) considering the target gene LipL32. Biochemical profile was evaluated by using a spectrophotometer. RESULTS: The MAT results included 39 (78%) serum reactive animals with the proportions of 28/39 males and 11/39 females. The most frequent reactive serogroups were Icterohemorrhagiae, Canicola, and Autumnalis. All urine samples were negative for leptospiral DNA. There were no significant differences between sexes for aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase values, but alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, glucose, and urea were significantly higher in males. CONCLUSIONS: Tufted capuchin monkeys were sera reactive against leptospirosis. Prevalence was similar for the 2 sexes. Leptospiral DNA was not detected in the urine of sera reactive primates tested by the MAT method. ALT, creatinine, glucose, and urea values were higher in male animals.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Cebinae , DNA Bacteriano/urina , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Rim/microbiologia , Rim/patologia , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Fígado/microbiologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Doenças dos Macacos/microbiologia , Sapajus
12.
J Med Primatol ; 50(1): 29-35, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of study was to evaluate the efficacy of the supraclavicular brachial plexus block technique in Sapajus libidinosus. METHODS: Were used eight animals, which were sedated, anesthetized, kept under hypnosis, and submitted to plexus block using a neurolocalizer. The physiological parameters, the nociception and response threshold (mA), were evaluated before and after the block. The response to electrical stimulation and cutaneous sensitivity were evaluated. The groups were compared by the Tukey or Friedman test at 5%. RESULTS: The technique promoted blockage of the plexus, and movement of the thoracic limb in response to electrical stimulation decreased after 10 minutes. The applied milliampere increased after 5 minutes. The cutaneous sensitivity reflex decreased. The average time of return of spontaneous limb movement exceeded 50 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: The use of 5mg/kg of lidocaine 2% promoted loss of cutaneous sensitivity and limb muscle relaxation during the evaluation period.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial/métodos , Plexo Braquial/efeitos dos fármacos , Cebinae , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Animais , Masculino
13.
Dev Sci ; 24(4): e13077, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342007

RESUMO

Self-directed object manipulation tasks illuminate development of motor planning. Grasping strategies that lead to good object control to perform the following action(s) reveal second-order motor planning. Motor planning for efficient grips develops slowly in children. Age-related differences in other primates have been poorly investigated. Here, we investigated anticipatory motor planning of infant, juvenile and adult wild capuchin monkeys grasping a horizontally positioned stick baited to the left or right side (a version of the elevated spoon task). We recorded the grasps capuchins used to bring the baited end of the stick to the mouth. The percentage of efficient radial grips positively correlated with age and adults used efficient grips significantly more frequently than infants. Adult wild capuchins' use of radial grips was higher than that reported for adult captive capuchins in similar tasks, suggesting that experience throughout life may influence motor anticipation. Self-directed object manipulation tasks will be useful to compare this aspect of cognition across primates. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at https://youtu.be/a1Zbr_AQkb8.


Assuntos
Cebinae , Cebus , Animais , Força da Mão , Haplorrinos , Humanos
14.
Am J Primatol ; 83(1): e23221, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300618

RESUMO

Tool use in humans can be optional, that is, the same person can use different tools or no tool to achieve a given goal. Strategies to reach the same goal may differ across individuals and cultures and at the intra-individual level. This is the first experimental study at the intra-individual level on the optional use of a tool in wild nonhuman primates. We investigated optional tool use by wild bearded capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus) of Fazenda Boa Vista (FBV; Piauí, Brazil). These monkeys habitually succeed in cracking open the mesocarp of dry cashew nuts (Anacardium spp.) by pounding them with stones and/or by biting. We assessed whether availability of a stone and resistance of the nut affected capuchins' choice to pound or to bite the nuts and their rates of success. Sixteen capuchins (1-16 years) received small and large dry cashew nuts by an anvil together with a stone (Stone condition) or without a stone (No-Stone condition). In the Stone conditions, subjects used it to crack the nut in 89.1% (large nuts) and 90.1% (small nut) of the trials. Nut size significantly affected the number of strikes used to open it. Availability of the stone significantly increased the average percent of success. In the No-Stone conditions, monkeys searched for and used other percussors to crack the nuts in 54% of trials. In all conditions, age affects percentage of success and number of strikes to reach success. We argue that exclusive use of stones in other sites may be due to the higher abundance of stones at these sites compared with FBV. Since capuchins opened cashews with a tool 1-2 years earlier than they succeed at cracking more resistant palm nuts, we suggest that success at opening cashew nuts with percussors may support the monkeys' persistent efforts to crack palm nuts.


Assuntos
Anacardium , Cebinae/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Nozes , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20850, 2020 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257755

RESUMO

The biomechanical and adaptive significance of variation in craniodental and mandibular morphology in fossil hominins is not always clear, at least in part because of a poor understanding of how different feeding behaviors impact feeding system design (form-function relationships). While laboratory studies suggest that ingestive behaviors produce variable loading, stress, and strain regimes in the cranium and mandible, understanding the relative importance of these behaviors for feeding system design requires data on their use in wild populations. Here we assess the frequencies and durations of manual, ingestive, and masticatory behaviors from more than 1400 observations of feeding behaviors video-recorded in a wild population of bearded capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus) at Fazenda Boa Vista in Piauí, Brazil. Our results suggest that ingestive behaviors in wild Sapajus libidinosus were used for a range of food material properties and typically performed using the anterior dentition. Coupled with previous laboratory work indicating that ingestive behaviors are associated with higher mandibular strain magnitudes than mastication, these results suggest that ingestive behaviors may play an important role in craniodental and mandibular design in capuchins and may be reflected in robust adaptations in fossil hominins.


Assuntos
Cebinae/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Mastigação/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Antropologia Física/métodos , Evolução Biológica , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Mandíbula/fisiologia
16.
Braz J Microbiol ; 51(4): 1941-1951, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780265

RESUMO

Sapajus nigritus are non-human primates which are widespread in South America. They are omnivores and live in troops of up to 40 individuals. The oral cavity is one of the main entry routes for microorganisms, including viruses. Our study proposed the identification of viral sequences from oral swabs collected in a group of capuchin monkeys (n = 5) living in a public park in a fragment of Mata Atlantica in South Brazil. Samples were submitted to nucleic acid extraction and enrichment, which was followed by the construction of libraries. After high-throughput sequencing and contig assembly, we used a pipeline to identify 11 viral families, which are Herpesviridae, Parvoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Polyomaviridae, Caulimoviridae, Iridoviridae, Astroviridae, Poxviridae, and Baculoviridae, in addition to two complete viral genomes of Anelloviridae and Genomoviridae. Some of these viruses were closely related to known viruses, while other fragments are more distantly related, with 50% of identity or less to the currently available virus sequences in databases. In addition to host-related viruses, insect and small vertebrate-related viruses were also found, as well as plant-related viruses, bringing insights about their diet. In conclusion, this viral metagenomic analysis reveals, for the first time, the profile of viruses in the oral cavity of wild, free ranging capuchin monkeys.


Assuntos
Cebinae/virologia , Variação Genética , Boca/virologia , Vírus/classificação , Animais , Brasil , Genoma Viral , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Filogenia , Sapajus , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
17.
Braz J Microbiol ; 51(4): 2169-2173, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696420

RESUMO

Tuberculosis is a common zooanthroponosis in humans with a high incidence in Brazil, but it may also affect non-human primates (NHPs), of which Old World primates are most commonly involved. Nonetheless, its occurrence in New World primates is unknown, and therefore, this study aimed to describe the infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis variant tuberculosis in two captive black capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus) in Southern Brazil. The primates were housed in the same enclosure, wherein close contact with humans frequently occurred, and presented apathy, anorexia, and death in a clinical course of 15 days to 2 months. At the necropsy, the tracheobronchial lymph nodes were markedly enlarged and firm to hard and on the cut surface had a caseous aspect. The lungs exhibited two injury patterns: multifocal and disseminated. Microscopically, the lungs exhibited multifocal to coalescing necrotic granulomas and non-necrotic granulomas, with multiple acid-fast bacilli within the cytoplasm of epithelioid macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. Bacilli were also labeled upon immunohistochemistry (IHC) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Microbiological culture of lung samples from both cases yielded colonies compatible with M. tuberculosis. The isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis var. tuberculosis through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although tuberculosis is poorly described in New World primates, M. tuberculosis var. tuberculosis may cause a highly contagious and progressive disease with high mortality in black capuchin monkeys (S. nigritus).


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/microbiologia , Cebinae/microbiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/classificação , Tuberculose/veterinária , Animais , Brasil , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Sapajus
18.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 34(19): e8856, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526804

RESUMO

RATIONALE: This study analyzes variability in the diets of wild bearded capuchin monkeys, Sapajus libidinosus, by analyzing stable carbon (δ13 C) and nitrogen (δ15 N) isotope ratios and elemental concentrations (%C and %N) of fecal samples and food items. Developing isotopic and elemental correlates for diets of habituated subjects is a necessary step towards applying similar methods to interpret diets of unhabituated or cryptic subjects. METHODS: Fecal samples from wild capuchins and their foods were collected at Fazenda Boa Vista, Brazil. Fecal samples from laboratory-housed Sapajus spp. and their foods were analyzed to establish diet-feces offsets for δ13 C, δ15 N, %C, and %N. Samples were dried, powdered, and measured for isotopic and elemental values. A Bayesian mixing model commutes isotopic and elemental data from wild capuchins into likely proportions of different food categories. RESULTS: The captive study shows small diet-feces spaces for Sapajus spp. of -0.8 ± 0.7‰ for δ13 C, -0.2 ± 0.4‰ for δ15 N, -6.1 ± 1.7% for %C, and -1.0 ± 0.6% for %N. The wild study shows omnivorous diets based on C3 , C4 , and CAM plants, and fauna. Subject diets are highly varied within and between days. Fecal data show age-related differences in diet and crop-raiding. There is no consistent isotopic or elemental difference between mothers and infants. CONCLUSIONS: Fecal stable isotope and elemental evidence employed in a Bayesian mixing model reflects the highly varied diets of capuchin monkeys in an isotopically heterogeneous environment. The isotopic and elemental variability reported here will aid similar diet reconstructions among unhabituated subjects in the future, but precludes tracking weaning isotopically among capuchins in this environment.


Assuntos
Cebinae/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Fezes/química , Feminino , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
19.
Am J Primatol ; 82(7): e23156, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458474

RESUMO

Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) habitually use stone hammers to crack open palm nuts and seeds on anvils. This activity requires strength, balance, and precise movement of a large stone with respect to the item placed on an anvil. We explored how well young monkeys cope with these challenges by examining their behavior and the behavior of adults while they cracked palm nuts using a stone. Using video records, we compared actions of six juvenile (2-5 years) and six adult (7+ years) wild monkeys during their first 20 strikes with one unfamiliar ellipsoid, quartzite stone (540 g), and the outcomes of these strikes. Compared with adults, juveniles cracked fewer nuts, performed a more diverse set of exploratory actions, and less frequently placed one or both hands on top of the stone on the downward motion. Adults and juveniles displayed similar low frequencies of striking with a slanted trajectory, missing the nut, and losing control over the nut or stone after striking. These findings indicate that young monkeys control the trajectory of a stone adequately but that is not sufficient to crack nuts as effectively as adults do. Compared with juveniles, adults more quickly perceive how to grip the stone efficiently, and they are able to adjust their grip dynamically during the strike. Young monkeys develop expertise in the latter aspects of cracking nuts over the course of several years of regular practice, indicating that perceptual learning about these aspects of percussion occurs slowly. Juvenile and adult humans learning to use stones to crack nuts also master these features of cracking nuts very slowly.


Assuntos
Cebinae/fisiologia , Comportamento de Utilização de Ferramentas , Arecaceae , Aprendizagem , Nozes , Gravação em Vídeo
20.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 20(7): 513-516, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315580

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile of antimicrobial resistance in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and to detect strains of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in free-living Sapajus nigritus. Oral and rectal swabs were collected from 15 primates to isolate and identify bacteria, conduct phenotypic tests to detect antimicrobial sensitivity and ESBL-producing strains, and calculate the multiple antimicrobial resistance index. The least effective antimicrobial was amoxicillin (72.72%) and ampicillin (57.57%), and the samples were considered as high risk for public health. No sample was positive for ESBL production. The results show that this study is relevant to One Health initiatives, considering the possibility of transmission of bacterial resistance and resistant genes originating from direct or indirect interaction of S. nigritus with parkgoers. However, these animals cannot be considered as the only reservoirs and transmitters of resistant bacteria as they can be contaminated by human-origin bacteria that can be extremely harmful and often prove lethal to them that play an important role in relationship to the ecology, spreading seeds and controlling insects.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cebinae/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Sapajus , beta-Lactamases/genética
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