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1.
Environ Entomol ; 50(5): 1241-1247, 2021 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387308

RESUMO

In most organisms, various physiological and behavioral functions are expressed rhythmically. Previous studies have shown that thermoperiod is an important factor affecting circadian clock-related genes that regulate insect locomotor activity. Bradysia odoriphaga Yang & Zhang is an underground pest that attacks more than 30 crops but is especially damaging to Chinese chives. In this study, we analyzed the adult eclosion time and period (Boper) gene expression in B. odoriphaga as affected by temperature (cycling vs constant temperature), insect stage, and tissue specific. We found that the eclosion time and expression of the Boper gene changed during the temperature cycle but not under a constant temperature. Silencing of Boper expression significantly decreased the adult eclosion rate and significantly increased adult mortality and malformation. The findings indicate that thermoperiod alters Boper expression and regulates the eclosion rhythm.


Assuntos
Cebolinha-Francesa , Dípteros , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Dípteros/genética , Expressão Gênica , Nematóceros , Temperatura
2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9930210, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395628

RESUMO

The present study was aimed at isolating endophytic fungi from the Asian culinary and medicinal plant Lilium davidii and analyzing its antifungal and plant growth-promoting effects. In this study, the fungal endophyte Acremonium sp. Ld-03 was isolated from the bulbs of L. davidii and identified through morphological and molecular analysis. The molecular and morphological analysis confirmed the endophytic fungal strain as Acremonium sp. Ld-03. Antifungal effects of Ld-03 were observed against Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Botryosphaeria dothidea, and Fusarium fujikuroi. The highest growth inhibition, i.e., 78.39 ± 4.21%, was observed for B. dothidea followed by 56.68 ± 4.38%, 43.62 ± 3.81%, and 20.12 ± 2.45% for B. cinerea, F. fujikuroi, and F. oxysporum, respectively. Analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction through UHPLC-LTQ-IT-MS/MS revealed putative secondary metabolites which included xanthurenic acid, valyl aspartic acid, gancidin W, peptides, and cyclic dipeptides such as valylarginine, cyclo-[L-(4-hydroxy-Pro)-L-leu], cyclo(Pro-Phe), and (3S,6S)-3-benzyl-6-(4-hydroxybenzyl)piperazine-2,5-dione. Other metabolites included (S)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-((S)-pyrrolidine-2-carboxamido)propanoic acid, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), 9-octadecenamide, D-erythro-C18-Sphingosine, N-palmitoyl sphinganine, and hydroxypalmitoyl sphinganine. The strain Ld-03 showed indole acetic acid (IAA) production with or without the application of exogenous tryptophan. The IAA ranged from 53.12 ± 3.20 µg ml-1 to 167.71 ± 7.12 µg ml-1 under different tryptophan concentrations. The strain was able to produce siderophore, and its production was significantly decreased with increasing Fe(III) citrate concentrations in the medium. The endophytic fungal strain also showed production of organic acids and phosphate solubilization activity. Plant growth-promoting effects of the strain were evaluated on in vitro seedling growth of Allium tuberosum. Application of 40% culture dilution resulted in a significant increase in root and shoot length, i.e., 24.03 ± 2.71 mm and 37.27 ± 1.86 mm, respectively, compared to nontreated control plants. The fungal endophyte Ld-03 demonstrated the potential of conferring disease resistance and plant growth promotion. Therefore, we conclude that the isolated Acremonium sp. Ld-03 should be further investigated before utilization as a biocontrol agent and plant growth stimulator.


Assuntos
Acremonium/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lilium/microbiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Acetatos/química , Acetatos/farmacologia , Acremonium/isolamento & purificação , Acremonium/fisiologia , Antifúngicos/química , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Cebolinha-Francesa/efeitos dos fármacos , Cebolinha-Francesa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Resistência à Doença , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/fisiologia , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Indolacéticos/química , Ácidos Indolacéticos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Metabolômica/métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/química , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Metabolismo Secundário , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16558, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400673

RESUMO

Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum) is widely cultivated around the world for its unique flavor, nutrient, and medicinal values, yet its molecular mechanism on flavor formation and other metabolic pathways remains intangible. The elucidation of these complex processes begins with investigating the expression of the genes of interest, however the appropriate reference genes (RGs) for normalizing the gene expression are still unavailable in A. tuberosum. To fill this lacuna, transcriptome-wide screening was undertaken to identify the most stable genes according to the analysis of their FPKM values. The expression stability of the RGs was further evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder algorithms. The comprehensive analysis showed that GLY1 and SKP1, instead of two traditionally used RGs (eIF1α and ACT2), were the most stable genes across diverse A. tuberosum tissues, indicating the necessity to carefully validate the stability of RGs prior to their use for normalizations. As indicated by geNorm, the normalizations with at least two RGs could give more accurate results. qRT-PCR experiments were conducted with randomly selected genes, demonstrating that normalization with a combination of GLY1 and SKP1 resulted in reliable normalization results. Our finding represents the first attempt toward establishing a standardized qRT-PCR analysis in this economically important vegetable.


Assuntos
Cebolinha-Francesa/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Transcriptoma , Sequência de Bases , Cebolinha-Francesa/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Padrões de Referência
4.
Ecotoxicology ; 30(6): 1150-1160, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165677

RESUMO

Bradysia odoriphaga is a major insect pest that infests Chinese chive in northern China. Clothianidin is a second-generation neonicotinoid insecticide that is commonly used against B. odoriphaga. In this study, the effect of sublethal clothianidin concentrations (LC5 and LC10) on key biological characteristics of B. odoriphaga was investigated using an age-stage, two-sex life table method. Bioassays results showed that clothianidin exhibited high toxicity against B. odoriphaga with LC50 of 1.898 mg L-1 following 24 h exposure. The developmental duration of larvae was significantly increased when exposed to the LC5 (0.209 mg L-1) and LC10 (0.340 mg L-1) of clothianidin. No significant effects were observed on the pupal stage, adult pre-oviposition period (APOP), total pre-oviposition period (TPOP), and mean longevities of male and female. The oviposition period and fecundity of B. odoriphaga were reduced in clothianidin-treated groups. Moreover, key demographic parameters, including the intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and net reproductive rate (R0), were significantly decreased by the LC5 and LC10 of clothianidin, while no effects were noted on mean generation time (T). Overall, this study showed that sublethal concentrations of clothianidin have a detrimental effect on B. odoriphaga developmental period, fecundity, and life table parameters. Therefore, clothianidin has the potential to suppress the population of B. odoriphaga even at sublethal concentrations.


Assuntos
Cebolinha-Francesa , Dípteros , Inseticidas , Animais , China , Demografia , Feminino , Fertilidade , Guanidinas , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva , Masculino , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Tiazóis
5.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 79(2): 357-361, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057137

RESUMO

Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a genetic disorder characterized by chronic hemolysis and the presence of erythrocytes with low deformability, which may trigger vaso-occlusive crises. We tested the in-vitro effects of aqueous extract of chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.) on erythrocyte deformability of SCA patients. Blood samples from 6 apparently healthy volunteers and 5 SCA patients were collected into heparin coated tubes. Both apparently healthy and SCA patient blood samples were incubated with 80µg/mL chives plant aqueous extract at 37°C for 60 min and erythrocyte deformability was measured by ektacytometry (3 Pa and 30 Pa; 37°C). Results of incubation of apparently healthy blood samples with plant extract showed that incubation did not alter erythrocyte deformability significantly. However, for SCA blood samples, erythrocyte deformability decreased significantly with plant extract exposure at 3 Pa (p < 0.043) and 30 Pa (p < 0.043). In conclusion, although ex-vivo incubation with plant extract does not fully model gastrointestinal processing of onions, the decrease in SCA erythrocyte deformability following incubation with aqueous chives should stimulate further studies to test the in-vivo effects of this diet in sickle cell mice.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Cebolinha-Francesa , Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Deformação Eritrocítica , Eritrócitos , Eritrócitos Anormais , Humanos , Camundongos
6.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 174: 104807, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838708

RESUMO

Two acetylcholinesterase genes (Boace1 and Boace2) were cloned from Bradysia odoriphaga, a devastating soil pest that mainly damages Chinese chives. The Boace1 encodes BoAChE1 protein consisting of 696 amino acid residues, while Boace2 encodes BoAChE2 containing 638 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Boace1 and Boace2 are appeared to be distinct clusters. The gene expression patterns at different development stages and various body parts tissues were examined, and their biological functions were characterized by RNA interference and analog docking prediction. The results showed that both Boace genes were expressed in all developmental stages and examined tissues. The transcript level of Boace2 was significantly higher than Boace1 in all tested samples, and Boace1 was found most abundant in the head while Boace2 was highly expressed in the fat body of B. odoriphaga. The silencing of Boace1 and Boace2 significantly decreased the AChE activity of 36.6% and 14.8% separately, and increased the susceptibility of B. odoriphaga to phoxim, with 60.8% and 44.7% mortality. Besides, overexpression and gene duplication of Boace1 were found in two field resistant populations, and two major mutations, A319S and G400V, were detected in Boace1. Moreover, the docking results revealed that BoAChE1 had a higher affinity towards organophosphorus than BoAChE2. It is concluded that Boace2 is the most abundant ace type in B. odoriphaga, while both Boace play vital roles. Boace1 might play a major neurological function and more likely be the prime target for insecticides, while Boace2 might play some important unidentified roles.


Assuntos
Cebolinha-Francesa , Dípteros , Inseticidas , Acetilcolinesterase/genética , Animais , Dípteros/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Filogenia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669060

RESUMO

Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum) is a medicinal food that is cultivated and consumed mainly in Asian countries. Its various phytochemicals and physiological effects have been reported, but only a few phytochemicals are available for skeletal muscle cell proliferation. Herein, we isolated a new compound, kaempferol-3-O-(6″-feruloyl)-sophoroside (1), along with one known flavonoid glycoside (2) and six amino acid (3-8) compounds from the water-soluble fraction of the shoot of the Chinese chive. The isolated compounds were identified using extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR, and evaluated for their proliferation activity on skeletal muscle cells. Among the tested compounds, newly isolated flavonoid (1) and 5-aminouridine (7) up-regulated PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways, which implies a positive effect on skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. In particular, compound 1 down-regulated the Smad pathways, which are negative regulators of skeletal muscle growth. Collectively, we suggest that major constituents of Chinese chive, flavonoids and amino acids, might be used in dietary supplements that aid skeletal muscle growth.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cebolinha-Francesa/química , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Quempferóis/análise , Quempferóis/química , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Espectral
8.
Anal Sci ; 37(10): 1459-1463, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716261

RESUMO

A significant problem encountered in Chinese chives (Allium tuberosum) grown in greenhouses is the reduction in the yield and quality due to symptoms of withered leaf tips. Withered leaf tips of three Chinese chive cultivars were nondestructively analyzed by microbeam synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (µ-SR-XRF) imaging. Dead, wilting, and healthy parts of the leaves exhibited significant variations in the mineral composition. The Ca/K X-ray intensity ratios were significantly increased with the degree of withering.


Assuntos
Cebolinha-Francesa , Fluorescência , Minerais , Folhas de Planta , Síncrotrons , Raios X
9.
J Integr Med ; 19(2): 158-166, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308987

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study tests whether long-term intake of Allium tuberosum (AT) can alleviate pulmonary inflammation in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mice and evaluates its effect on the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). METHODS: BALB/c mice were divided into three groups: phosphate buffer saline, OVA and OVA + AT. The asthmatic murine model was established by sensitization and challenge of OVA in the OVA and OVA + AT groups. AT was given to the OVA + AT group by oral gavage from day 0 to day 27. On day 28, mice were sacrificed. Histopathological evaluation of lung tissue was performed using hematoxylin and eosin, and periodic acid-Schiff staining. The levels of IgE in serum, interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IL-13 from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The ILCs from the lung and gut were detected by flow cytometry. 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing was used to analyze the differences in colon microbiota among treatment groups. RESULTS: We found that long-term intake of AT decreased the number of inflammatory cells from BALF, reduced the levels of IL-5 and IL-13 in BALF, and IgE level in serum, and rescued pulmonary histopathology with less mucus secretion in asthmatic mice. 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing results showed that AT strongly affected the colonic bacteria community structure in asthmatic mice, although it had no significant effect on the abundance and diversity of the microbiota. Ruminococcaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae were identified as two biomarkers of the treatment effect of AT. Moreover, AT decreased the numbers of ILCs in both the lung and gut of asthmatic mice. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that AT inhibits pulmonary inflammation, possibly by impeding the activation of ILCs and adjusting the homeostasis of gut microbiota in asthmatic mice.


Assuntos
Cebolinha-Francesa , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pneumonia , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunidade Inata , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão , Linfócitos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico
10.
Food Chem ; 345: 128753, 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302112

RESUMO

Differential solvent extraction and phytochemical profiling of Chinse chive were employed to identify its principal PhIP-formation inhibitory constituents. Six compounds (mangiferin, isorhamnetin, luteolin, rosmarinic acid, 6-methylcoumarin, and cyanidin-3-glucoside) were further analyzed in a PhIP-producing chemical model to identify the dominant inhibitor. Its inhibitory mechanism was investigated by assessing the contribution of antioxidation and scavenging of key PhIP precursor/intermediate. No significant correlation was observed between PhIP inhibition rates and antioxidant activities. Further evaluation of the novel potent inhibitor mangiferin revealed a highly significant correlation between its dose-dependent inhibition of PhIP formation and phenylacetaldehyde scavenging. Finally, the proposed mechanism was corroborated through organic synthesis and structural elucidation of the mangiferin-phenylacetaldehyde adduct. This study has identified a potent novel inhibitor of the most abundant HA in heat-processed food and characterized its action mechanism. These findings may provide insight for future studies on mitigation of dietary exposure to toxic Maillard products by polyphenolic phytochemicals.


Assuntos
Cebolinha-Francesa/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cebolinha-Francesa/metabolismo , Imidazóis/metabolismo , Modelos Químicos , Xantonas/farmacologia
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 3589758, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381549

RESUMO

In this study, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyse the diversity and composition of fungal and bacterial communities in continuous cropping soil of Chinese chives. The soil nutrient was also measured to explore the rationality of current fertilization management. These results can provide a basis for the prevention and control of the continuous cropping obstacles of Chinese chives and further scientific management. Soil samples from fields continuously cropped with Chinese chives for one year, three years, and five years were collected and analysed. The results showed that the nutrient content of TP, AP, AK and TK increased significantly with increasing continuous cropping years. Short-term continuous cropping soil nutrients have not deteriorated. Alpha-diversity analysis showed that significant differences were not found in the diversity of the fungal and bacterial community among different years. Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Mortierellomycota were the three most dominant fungal phyla. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi and Acidobacteria were the dominant bacterial phyla. Continuous cropping makes Fusarium increase, and the beneficial bacteria Pseudomonas decreased significantly. According to the correlation heat map analysis of environmental factors, excessive phosphorus may lead to the increase of Fusarium, potassium may promote the proliferation of beneficial bacteria in the continuous cropping process, and it is necessary to regulate the application of phosphate and potassium fertilizer.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Cebolinha-Francesa/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Fungos , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Microbiota/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
AAPS J ; 23(1): 11, 2020 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369701

RESUMO

Tissue decellularization yields complex scaffolds with retained composition and structure, and plants offer an inexhaustible natural source of numerous shapes. Plant tissue could be a solution for regenerative organ replacement strategies and advanced in vitro modeling, as biofunctionalization of decellularized tissue allows adhesion of various kinds of human cells that can grow into functional tissue. Here, we investigated the potential of spinach leaf vasculature and chive stems for kidney tubule engineering to apply in tubular transport studies. We successfully decellularized both plant tissues and confirmed general scaffold suitability for topical recellularization with renal cells. However, due to anatomical restrictions, we believe that spinach and chive vasculature themselves cannot be recellularized by current methods. Moreover, gradual tissue disintegration and deficient diffusion capacity make decellularized plant scaffolds unsuitable for kidney tubule engineering, which relies on transepithelial solute exchange between two compartments. We conclude that plant-derived structures and biomaterials need to be carefully considered and possibly integrated with other tissue engineering technologies for enhanced capabilities.


Assuntos
Cebolinha-Francesa/química , Túbulos Renais , Spinacia oleracea/química , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Matriz Extracelular/química , Humanos
13.
Molecules ; 25(22)2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266475

RESUMO

A systematic phytochemical study on the components in the seeds of Allium tuberosum was performed, leading to the isolation of 27 steroidal glycosides (SGs 1-27). The structures of SGs were identified mainly by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometries as well as the necessary chemical evidence. In the SGs, 1-10 and 22-26 are new steroidal saponin analogues. An in vitro bioassay indicates that 1, 2, 7, 8, 10, 13-15, 20, 23, and 26 display promotional roles in testosterone production of rat Leydig cells with the EC50 values of 1.0 to 4.5 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Cebolinha-Francesa/química , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroides/química , Esteroides/farmacologia , Testosterona/biossíntese , Animais , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Hidrólise , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/citologia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Cultura Primária de Células , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Saponinas/química , Sementes/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Esteroides/isolamento & purificação
14.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 66(4): 357-363, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863309

RESUMO

Glutathione, the most abundant intracellular antioxidant, protects cells against reactive oxygen species induced oxidative stress and regulates intracellular redox status. We previously demonstrated that yellow Chinese chive (ki-nira) increased the intracellular glutathione levels. Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used analgesic. However, an overdose of APAP causes severe hepatotoxicity via depletion of the hepatic glutathione. In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of yellow Chinese chive extract (YCE) against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. YCE (25 or 100 mg/kg) was administered once daily for 7 d, and then APAP (700 mg/kg) was injected at 6 h before the mice were sacrificed. APAP treatment markedly increased the serum biological markers of liver injury such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase. Pretreatment with YCE significantly prevented the increases in the serum levels of these enzymes. Histopathological evaluation of the livers also revealed that YCE prevented APAP-induced centrilobular necrosis. Pretreatment with YCE dose-dependently elevated glutathione levels, but the difference was not significant. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a critical role in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by regulating the antioxidant defense system. Therefore, we investigated the expression of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme. YCE led to an increased expression of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), cystine uptake transporter (xCT), especially hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) in mice livers. These results suggest that YCE could induce HO-1 expression via activation of the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway, and protect against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Cebolinha-Francesa , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante)/genética , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante)/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 432, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943012

RESUMO

Panama disease (Fusarium wilt disease) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC) severely threatens banana (Musa spp.) production worldwide. Intercropping of banana with Allium plants has shown a potential to reduce Panama disease. In this study, six cultivars of Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum Rottler) were selected to compare their differences in antifungal activity and active compounds. Three cultivars Duokang Fujiu 11, Fujiuhuang 2, and Duokang Sijiqing with higher levels of antifungal compounds were further used for intercropping with banana in the pots and field to compare their effects on growth and disease incidence of banana.The six cultivars showed significant differences in antifungal activity against FOC mycelia growth in both leaf volatiles and aqueous leachates. The aqueous leachates displayed stronger antifungal activity than the volatiles. FJH cultivar showed the best inhibitory effect among all six cultivars. Contents of three main antifungal compounds dipropyl trisulfide (DPT), dimethyl trisulfide (DMT), and 2-methyl-2-pentenal (MP) in volatiles and aqueous leachates varied considerably among cultivars. Pot and field experiments showed that intercropping with three selected Chinese chive cultivars significantly improved banana vegetative growth, increased photosynthetic characteristics and yield but decreased disease incidence of Panama disease.Our results indicate that intercropping with Chinese chive shows potential to reduce banana Panama disease and selection of appropriate cultivars is vital for effective disease control.


Assuntos
Cebolinha-Francesa/microbiologia , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Musa/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Cebolinha-Francesa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resistência à Doença , Fusarium , Musa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
16.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 377, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771056

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to demonstrate the potential of applying the contrast of the speckles obtained as noise in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images to monitor short term activity changes during foliar application of phytohormones to a plant leaf. Plant growth hormone, gibberellic acid (GA3) was sprayed onto the leaf of Chinese chives and after 60 min, OCT images (1 frame: 512 × 2048 pixels) were recorded at ten frames per second for a few tens of seconds. RESULTS: Contrast across the temporal axis was calculated for each pixel of the structural images and biospeckle OCT contrast images were obtained under the conditions of before and after application of GA3 for different concentrations 0, 40, and 100 µM. Application of 40 µM GA3 failed to show any differences in the OCT structural images. However, bOCT contrast image was clearly different. Changes were found to be statistically significant. Although the mechanism for the contrast difference is not clear, it can be said there is a large change across the temporal scale with the application of GA3. Demonstration of OCT utilizing the speckle contrast is believed to have the potential as a promising tool in plant physiology.


Assuntos
Cebolinha-Francesa , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Hormônio do Crescimento , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
17.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(27): 7481-7489, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833074

RESUMO

Dual-emission and single-emission carbon dots (DCDs and SCDs) have been simultaneously synthesized by one-pot solvothermal treatment of leek. Different graphitization and surface functionalization were responsible for their distinction in fluorescence characteristics. DCDs with an average size of 5.6 nm exhibited two emissions at 489 and 676 nm under 420-nm excitation. Complexation between DCDs' surface porphyrins and Cu2+ led to quenching of the 676-nm emission, which resulted in the ratiometric determination of Cu2+ with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.085 µM. SCDs, containing additional sulfur element (0.50%) with an average size of 7.7 nm, presented a single emission at 440 nm under 365-nm excitation. The static quenching and inner filter effects between SCDs and tetracyclines (TCs) made SCDs a fluorescence nanoprobe for TCs' determination with LODs of 0.26-0.48 µM. Applications of DCDs and SCDs for respective determination of Cu2+ and TCs in milk and pig liver samples were successfully demonstrated. Moreover, good photostability, low toxicity, and outstanding biocompatibility made DCDs and SCDs suitable for multicolor cellular imaging. Results indicate that natural products are excellent raw materials to controllably synthesize CDs with prominent physicochemical and fluorescence properties.Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Cobre/análise , Fígado/química , Leite/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Tetraciclinas/análise , Animais , Biomassa , Cátions Bivalentes/análise , Cebolinha-Francesa/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Nanotecnologia , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Suínos
18.
Molecules ; 25(15)2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726966

RESUMO

In this study, a new rapid cleanup method was developed for the analysis of 111 pesticide multi-residues in lettuce and Chinese chives by GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS. QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe)-based sample extraction was used to obtain the extracts, and the cleanup procedure was carried out using a Sin-QuEChERS nano cartridge. Comparison of the cleanup effects, limits of quantification and limits of detection, recoveries, precision and matrix effects (MEs) between the Sin-QuEChERS nano method and the classical dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) method were performed. When spiked at 10 and 100 µg/kg, the number of pesticides with recoveries between 90% to 110% and relative standard deviations < 15% were greater when using the Sin-QuEChERS nano method. The MEs of Sin-QuEChERS nano and d-SPE methods ranged between 0.72 to 3.41 and 0.63 to 3.56, respectively. The results verified that the Sin-QuEChERS nano method was significantly more effective at removing pigments and more convenient than the d-SPE method. The developed method with the Sin-QuEChERS nano cleanup procedure was applied successfully to determine pesticide residues in market samples.


Assuntos
Cebolinha-Francesa/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Alface/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Resíduos de Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
19.
Zygote ; 28(4): 278-285, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241324

RESUMO

The isolation of male and female gametes is an effective method to study the fertilization mechanisms of higher plants. An osmotic shock method was used to rupture pollen grains of Allium tuberosum Roxb and release the pollen contents, including generative cells, which were mass collected. The pollinated styles were cut following 3 h of in vivo growth, and cultured in medium for 6-8 h, during which time pollen tubes grew out of the cut end of the style. After pollen tubes were transferred into a solution containing 6% mannitol, tubes burst and released pairs of sperm cells. Ovules of A. tuberosum were incubated in an enzyme solution for 30 min, and then dissected to remove the integuments. Following transfer to a dissecting solution free of enzymes, each nucellus was cut in the middle, and squeezed gently on the micropylar end, resulting in the liberation of the egg, zygote and proembryo from ovules at selected stages. These cells can be used to explore fertilization and embryonic development using molecular biological methods for each cell type and development stage.


Assuntos
Separação Celular/métodos , Cebolinha-Francesa/citologia , Óvulo Vegetal/citologia , Tubo Polínico/citologia , Sementes/citologia , Germinação , Células Vegetais , Zigoto
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0226471, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348333

RESUMO

The chive maggot Bradysia cellarum and the fungus gnat B. impatiens are two primary root pests of plants, which can coexist on the same host plants and are the devastating pests on liliaceous crops and edible fungi. Their growth and development are affected by the nutrient contents of their host plants. In this study, we assessed the effects of different host plant nutrients on the nutrient contents of these two Bradysia species. The nutrients of the chive (Allium tuberosum Rottl. ex Spreng.), board bean (Vicia faba L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. ramosa Hort.), cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata rubra) and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) roots were determined, and their effect on nutrient content of the two Bradysia species after feeding on the host plant for three continuous generations were evaluated. The results show that chive and B-bean contained higher levels of protein, free amino acid, soluble sugar and starch than others. As a result, the soluble sugar, fat and protein contents were significantly higher in both Bradysia species reared on chive and B-bean than on cabbage, lettuce, W-cabbage and pepper, suggesting nutritional preference of these insects. Based on our results, we concluded that the two Bradysia species displayed nutrient preference toward chive and B-bean, which provides a reference for understanding their host plant range and for control of the insect species via field crop rotations.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/parasitologia , Dípteros/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Animais , Brassica/metabolismo , Brassica/parasitologia , Capsicum/metabolismo , Capsicum/parasitologia , Cebolinha-Francesa/metabolismo , Cebolinha-Francesa/parasitologia , Alface/metabolismo , Alface/parasitologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Vicia faba/metabolismo , Vicia faba/parasitologia
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