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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(1): e20201098, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019004

RESUMO

This study realized the exhumation and transfer of human remains buried in the cemeteries at Orobajo, Barbacoas and La Fortuna (Municipality of Sabanalarga, Peque and Buriticá respectively) within the framework of "Social Management" of the Ituango Hydroelectric Project and the program Integral Restitution of Living Conditions for communities. Methods and techniques from bioanthropology, forensic sciences, archeology and Soil Sciences were used. Cemeteries were characterized by unconventional burials; moreover, documentation of tombs and burial practices were not generalized, nor did they show patterns. In the field assessment, 2,883 pit tests and soil probes using a penetrometer were carried out over a total area of 2,288 square meters. A total of 349 skeletonized human remains were exhumed, almost double of what was expected; of these, 180 were from Orabajo, 151 from Barbacoas, and 18 from La Fortuna. Though the remains showed a great deal of deterioration, age at death was determined for 59% of cases, and sex identified in 49%. Personal artifacts and clothing items were recovered along with the bones in many cases. Remains from Barbacoas and La Fortuna were given over to communities, and final dispositions were made in sites previously agreed upon (cemeteries in Peque, Buriticá and Sabanalarga respectively).


Assuntos
Cemitérios , Antropologia Forense , Exumação , Humanos , Estudos Interdisciplinares , Mudanças Depois da Morte
2.
J Hist Dent ; 69(2): 74-93, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734788

RESUMO

There are few formal publications in Australia relating to Victorian-era dentures and reliable evidence relating to their contemporaneous design, ownership and type is almost non-existent. Archeologists have reported only ten denture units retrieved from eight individuals interred in 19th century Australian cemeteries. A salvage excavation in 2001 at the North Brisbane Burial Grounds (NBBG, 1843-1875) uncovered, inter alia, an assemblage of two metal- and two vulcanite-based dentures. The names of the owners, the records of the dental practitioners and allied contextual information have been lost. This report is the first detailed analysis in Australia of 19th century dentures. It presents an investigation into the composition and underpinning laboratory technology within this quartette of NBBG artifacts, which represent half the known, and the only two alloy-based, dentures retrieved from 19th century cemeteries throughout Australia. The data within is a compilation of and extensive literature review, historical research methods, macroscopic inspection, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The results provide insight into dental practice and affiliated technologies in Victorian-era Brisbane.


Assuntos
Odontólogos , Papel Profissional , Austrália , Cemitérios , Dentaduras , Humanos
3.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254173, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214114

RESUMO

During archaeological excavations in burial sites, sometimes stoned organic objects are found, in addition to human remains. Those objects might be of a different origin, depending on various factors influencing members of a community (i.e. diseases, trauma), which provides information about their living conditions. The St. Nicholas Church archaeological site (Libkovice, Czechia) in the 18th century horizon of the cemetery, yielded a maturus-senilis female skeleton with a stone object in the left iliac fossa. This object was an oviform cyst-like rough structure, measuring 54 mm in length, 35 mm in maximum diameter and 0.2-0.7 mm shell thickness. Within the object there were small fetal bones (long bones, i.e. femur and two tibias, two scapulas, three ribs, vertebrae and other tiny bone fragments). Methods utilized to analyze the outer and inner surface morphology of the cyst and its inside, included: X-ray, CT imaging, SEM, histological staining and EDS. The EDS analysis revealed the presence of primarily oxygen, calcium and phosphorus in bone samples, and oxygen and silicon, in stone shell. Based on the length of the femur (20.2 mm) and tibia (16 mm) shafts, the fetal age was determined as being in the 15-18 week of pregnancy. The differential diagnosis was conducted, including for the three most probable cases: fetiform teratoma (FT), fetus-in-fetu (FIF) and lithopedion. The possibility of fetiform teratoma was discounted due to the presence of an anatomically correct spine, long bones and the proportions of the find. Although the low calcium content in the shell (2.3% atom mass), the lack of skull bones and the better developed lower limbs indicate fetus-in-fetu rather than lithopedion, the analyses results are unable to conclusively identify the object under one of these two categories since there are insufficient such cases in excavation material with which to draw comparison.


Assuntos
Cistos/diagnóstico , Cistos/patologia , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Sepultamento/métodos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cemitérios , Cistos/metabolismo , República Tcheca , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Feto/metabolismo , Feto/patologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Int J Paleopathol ; 34: 197-200, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This paper presents the differential diagnosis of a calcified mass found in the pelvic cavity of an adult male dating to the 10th century AD. MATERIALS: Skeletal remains of an adult male exhumed from the cemetery associated with the early medieval church of Riner (Solsonès, Catalonia). METHODS: The structure and composition of the mass were examined by x-ray imaging, microscopic stereoscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry analysis. RESULTS: The examination reveals a light brown kidney-shaped calcification with well-defined margins, irregular hypodense zones, and several thin concentric layers. The obtained spectra showed a mixture of carbonate apatite (with a high level of carbonation) and calcite in all the sections studied. CONCLUSION: The calcification most likely corresponds to a urinary calculus of infectious origin. SIGNIFICANCE: Given the insights that urinary calculi can provide towards understanding consequences of infection and environmental conditions, this case will be of interest to other researchers wishing to initiate comparative analyses. LIMITATIONS: The discussion of the etiology of the stone is limited by the lack of preservation of certain elements such as struvite.


Assuntos
Cálculos Urinários , Adulto , Cemitérios , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha , Estruvita
5.
Forensic Sci Int ; 325: 110882, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182205

RESUMO

Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is an established geophysical technique used extensively for the accurate reconstruction of the shallow (<10 m) subsurface. Reconstructions have largely been completed and presented as 2D vertical and horizontal planes, leaving limited visualization of subsurface 3D shapes and their spatial relationships. With technological advancements, particularly the availability and integration of various software platforms, 3D modelling of GPR data is now emerging as the new standard. However, despite these developments, there remains an inadequate examination and testing of these techniques, particularly in determining if their application is beneficial and warranted. In this study we conducted a GPR grid survey on a churchyard cemetery to generate and evaluate 2D and 3D-modelled reconstructions of the cemetery burial sites. Data collection and processing was completed using a Sensors and Software Incorporated pulseEKKO™ Pro SmartCart GPR system and EKKO_Project™ software, respectively. The modelling component was achieved using Schlumberger's Petrel™ E & P software platform, which is tailored to the petroleum industry. The subsurface patterns present in the 2D and 3D models closely matched the cemetery plot plan, validating our data collection, processing, and modelling methods. Both models were adequate for 2D horizontal visualization of reflection patterns at any specific depth. The 3D model was used to identify the presence of a companion burial plot (stacked caskets) and possible leachate plumes below and encircling burial sites, both of which were not evident in the 2D model, highlighting the benefits of 3D modelling when discerning subsurface objects. We expect our findings to be of value to similar GPR studies, with particular significance to geoforensic studies and criminal investigations.


Assuntos
Sepultamento , Simulação por Computador , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Radar , Cemitérios , Rituais Fúnebres/história , Fenômenos Geológicos , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Software
6.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0252051, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032797

RESUMO

To explore the possible emergence and lived consequences of social inequality in the Atacama, we analyzed a large set (n = 288) of incredibly well preserved and contextualized human skeletons from the broad Middle Period (AD 500-1000) of the San Pedro de Atacama (Chile) oases. In this work, we explore model-based paleodietary reconstruction of the results of stable isotope analysis of human bone collagen and hydroxyapatite. The results of this modeling are used to explore local phenomena, the nature of the Middle Period, and the interaction between local situations and the larger world in which the oases were enmeshed by identifying the temporal, spatial, and biocultural correlates and dimensions of dietary difference. Our analyses revealed that: 1) over the 600-year period represented by our sample, there were significant changes in consumption patterns that may evince broad diachronic changes in the structure of Atacameño society, and 2) at/near 600 calAD, there was a possible episode of social discontinuity that manifested in significant changes in consumption practices. Additionally, while there were some differences in the level of internal dietary variability among the ayllus, once time was fully considered, none of the ayllus stood out for having a more (or less) clearly internally differentiated cuisine. Finally, sex does not appear to have been a particularly salient driver of observed dietary differences here. While we do not see any de facto evidence for complete dietary differentiation (as there is always overlap in consumption among individuals, ayllus, and time periods, and as isotopic analysis is not capable of pinpointing different foods items or preparations), there are broad aspects of dietary composition changing over time that are potentially linked to status, and foreignness. Ultimately, these stand as the clearest example of what has been termed "gastro-politics," potentially tied to the emergence of social inequality in the San Pedro oases.


Assuntos
Antropologia Física , Arqueologia , Dieta , Fatores Socioeconômicos/história , Osso e Ossos/química , Cemitérios , Chile/epidemiologia , Colágeno/sangue , Colágeno/isolamento & purificação , Durapatita/química , Durapatita/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , História Medieval , Humanos , Marcação por Isótopo , Masculino , Crânio/química
7.
Int J Paleopathol ; 33: 146-157, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933808

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Here we present the first known examples of brachydactyly from an Andean archaeological context by describing the affected bones, presenting a differential diagnosis, and discussing the cultural implications of there being shortened metapodials in multiple tombs. MATERIALS: 3232 well-preserved tubular bones representing an MNI of 250 human adults. METHODS: Each bone was visually inspected. Measurements were taken with an osteometric board, sliding calipers, and a flexible tape measure. RESULTS: Of 1210 metapodials excavated from eight burial contexts, ten were atypically short. CONCLUSIONS: The ten shortened elements represent an MNI of three individuals with brachydactyly from two tombs. The presence of at least two individuals with brachydactyly in one tomb adds support to a previous suggestion that tombs were used for familial interment. It is plausible that the third individual from a different tomb was related to the other two, and the different burial contexts may reflect postmarital practices. SIGNIFICANCE: These cases offer insight into tomb use and underscore the importance of identifying rare developmental anomalies in the archaeological record as their presence may indicate genetic relationships within or among archaeological cemeteries. LIMITATIONS: With commingled contexts and incomplete recovery of skeletal remains, individualizing the brachydactylous elements was not possible. There is also a lack of comparative data from other Andean sites. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Identify more Andean cases of brachydactyly to learn if the relatively frequent involvement of the first digit is more common among Andean skeletal samples than North American, or if it is unique to Marcajirca.


Assuntos
Braquidactilia , Adulto , Arqueologia , Sepultamento , Cemitérios , Humanos , Peru
8.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 175(3): 701-711, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942282

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Childhood paleodietary reconstruction via dental macrowear analysis is limited in part by available methods to measure dental macrowear. We describe a method to quantify dental macrowear progression (in both deciduous and permanent molars) using a handheld intraoral scanner and two 3D occlusal topographic measurements. We assess the agreement of our macrowear proxies with an established qualitative wear scoring system and their relationship to age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We scanned 92 well-preserved dentitions of immature individuals from the medieval cemetery of St. Pölten in Lower Austria using an intraoral scanner. Two measurements were made on the resulting mesh files-the relative flat surface area in % of the occlusal surface (RFSA%) and the mesial interior slope angle. We estimated the technical error of measurement (TEM). Comparisons were made with the macrowear scoring system-tooth wear index. RESULTS: We found that TEM for both measurements was between 1 and 3%, except the interobserver TEM of RFSA% which was above 5%. Both quantitative measurements generally agree with the established qualitative scores and correlate with age; however, RFSA% does not reliably indicate the progression of macrowear for teeth after dentine exposure occurs. DISCUSSION: The proposed 3D topographic measurements can be made reliably, and within a certain range of wear provide good quantitative proxies of the progression of dental macrowear. Such measurements constitute a promising approach for improving dental macrowear analysis in contexts such as childhood paleodietary reconstruction, which benefit from additional precision in wear rate estimation and present less dentine exposure.


Assuntos
Atrito Dentário , Desgaste dos Dentes , Dente , Cemitérios , Criança , Humanos , Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Int J Paleopathol ; 33: 170-181, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962231

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence rate of gout and to explore the social factors that contributed to its development in the various sub-populations in medieval Cambridge. MATERIALS: 177 adult individuals from four medieval cemeteries located in and around Cambridge, UK. METHODS: Lesions were assessed macroscopically and radiographically. Elements with lytic lesions were described and imaged using micro-computed tomography (µCT) to determine their morphology. RESULTS: Gout was identified in 3 % of the population. Individuals buried in the friary had highest prevalence (14 %), with low prevalence rates in the Hospital (3 %) and town parish cemetery (2 %), with no cases in the rural parish cemetery. Gout was more prevalent during the 14th-15th centuries than the 10th-13th centuries. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence rate of gout in the friary is at least partly explained by the consumption of alcohol and purine-rich diets by the friars and the wealthy townsfolk. Medieval medical texts from Cambridge show that gout (known as podagra) was sometimes treated with medications made from the root of the autumn crocus. This root contains colchicine, which is a medicine that is still used to treat gout today. SIGNIFICANCE: This is one of the first studies to assess the epidemiology of gout in medieval England and suggests that gout varied with social status. LIMITATIONS: Our sample size precludes statistical analysis. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Additional studies that assess the epidemiology of gout in medieval Europe is needed in order to be able to fully contextualize these findings.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas , Gota , Adulto , Cemitérios , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Gota/epidemiologia , Humanos , Microtomografia por Raio-X
10.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(7): 1039-1043, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994429

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the causes of death in dogs that were buried at pet cemeteries. Using data obtained from a questionnaire completed by 5,118 dog owners from 1 April 2016 to 31 March 2017, we estimated the life expectancy and the odds ratio for principal causes of death using multiple logistic regression analysis with potential risk factors as independent variables. The life expectancy determined at birth was 13.98 years. The commonest cause of death was senility. The odds ratios of dying of senility being significantly higher in Labrador Retrievers and Shiba breeds and aged dogs, and significantly lower in Chihuahuas, dogs living indoors and neutered dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Animais de Estimação , Animais , Causas de Morte , Cemitérios , Cães , Japão/epidemiologia , Melhoramento Vegetal
12.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249130, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852570

RESUMO

This work demonstrates the importance of integrating sexual division of labour into the research of the transition to the Neolithic and its social implications. During the spread of the Neolithic in Europe, when migration led to the dispersal of domesticated plants and animals, novel tasks and tools, appear in the archaeological record. By examining the use-wear traces from over 400 stone tools from funerary contexts of the earliest Neolithic in central Europe we provide insights into what tasks could have been carried out by women and men. The results of this analysis are then examined for statistically significant correlations with the osteological, isotopic and other grave good data, informing on sexed-based differences in diet, mobility and symbolism. Our data demonstrate males were buried with stone tools used for woodwork, and butchery, hunting or interpersonal violence, while women with those for the working of animal skins, expanding the range of tasks known to have been carried out. The results also show variation along an east-west cline from Slovakia to eastern France, suggesting that the sexual division of labour (or at least its representation in death) changed as farming spread westwards.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Papel de Gênero , Evolução Social , Agricultura/instrumentação , Cemitérios , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249939, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852636

RESUMO

Ancient human remains exhibiting bony changes consistent with osteoarticular tuberculosis (OATB) indicate that the disease has afflicted mankind for millennia. Nonetheless, not many pediatric OATB cases have been published in the paleopathological literature-from Hungary, only three cases have been described up to now. In our paper, we demonstrate a child (S0603) from the Árpádian Age cemetery of Gyorszentiván-Révhegyi tag (northwestern Hungary), who represents a unique case of OATB regarding both the pattern and severity of the observed bony changes. During the macromorphological and radiological investigations, the most serious alterations were discovered in the upper thoracic spine-the development of osteolytic lesions led to severe bone loss and consequent collapse and fusion of several adjacent vertebrae. The pathological process terminated in a sharp, rigid angular kyphosis. Disruption of the normal spine curvature resulted in consequent deformation of the whole thoracic wall-it became "rugby-ball-shaped". The overall nature and pattern of the detected alterations, as well as their resemblance to those of described in previously published archaeological and modern cases from the pre-antibiotic era indicate that they are most consistent with OATB. Based on the severity and extent of the lesions, as well as on the evidence of secondary healing, S0603 suffered from TB for a long time prior to death. Besides body deformation, OATB resulted in consequent disability in daily activities, which would have required regular and significant care from others to survive. It implies that in the Árpádian Age community of Gyorszentiván-Révhegyi tag, there was a willingness to care for people in need. Detailed archaeological case studies can give us a unique insight into the natural history and different presentations of OATB. Furthermore, they can provide paleopathologists with a stronger basis for diagnosing TB and consequently, with a more sensitive means of assessing TB frequency in past populations.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Osteoarticular/patologia , Arqueologia , Cemitérios , Criança , História Medieval , Humanos , Hungria , Masculino , Coluna Vertebral/patologia , Tuberculose Osteoarticular/história
14.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(3)2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807111

RESUMO

Nomadic groups of conquering Hungarians played a predominant role in Hungarian prehistory, but genetic data are available only from the immigrant elite strata. Most of the 10-11th century remains in the Carpathian Basin belong to common people, whose origin and relation to the immigrant elite have been widely debated. Mitogenome sequences were obtained from 202 individuals with next generation sequencing combined with hybridization capture. Median joining networks were used for phylogenetic analysis. The commoner population was compared to 87 ancient Eurasian populations with sequence-based (Fst) and haplogroup-based population genetic methods. The haplogroup composition of the commoner population markedly differs from that of the elite, and, in contrast to the elite, commoners cluster with European populations. Alongside this, detectable sub-haplogroup sharing indicates admixture between the elite and the commoners. The majority of the 10-11th century commoners most likely represent local populations of the Carpathian Basin, which admixed with the eastern immigrant groups (which included conquering Hungarians).


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Migrantes/história , Cemitérios , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , História Medieval , Humanos , Hungria/etnologia , Herança Materna , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
15.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(3)2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burden of COVID-19 in low-income and conflict-affected countries remains unclear, largely reflecting low testing rates. In parts of Yemen, reports indicated a peak in hospital admissions and burials during May-June 2020. To estimate excess mortality during the epidemic period, we quantified activity across all identifiable cemeteries within Aden governorate (population approximately 1 million) by analysing very high-resolution satellite imagery and compared estimates to Civil Registry office records. METHODS: After identifying active cemeteries through remote and ground information, we applied geospatial analysis techniques to manually identify new grave plots and measure changes in burial surface area over a period from July 2016 to September 2020. After imputing missing grave counts using surface area data, we used alternative approaches, including simple interpolation and a generalised additive mixed growth model, to predict both actual and counterfactual (no epidemic) burial rates by cemetery and across the governorate during the most likely period of COVID-19 excess mortality (from 1 April 2020) and thereby compute excess burials. We also analysed death notifications to the Civil Registry office over the same period. RESULTS: We collected 78 observations from 11 cemeteries. In all but one, a peak in daily burial rates was evident from April to July 2020. Interpolation and mixed model methods estimated ≈1500 excess burials up to 6 July, and 2120 up to 19 September, corresponding to a peak weekly increase of 230% from the counterfactual. Satellite imagery estimates were generally lower than Civil Registry data, which indicated a peak 1823 deaths in May alone. However, both sources suggested the epidemic had waned by September 2020. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first instance of satellite imagery being used for population mortality estimation. Findings suggest a substantial, under-ascertained impact of COVID-19 in this urban Yemeni governorate and are broadly in line with previous mathematical modelling predictions, though our method cannot distinguish direct from indirect virus deaths. Satellite imagery burial analysis appears a promising novel approach for monitoring epidemics and other crisis impacts, particularly where ground data are difficult to collect.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Cemitérios , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Imagens de Satélites , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Iêmen/epidemiologia
16.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 175(3): 718-730, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772761

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present work describes the status and contents of The Human Bone Collection of the Faculty of Dentistry at the University of Hong Kong. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Collection originates from the 1980s and became officially established in 2017 for teaching and research purposes. Most of the Collection consists of unclaimed human remains of southern Chinese individuals exhumed from local cemeteries and donated to the Faculty in the last few decades. The demographic information was provided largely from burial records and forensic estimations. Since 2016, the Collection has undergone a process of reorganization into cranial and postcranial remains, followed by preservation procedures that included cleaning and classification. RESULTS: The Collection currently consists of remains belonging to about 368 individuals (243 males, 54 females, 71 unknown), with ages ranging from 0.8 to 90 years (mean 57.4 years). It comprises cranial remains belonging to 260 individuals (169 males, 39 females, 52 unknown), and postcranial remains belonging to 248 individuals (180 males, 42 females, 26 unknown). The preservation status ranges from poor to good, with the cranial remains better preserved than the postcranial elements. For a large number of individuals, ear ossicles, soil samples, and other materials are also available. DISCUSSION: The Collection is accessible to local and international institutions for teaching and research.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais , Crânio , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cemitérios , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Odontologia , Docentes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Anthropol Anz ; 78(4): 295-315, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763666

RESUMO

The analysis of surface bone changes is an essential aspect of the paleopathological examination of skeletal remains from archaeological and forensic contexts, and proper digital imaging is an indispensable aspect of the documentation of bone modifications. This paper evaluates the applicability of Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) to the study of pathological bone surface changes in human remains. Forty-five samples of human bones and teeth from medieval and early modern Estonian cemeteries were photographed and subjected to RTI imaging to document the pathological conditions that typically result in subtle surface modifications. Subperiosteal Bone Production (SBP), abnormal porosity, cribra orbitalia, endocranial lesions and lytic lesions in bone, as well as enamel hypoplasia and dental calculus in teeth were successfully represented with this technique. The results indicate that RTI allows visualization of shallow and discrete bone changes that are otherwise unnoticed. In some cases, this technique provides a better understanding of the nature and development of particular pathological processes than possible with conventional imaging. Although it cannot entirely replace microscopic and radiological techniques, RTI can be successfully performed in a reasonably short time by non-specialist operators with limited funding and resources, thus enabling identification of specimens that should be subject to more expensive or time-consuming analyses. Hence, RTI constitutes a valuable tool for the representation of subtle surface details in pathological bone, and can successfully support standard photography in paleopathological studies, museum display and scientific communication.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas , Paleopatologia , Arqueologia , Osso e Ossos , Cemitérios , Humanos
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 621-625, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mortuary and cemetery workers may be exposed to the bodies of people with SARS-CoV-2 infection; however, prevalence of infection among these groups is unknown. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) for RT-PCR and serologic testing for SARS-CoV-2 were performed on mortuary and cemetery workers in Qatar. Data on specific job duties, living conditions, contact history, and clinical course were gathered. Environmental sampling was carried out to explore any association with infection. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with infection. RESULTS: Forty-seven mortuary workers provided an NPS and seven (14.9%) were PCR positive; 32 provided a blood sample and eight (25%) were antibody positive, six (75%) who were seropositive were also PCR positive. Among the 81 cemetery workers, 76 provided an NPS and five (6.6%) were PCR positive; 64 provided a blood sample and 22 (34.4%) were antibody positive, three (13.6%) who were seropositive were also PCR positive. Three (22.2%) and 20 (83.3%) of the infected mortuary and cemetery workers were asymptomatic, respectively. Age <30 years (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.7-14.6), community exposure with a known case (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.7-13.3), and presence of symptoms in the preceding 2 weeks (OR 9.0, 95% CI 1.9-42.0) were independently associated with an increased risk of infection (PCR or antibody positive). Of the 46 environmental and surface samples, all were negative or had a Ct value of >35. CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of mortuary and cemetery workers had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which was incidentally detected upon serologic testing. These data are most consistent with community acquisition rather than occupational acquisition.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Cemitérios , Práticas Mortuárias , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/virologia , Prevalência , Catar/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Testes Sorológicos
19.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 174(4): 631-645, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528042

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Many individuals living in medieval and post-medieval London suffered issues with sanitation, food insecurity, infectious disease, and widespread exposure to parasites from a multitude of sources, causing increased risk of death for many inhabitants. We examine this stressful environment and its relationship with various demographic and temporal dimensions, using cribra orbitalia (CO) as an indicator of stress, to model an increased risk of dying under the expectations of our proposed parasitic model of infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyze the relationship between CO and mortality across seven medieval and post-medieval cemeteries from London by the covariates of sex, status, and age-at-death. A survival analysis (Cox regression) and a binomial logit estimated hazard and odds ratios of dying with CO across age-at-death, sex, status, and time-period within single statistical models. In addition, we provide new Bayesian age-at-death estimates for post-medieval samples. RESULTS: The models show the rate of CO decreased over time and age-at-death, regardless of sex or status; post-medieval individuals were ~72% less likely to die with lesions than their medieval counterparts. Further, individuals with CO had ~1% decrease in risk of dying with CO per year of age. DISCUSSION: These results suggest increased mortality risk for those with lesions indicative of anemia (CO), and selective mortality of younger individuals during the medieval period. Despite sex-specific nutritional and occupational hazards, and status-based access to resources, the prevalence of CO was similar across sex and status, which suggests living with parasitic infection that caused anemia was an everyday reality for medieval and post-medieval Londoners.


Assuntos
Anemia/mortalidade , Doenças Ósseas/mortalidade , Nível de Saúde , Doenças Parasitárias/mortalidade , Adulto , Cemitérios , Feminino , História do Século XV , História Medieval , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Órbita/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Paleopathol ; 33: 25-29, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study presents evidence of a probable case of holoprosencephaly with cyclopia, which has been rarely reported in the paleopathological literature. MATERIALS: The skeletal remains of a male fetus between 36 and 40 gestational weeks from the Collezione Antropologica LABANOF (CAL) Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection were studied. METHODS: The bones were macroscopically examined, and pathological anomalies were recorded and evaluated alongside paleopathological and clinical literature. RESULTS: Developmental anomalies were observed. In particular, a single orbit and optical canal were present, and the frontal, sphenoid and palatine bones were prematurely fused. These changes altered the normal morphology of the midline structures of the cranium and face. CONCLUSIONS: The developmental anomalies observed are consistent with a case of holoprosencephaly associated with cyclopia. SIGNIFICANCE: Holoprosencephaly is a fatal congenital condition caused by the failure of the prosencephalon to separate in two halves. This condition is clinically well-known, with an estimated modern incidence of 1/16,000 births; however, the paleopathological literature lacks reports that would help anthropologists and paleopathologists interpret these anomalous signs on dry bone. This report documents a rare paleopathological case of the condition on a full-term fetus from a modern skeletal collection. LIMITATIONS: Taphonomic and anthropic factors may have impaired the observation of all pathological features. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Comparative studies with cases from documented collections could improve knowledge of the appearance of this condition on dry bones.


Assuntos
Holoprosencefalia , Cemitérios , Feto , Humanos , Masculino , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem
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