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1.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(3): 361-389, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The little known guenon Cercopithecus dryas has a controversial taxonomic history with some recognizing two taxa (C. dryas and C. salongo) instead of one. New adult specimens from the TL2 region of the central Congo Basin allow further assessment of C. dryas morphology and, along with CT scans of the juvenile holotype, provide ontogenetically stable comparisons across all C. dryas and "C. salongo" specimens for the first time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The skins and skulls of two newly acquired C. dryas specimens, male YPM MAM 16890 and female YPM MAM 17066, were compared to previously described C. dryas and "C. salongo" specimens, along with a broader guenon comparative sample (cranial sample n = 146, dental sample n = 102). Qualitative and quantitative assessments were made on the basis of commonly noted pelage features as well as craniodental characters in the form of shape ratios and multivariate discriminant analyses. RESULTS: All C. dryas specimens, including the TL2 adults, are comparatively small in overall cranial size, have relatively small I1 s, and display tall molar cusps; these osteological characters, along with pelage features, are shared with known "C. salongo" specimens. Discriminant analyses of dental features separate C. dryas/salongo specimens from all other guenons. DISCUSSION: In addition to pelage-based evidence, direct osteological evidence suggests "C. salongo" is a junior synonym of C. dryas. Combined with molecular analyses suggesting C. dryas is most closely related to Chlorocebus spp., we emend the species diagnosis and support its transfer to Chlorocebus or possibly a new genus to reflect its distinctiveness.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae , Dente , Animais , Congo , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente/diagnóstico por imagem
2.
Am J Primatol ; 83(6): e23261, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956342

RESUMO

The natural history and taxonomic status of two central African primates, Cercopithecus dryas and Cercopithecus salongo have long been in question. Recent studies confirmed that C. dryas is a basal member of the savanna monkey clade, and that it prefers dense undergrowth in lowland rainforest. While these studies advanced our knowledge of this enigmatic species, key aspects of its natural history remain poorly documented. Furthermore, the lack of a field study that documents pelage patterns of both sexes and different age classes of C. dryas has led to a disagreement over the validity of C. salongo as a sister taxon to C. dryas. Using the results of two multi-strata camera trap surveys in Lomami National Park (Democratic Republic of the Congo) and its buffer zone, we conducted a third survey in the understory of degraded forest to accumulate videos of C. dryas/salongo. We used these videos to test the hypothesis that C. dryas and C. salongo are synonymous, and to assess the species' group composition, density, behavior and vocalizations. Camera traps revealed an ontogenetic change in pelage pattern that supports the view that C. salongo is the adult of C. dryas. Videos revealed that adult males develop a blue perineum and scrotum, and a red subcaudal patch, similar to other savanna monkeys. We provide a preliminary assessment of C. dryas' group composition, density, behavior, and vocalizations. This long-overlooked monkey is an exceptional member of the Chlorocebus clade, and all aspects of its biology require further investigation.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae , Parques Recreativos , Animais , Cercopithecus , Chlorocebus aethiops , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Masculino
3.
Zygote ; 29(5): 401-409, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731237

RESUMO

Sperm morphometric and morphologic data have been shown to represent useful tools for monitoring fertility, improving assisted reproduction techniques and conservation of genetic material as well as detecting inbreeding of endangered primates. We provide here for the first time sperm morphologic and morphometric data from Cercopithecus neglectus, Cercopithecus cephus, Papio papio and critically endangered Cercopithecus roloway, as well as comparative data from other Cercopithecinae species, i.e. Allochrocebus lhoesti, Mandrillus sphinx and Papio anubis. Following collection from the epididymis, spermatozoa were measured for each species for the following parameters: head length, head width, head perimeter, head area, midpiece length and total flagellum length, and the head volume, ellipticity, elongation, roughness and regularity were then calculated. Our data are consistent with both the general morphology and the morphometric proportions of Cercopithecinae sperm. Some specificities were observed, with C. cephus displaying a narrow head (width = 2.76 ± 0.26 µM) and C. roloway displaying a short midpiece (6.65 ± 0.61 µM). This data set represents an important contribution, especially for Cercopithecus roloway, one of the most endangered monkeys in the world, and further data on additional specimens coupled to data on mating systems and reproductive ecology should allow a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these morphological differences across primate species.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae , Animais , Epididimo , Fertilidade , Masculino , Reprodução , Cabeça do Espermatozoide , Espermatozoides
4.
J Microbiol ; 58(5): 367-376, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266563

RESUMO

The gut microbiome of captive primates can provide a window into their health and disease status. The diversity and composition of gut microbiota are influenced by not only host phylogeny, but also host diet. Old World monkeys (Cercopithecidae) are divided into two subfamilies: Cercopithecinae and Colobinae. The diet and physiological digestive features differ between these two subfamilies. Accordingly, highthroughput sequencing was used to examine gut microbiota differences between these two subfamilies, using data from 29 Cercopithecinae individuals and 19 Colobinae individuals raised in captivity. Through a comparative analysis of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), significant differences in the diversity and composition of gut microbiota were observed between Cercopithecinae and Colobinae. In particular, the gut microbiota of captive Old World monkeys clustered strongly by the two subfamilies. The Colobinae microbial diversity was higher than that of Cercopithecinae. Additionally, Firmicutes, Lactobacillaceae, Veillonellaceae, and Prevotella abundance were higher in Cercopithecinae, while Bacteroidetes, Ruminococcaceae, Christensenellaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Acidaminococcaceae abundance were higher in Colobinae. PICRUSt analysis revealed that the predicted metagenomes of metabolic pathways associated with proteins, carbohydrates, and amino acids were significantly higher in Colobinae. In the context of host phylogeny, these differences between Cercopithecinae and Colobinae could reflect adaptations associated with their respective diets. This well-organized dataset is a valuable resource for future related research on primates and gut microbiota. Moreover, this study may provide useful insight into animal management practices and primate conservation.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Cercopithecinae/microbiologia , Colobinae/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Biodiversidade , Dieta , Metagenoma
5.
J Hum Evol ; 141: 102742, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179368

RESUMO

Antemortem enamel chipping in living and fossil primates is often interpreted as evidence of hard-object feeding (i.e., 'durophagy'). Laboratory analyses of tooth fracture have modeled the theoretical diets and loading conditions that may produce such chips. Previous chipping studies of nonhuman primates tend to combine populations into species samples, despite the fact that species can vary significantly in diet across their ranges. Chipping is yet to be analyzed across population-specific species samples for which long-term dietary data are available. Here, we test the association between enamel chipping and diet in a community of cercopithecid primates inhabiting the Taï Forest, Ivory Coast. We examined fourth premolars and first molars (n = 867) from naturally deceased specimens of Cercocebus atys, Colobus polykomos, Piliocolobus badius,Procolobus verus, and three species of Cercopithecus. We found little support for a predictive relationship between enamel chipping and diet across the entire Taï monkey community. Cercocebus atys, a dedicated hard-object feeder, exhibited the highest frequencies of (1) chipped teeth and (2) chips of large size; however, the other monkey with a significant degree of granivory, Co. polykomos, exhibited the lowest chip frequency. In addition, primates with little evidence of mechanically challenging or hard-food diets-such as Cercopithecus spp., Pi. badius, and Pr. verus-evinced higher chipping frequencies than expected. The equivocal and stochastic nature of enamel chipping in the Taï monkeys suggests nondietary factors contribute significantly to chipping. A negative association between canopy preference and chipping suggests a role of exogenous particles in chip formation, whereby taxa foraging closer to the forest floor encounter more errant particulates during feeding than species foraging in higher strata. We conclude that current enamel chipping models may provide insight into the diets of fossil primates, but only in cases of extreme durophagy. Given the role of nondietary factors in chip formation, our ability to reliably reconstruct a range of diets from a gradient of chipping in fossil taxa is likely weak.


Assuntos
Antropologia , Cercopithecinae/fisiologia , Colobinae/fisiologia , Esmalte Dentário/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Paleontologia , Animais , Dente Pré-Molar/fisiologia , Costa do Marfim , Comportamento Alimentar , Fósseis , Dente Molar/fisiologia
6.
Am J Primatol ; 82(4): e23074, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793676

RESUMO

Primates inhabiting human-modified landscapes often exploit matrix habitat to supplement their diet with cultivated foods, at times resulting in economic losses and conflict with local people. Understanding human-nonhuman primate interactions and the attitudes and perceptions of local people towards crop feeding species are crucial to designing effective species-based management plans. Over a 12-month period, we used scan sampling to study the consumption of cultivated foods and matrix use patterns by two habituated groups of Bale monkeys (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis), Ethiopian-endemic bamboo specialists, in two forest fragments (Kokosa and Afursa) set amidst human settlements and farmland in the southern Ethiopian Highlands. Further, we conducted interviews with local people to document their attitudes and perceptions towards Bale monkeys at the two sites. We found that Bale monkeys at Kokosa, a more degraded habitat by most measures, consumed significantly more cultivated foods than their counterparts at Afursa. Moreover, Bale monkeys at Kokosa spent significantly more time in the matrix than in the forest habitat, while monkeys at Afursa spent significantly less time in the matrix than in the forest habitat. Not surprisingly, local people displayed a more negative attitude towards monkeys inhabiting Kokosa than those inhabiting Afursa. The differences in Bale monkey cultivated food consumption and matrix use patterns-as well as in local people's attitudes and perceptions towards Bale monkeys-between Kokosa and Afursa are probably associated with differences in habitat structure, degree of habitat alteration, and land-use practices between the sites. We conclude that to ensure long-term coexistence between Bale monkeys and local people in human-modified landscapes, it is vital to incorporate nearby matrix habitats into management plans and to work closely with local communities to develop effective nonlethal crop protection strategies, thereby reducing the likelihood of negative interactions between Bale monkeys and humans.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas , Dieta , Ecossistema , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Atitude , Etiópia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Florestas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
J Hum Evol ; 137: 102681, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629290

RESUMO

The cercopithecid fossil record of the Balkan Peninsula extends from the Late Miocene to the Early Pleistocene, but to date no fossils of non-human primates have been identified in Serbia. Here we report the identification of two primate teeth from Ridjake, a rich paleontological site in western Serbia. NHMBEO 042501 is an upper third molar with heavy occlusal wear and taphonomic weathering. NHMBEO 042502 is a well-preserved lower third molar with only minor damage to the cusps and root apices. We performed an analysis of non-metric traits and made bivariate comparisons of crown linear measurements in order to assess the taxonomic affinity of the molars. Both show typical papionin occlusal patterns and relatively large overall sizes. In combination with the early Villafranchian (MN16) age of the site, we attribute both Ridjake primate fossils to cf. Paradolichopithecus sp. This represents the first identification of a non-human primate in Serbia, and the first identification of any primate in the Neogene period of Serbia. Along with recent hominin discoveries, the Ridjake fossils contribute to the growing primate fossil record in Serbia, and indicate the need for increased research into fossil primates in the country.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae/classificação , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Cercopithecinae/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula , Maxila , Paleontologia , Sérvia
8.
Primates ; 60(5): 401-419, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468228

RESUMO

Macaques are one of the most successful nonhuman primates, and morphological distinctions from their close relatives, African papionins, are easily detected by the naked eye. Nevertheless, evolutionary allometry often accounts for a large amount of the total variation and potentially hides and precludes the detection of morphological distinctions that exist between macaques and African papionins, thus distorting their phyletic comparison. Geometric morpgometric analyses were performed using landmark coordinates in cranial samples from macaques (N = 135) and African papionins (N = 152) to examine the variation in their facial shape. A common allometric trend was confirmed to represent a moderately long face in macaques as being small-to-moderate-bodied papionins. Macaques possessed many features that were distinct from those of African papionins, while they simultaneously showed a large intrageneric variation in every feature, which precluded the separation of some groups of macaques from African papionins. This study confirmed that a moderately smooth sagittal profile is present in non-Sulawesi macaques. It also confirmed that a well-developed anteorbital drop is distinct in Mandrillus and Theropithecus, but it showed that Papio resembles macaques regarding this feature. This finding showed that apparently equivalent features which can be detected by the naked eye were probably formed by different combinations of the principal patterns. It should be noted that the differences detected here between macaques and African papionins are revealed after appropriate adjustments are made to eliminate the allometric effects over the shape features. While landmark data sets still need to be customized for specific studies, the information provided by this article is expected to help such customization and to improve future phyletic evaluation of the fossil papionins.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae/anatomia & histologia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , África , Animais , Feminino , Macaca/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Papio/anatomia & histologia
9.
J Hum Evol ; 135: 102623, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315809

RESUMO

Although modern guenons are diverse and abundant in Africa, the fossil record of this group is surprisingly sparse. In 2012 the West Turkana Paleo Project team recovered two associated molar teeth of a small primate from the Pliocene site of Kanapoi, West Turkana, Kenya. The teeth are bilophodont and the third molar lacks a hypoconulid, which is diagnostic for Cercopithecini. The teeth are the same size as those of extant Miopithecus, which is thought to be a dwarfed guenon, as well as a partial mandible preserving two worn teeth, previously recovered from Koobi Fora, Kenya, which was also tentatively identified as a guenon possibly allied with Miopithecus. Tooth size and proportions, as well as analysis of relative cusp size and shearing crest development clearly separate the fossil from all known guenons. Based on the Kanapoi material, we erect a new genus and species, Nanopithecus browni gen. et sp. nov. The small size of the specimen suggests either that dwarfing occurred early in the lineage, or at least twice independently, depending on the relationship of the new species with extant Miopithecus. Further, the distinctive habitat and geographic separation from Miopithecus suggests that the origin of small body size is not uniquely linked to the current habitat of Miopithecus, and possibly that relatives of extant Miopithecus were much more widely distributed in the past. This in turn argues caution in using extant biogeography in models of the origins of at least some guenons.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae/classificação , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Dente Molar/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Cercopithecinae/anatomia & histologia , Quênia , Mandíbula
10.
Food Environ Virol ; 11(1): 32-39, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673939

RESUMO

The buffalo green monkey (BGM) cell line is required for the detection of enteric viruses in biosolids through a total culturable viral assay (TCVA) by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In the present study, BGM and PLC/PRF/5 cell lines were evaluated for TCVA and for their use in determining the incidence of adenoviruses and enteroviruses in raw sludge and Class B biosolids. Six raw sludge and 17 Class B biosolid samples were collected from 13 wastewater treatment plants from seven U.S. states. Samples were processed via organic flocculation and concentrate volumes equivalent to 4 g total solids were assayed on BGM and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Cell monolayers were observed for cytopathic effect (CPE) after two 14-days passages. Cell lysates were tested for the presence of adenoviruses and enteroviruses by PCR or RT-PCR. The PLC/PRF/5 cells detected more culturable viruses than the BGM cells by CPE (73.9% vs. 56.5%, respectively). 52% of the samples were positive for CPE using both cell lines. No viruses were detected in either cell line by PCR in flasks in which CPE was not observed. No adenoviruses were detected in 13 CPE-positive samples from BGM lysates. In contrast, of the 17 samples exhibiting CPE on PLC/PRF/5 cells, 14 were positive for adenoviruses (82.4%). In conclusion, PLC/PRF/5 cells were superior for the detection of adenoviruses in both raw sludge and Class B biosolids. Thus, the use of BGM cells alone for TCVA may underestimate the viral concentration in sludge/biosolid samples.


Assuntos
Linhagem Celular , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Esgotos/virologia , Virologia/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular/citologia , Linhagem Celular/virologia , Cercopithecinae , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
11.
J Hum Evol ; 123: 35-51, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057325

RESUMO

African papionins are a highly successful subtribe of Old World monkeys with an extensive fossil record. On the basis of both molecular and morphological data, crown African papionins are divided into two clades: Cercocebus/Mandrillus and Papio/Lophocebus/Rungwecebus/Theropithecus (P/L/R/T), though phylogenetic relationships in the latter clade, among both fossil and extant taxa, remain difficult to resolve. While previous phylogenetic studies have focused on either molecular or morphological data, here African papionin molecular and morphological data were combined using both supermatrix and molecular backbone approaches. Theropithecus is supported as the sister taxon to Papio/Lophocebus/Rungwecebus, and while supermatrix analyses using Bayesian methods are largely unresolved, analyses using parsimony are broadly similar to earlier studies. Thus, the position of Rungwecebus relative to Papio and Lophocebus remains equivocal, possibly due to complex patterns of reticulation. Parapapio is likely a paraphyletic grouping of primitive African papionins or possibly a collection of stem P/L/R/T taxa, and a similar phylogenetic position is also hypothesized for Pliopapio. ?Papio izodi is either a stem or crown P/L/R/T taxon, but does not group with other Papio taxa. Dinopithecus and Gorgopithecus are also stem or crown P/L/R/T taxa, but their phylogenetic positions remain unstable. Finally, T. baringensis is likely the most basal Theropithecus taxon, with T. gelada and T. oswaldi sister taxa to the exclusion of T. brumpti. By integrating large amounts of molecular and morphological data, combined with the application of updated parsimony and Bayesian methods, this study represents the most comprehensive analysis of African papionin phylogenetic history to date.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae/classificação , Filogenia , África , Animais , Cercopithecinae/anatomia & histologia , Cercopithecinae/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
Am J Primatol ; 80(7): e22882, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29896810

RESUMO

Simian retrovirus (SRV) is a type-D betaretrovirus infectious to the Old World monkeys causing a variety of symptoms. SRVs are also present in the Old World monkey genomes as endogenous forms, which are referred to as Simian endogenous retroviruses (SERVs). Although many SERV sequences have been identified in Cercopithecinae genomes, with potential of encoding all functional genes, the distribution of SERVs in genomes and evolutionary relationship between exogeneous SRVs and SERVs remains unclear. In this study, we comprehensively investigated seven draft genome sequences of the Old World monkeys, and identified a novel cluster of SERVs in the two Rhinopithecus (R. roxellana and R. bieti) genomes, which belong to the Colobinae subfamily. The Rhinopithecus genomes harbored higher copy numbers of SERVs than the Cercopithecinae genomes. A reconstructed phylogenetic tree showed that the Colobinae SERVs formed a distinct cluster from SRVs and Cercopithecinae SERVs, and more closely related to exogenous SRVs than Cercopithecinae SERVs. Three radical amino acid substitutions specific to Cercopithecinae SERVs, which potentially affect the infectious ability of SERVs, were also identified in the proviral envelope protein. In addition, we found many integration events of SERVs were genus- or species-specific, suggesting the recent activity of SERVs in the Old World monkey genomes. The results suggest that SERVs in Cercopithecinae and Colobinae monkeys were endogenized after the divergence of subfamilies and do not transmit across subfamilies. Our findings also support the hypothesis that Colobinae SERVs are direct ancestors of SRV-6, which has a different origin from the other exogenous SRVs. These findings shed novel insight into the evolutionary history of SERVs, and may help to understand the process of endogenization of SRVs.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae/genética , Colobinae/genética , Retrovirus Endógenos/isolamento & purificação , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Cercopithecinae/virologia , Colobinae/virologia , Retrovirus Endógenos/classificação , Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Genoma , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Retrovirus dos Símios
13.
Anim Cogn ; 21(4): 603-611, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858974

RESUMO

Object permanence is the ability to represent mentally an object and follow its position even when it has disappeared from view. According to Piaget's 6-stage scale of the sensorimotor period of development, it seems that object permanence appears in Stage 4 and fully develops in Stage 6. In this study, we investigated the ability of some species of monkeys (i.e. pig-tailed macaque, lion-tailed macaque, Celebes crested macaque, barbary macaque, De Brazza's monkey, L'Hoest's monkey, Allen's swamp monkey, black crested mangabeys, collared mangabeys, Geoffroy's spider monkey) to track the displacement of an object, which consisted of a reward hidden under one of two cups. Our findings showed that the examined subjects possess Stage 6 of object permanence. We then compared our results with data on apes and dogs participating in Rooijakkers et al. (Anim Cogn 12:789-796, 2009) experiment, where the same method was applied. The monkeys examined by us performed significantly better than the dogs but worse than the apes. In our experiment, the monkeys performed above chance level in all variants, but it should be noted that we observed significant differences in the number of correct choices according to the level of a variant's complexity.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae , Movimentos Oculares , Macaca , Percepção Visual , Animais , Conscientização , Cães , Alimentos , Hominidae , Masculino
14.
J Hum Evol ; 121: 178-192, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779686

RESUMO

A new fossil cranium of a large papionin monkey from the Lower Pleistocene site of Dafnero-3 in Western Macedonia, Greece, is described by means of outer and inner morphological and metric traits using high-resolution micro-computed tomography. Comparisons with modern cercopithecids and contemporaneous Eurasian fossil taxa suggest that the new cranium could equally be ascribed to either the Eurasian Paradolichopithecus or to the East Asian Procynocephalus. The combination of the available direct and indirect fossil evidence, including the new cranium from Dafnero, revives an earlier hypothesis that considers these two sparsely documented genera as synonyms. The timing and possible causes of the rise and demise of Paradolichopithecus - Procynocephalus are discussed.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Cercopithecinae/classificação , Feminino , Grécia , Microtomografia por Raio-X
15.
Am J Primatol ; 80(5): e22760, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29664154

RESUMO

Studies of the effects of habitat fragmentation and degradation on primate positional behavior, strata use, and substrate utilization offer valuable insights into the behavioral and ecological flexibility of primates whose habitats have undergone extensive anthropogenic disturbance. In this study, we evaluated how positional behavior, strata use, and substrate utilization differed between Bale monkeys (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis)-bamboo-eating cercopithecids endemic to the southern Ethiopian Highlands-occupying continuous versus fragmented forests. Bale monkeys in forest fragments (where bamboo had been degraded or eradicated) spent significantly more time on the ground and in understory strata whereas those in continuous forest spent significantly more time in the middle and upper strata. Bale monkeys in forest fragments also spent significantly more time walking and galloping and significantly less time climbing than those in continuous forest. Our results suggest that, unlike the primarily arboreal Bale monkeys in continuous forest, Bale monkeys in forest fragments should be characterized as semi-terrestrial. In response to habitat disturbance in fragments, we observed a greater emphasis on terrestrial foraging and travel among Bale monkeys in these human altered habitats, which may put them at greater risk of predation and conflict with nearby human populations. Bale monkeys in fragments exhibit flexibility in their positional behavioral repertoire and their degree of terrestriality is more similar to their sister taxa in Chlorocebus than to Bale monkeys in continuous forest. These findings suggest that habitat alteration may compel Bale monkeys to exhibit semi-terrestrial behaviors crucial for their persistence in human-modified habitats. Our results contribute to a growing body of literature on primate behavioral responses to anthropogenic modification of their habitats and provide information that can contribute to the design of appropriate conservation management plans.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Cercopithecinae/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Adaptação Biológica , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Etiópia , Florestas , Humanos , Locomoção , Poaceae
16.
BMC Ecol ; 18(1): 4, 2018 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29409472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the effects of habitat modification on the feeding strategies of threatened species is essential to designing effective conservation management plans. Bale monkeys (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) are endemic to the rapidly shrinking montane forests of the southern Ethiopian Highlands. Most populations inhabit continuous bamboo forest subsisting largely on the young leaves and shoots of a single species of bamboo. Because of habitat disturbance in recent decades, however, there are now also several dozen small populations inhabiting isolated forest fragments where bamboo has been degraded. During 12-months, we assessed Bale monkey responses to habitat degradation by comparing habitat composition, phenological patterns, and feeding ecology in a largely undisturbed continuous forest (Continuous groups A and B) and in two fragments (Patchy and Hilltop groups). RESULTS: We found that habitat quality and food availability were much lower in fragments than in continuous forest. In response to the relative scarcity of bamboo in fragments, Bale monkeys spent significantly less time feeding on the young leaves and shoots of bamboo and significantly more time feeding on non-bamboo young leaves, fruits, seeds, stems, petioles, and insects in fragments than in continuous forest. Groups in fragments also broadened their diets to incorporate many more plant species (Patchy: ≥ 47 and Hilltop: ≥ 35 species)-including several forbs, graminoids and cultivated crops-than groups in continuous forest (Continuous A: 12 and Continuous B: 8 species). Nevertheless, bamboo was still the top food species for Patchy group (30% of diet) as well as for both continuous forest groups (mean = 81%). However, in Hilltop group, for which bamboo was especially scarce, Bothriochloa radicans (Poaceae), a grass, was the top dietary species (15% of diet) and bamboo ranked 10th (2%). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that Bale monkeys are more dietarily flexible than previously thought and able to cope with some degradation of their primary bamboo forest habitat. However, crop raiding and other terrestrial foraging habits more common among fragment groups may place them at greater risk of hunting by humans. Thus, longitudinal monitoring is necessary to evaluate the long-term viability of Bale monkey populations in fragmented habitats.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Dieta , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Etiópia , Florestas
17.
Biol Lett ; 14(1)2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29343565

RESUMO

Intergeneric hybridization and introgression was reported from one of two populations of the recently discovered kipunji (Rungwecebus kipunji), a critically endangered African monkey species of southern Tanzania. Kipunjis of the introgressed population (from Mount Rungwe) carry a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype closely related to those of parapatric yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), whereas the second kipunji population, in the Udzungwa Mountains, carries the original kipunji mtDNA haplotypes, which diverged from the baboon lineage about 3 million years ago. Interestingly, in our study of yellow baboons in Tanzania, we found that baboons from the southeastern boundary of the Udzungwa Mountains carry mtDNA haplotypes closely related to the original kipunji haplotype, whereas baboons from the northern boundary, as expected, carry mtDNA haplotypes of the northern yellow baboon clade. These findings provide evidence for a case of inverted intergeneric admixture in primates: (i) a baboon mtDNA haplotype introgressed the Mount Rungwe kipunji population by mitochondrial capture and (ii) an Udzungwa Mountains kipunji mtDNA haplotype introgressed a small subpopulation of yellow baboons by either mitochondrial capture or nuclear swamping. The baboon-kipunji example therefore constitutes an interesting system for further studies of the effects of genetic admixture on fitness and speciation.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae/genética , Haplótipos , Papio cynocephalus/genética , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Hibridização Genética , Tanzânia
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 20, 2018 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29311667

RESUMO

Human activities can cause habitat degradation that may alter the types and quality of available food resources and thus influence the microbiomes of wild animal populations. Furthermore, seasonal shifts in food availability may cause adaptive responses in the gut microbiome to meet the need for different metabolic capabilities. Here, we demonstrate local-scale population structure in the gastrointestinal microbiotas of Chlorocebus monkeys, in southern Ethiopia, in response to varying degrees of human encroachment. We further provide evidence of adaptation to ecological conditions associated with the dry and wet seasons, and show seasonal effects to be more pronounced in areas with limited human activity. Finally, we report species-level microbiota differences between the endemic Ethiopian Bale monkey, an ecological specialist, and generalist Chlorocebus species from the same geographical region.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Biodiversidade , Cercopithecinae , Cloroplastos/genética , Geografia , Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Estações do Ano
19.
Evol Anthropol ; 26(6): 336-349, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29265656

RESUMO

The Cercopithecini, or African guenon monkeys, are one of the most diverse clades of living primates and comprise the most species-rich clade of Catarrhini. Species identity is announced by flamboyant coloration of the facial and genital regions and, more cryptically, by vigorous chromosomal rearrangements among taxa. Beneath the skin, however, these animals are skeletally conservative and show low levels of genetic sequence divergence consonant with recent divergence between congeneric species. The guenons clearly demonstrate that morphological, cytogenetic, and reproductive differentiation proceed at different rates during speciation. We review diverse kinds of data in an effort to understand this conundrum.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Cercopithecinae , África , Animais , Antropologia Física , Comportamento Animal , Cercopithecinae/anatomia & histologia , Cercopithecinae/classificação , Cercopithecinae/genética , Cercopithecinae/fisiologia , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Especiação Genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Crânio
20.
Mol Ecol ; 26(20): 5603-5613, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28817217

RESUMO

Leucocytes are typically considered as a whole in studies examining telomere dynamics in mammals. Such an approach may be precarious, as leucocytes represent the only nucleated blood cells in mammals, their composition varies temporally, and telomere length differs between leucocyte types. To highlight this limitation, we examined here whether seasonal variation in leucocyte composition was related to variation in telomere length in free-ranging mandrills (Mandrilllus sphinx). We found that the leucocyte profile of mandrills varied seasonally, with lower lymphocyte proportion being observed during the long dry season presumably because of the combined effects of high nematode infection and stress at that time of the year. Interestingly, this low lymphocyte proportion during the long dry season was associated with shorter telomeres. Accordingly, based on longitudinal data, we found that seasonal changes in lymphocyte proportion were reflected by corresponding seasonal variation in telomere length. Overall, these results suggest that variation in lymphocyte proportion in blood can significantly affect telomere measurements in mammals. However, lymphocyte proportion did not entirely explain variation in telomere length. For instance, a lower lymphocyte proportion with age could not fully explain shorter telomeres in older individuals. Overall, our results show that telomere length and leucocyte profile are strongly although imperfectly intertwined, which may obscure the relationship between telomere dynamics and ageing processes in mammals.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Cercopithecinae/genética , Leucócitos/citologia , Estações do Ano , Telômero/ultraestrutura , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
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