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1.
Primates ; 63(3): 245-260, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35226214

RESUMO

Forests affected by fragmentation are at risk of losing their primate populations over the long term. The impact of fragmentation on primate populations has been studied in several places in Africa, Asia and South America; however, there has been no discernible pattern of how primates react to forest disturbance and fragmentation. In fragmented habitats, the local extinction probability of a species increases due to a decrease in patch area and an increase in genetic isolation. Here we used microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA sequences to investigate how habitat fragmentation impacts on the genetic diversity and structure of a samango monkey population inhabiting forest patches in the Soutpansberg mountain range of northern South Africa. We sampled four local populations across the length of the mountain range and an additional outlying population from the Great Escarpment to the south. Our results indicate that local populations along the mountain range were historically more connected and less distinct than at present. In more recent times, a lack of contemporary gene flow is leading to a more pronounced genetic structure, causing population subdivision across the mountain and likely isolating the Soutpansberg population from the escarpment population to the south. Based on our results, we suggest that natural and anthropogenic fragmentation are driving population genetic differentiation, and that the matrix surrounding forests and their suitability for samango monkey utilisation play a role at the local scale. The degree of genetic isolation found for samango monkey populations in our study raises concerns about the long-term viability of populations across the mountain range.


Assuntos
Cercopithecus , Ecossistema , Animais , Cercopithecus/genética , Florestas , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Repetições de Microssatélites , Primatas , África do Sul
2.
J Hum Evol ; 163: 103136, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033736

RESUMO

The living guenons (Cercopithecini, Cercopithecidae) are speciose and widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa but are poorly represented in the fossil record. In addition, the craniodental and skeletal similarity of the guenons has hampered the identification of fragmentary material, likely obscuring the taxonomic diversity represented in the fossil record. Here, we describe a new fossil guenon specimen (LAET 75-3703) from the Lower Ngaloba Beds, Laetoli in Tanzania, dated to ∼1.7-1.2 Ma and preserving the lower face and mandible. Comparison to 278 extant guenon specimens, representing all six extant genera, identified several informative traits for distinguishing between the morphologically similar Chlorocebus and Cercopithecus, and these support the attribution of LAET 75-3703 to Chlorocebus. A discriminant function analysis of seven craniodental indices on a subsample of Chlorocebus and Cercopithecus was robust with an overall correct classification rate of 80.4%, and it classified LAET 75-3703 as a member of Chlorocebus with a posterior probability of 92.7%. LAET 75-3703 shares with Chlorocebus the presence of small 'thumbprint' depressions on the maxilla; a tall, narrow, and diamond-shaped nasal aperture; a relatively longer and shallower face; relatively buccolingually broader molars; and a shallow mandible that decreases in depth posteriorly. In addition, LAET 75-3703 is distinguished from all extant guenons, including other species of Chlorocebus, in having a very small P3 relative to M1 area. As such, LAET 75-3703 is assigned to a new species, Chlorocebus ngedere sp. nov. This specimen represents the first cercopithecin from Laetoli, as well as the oldest fossil cercopithecin confidently attributed to a modern genus.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae , Fósseis , Animais , Cercopithecidae/anatomia & histologia , Cercopithecus , Tanzânia
3.
J Virol ; 96(4): e0152721, 2022 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34878886

RESUMO

Viral protein U (Vpu) is an accessory protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and certain simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains. Some of these viruses were reported to use Vpu to overcome restriction by BST-2 of their natural hosts. Our own recent report revealed that Vpu of SIVgsn-99CM71 (SIVgsn71) antagonizes human BST-2 through two AxxxxxxxW motifs (A22W30 and A25W33), whereas antagonizing BST-2 of its natural host, greater spot-nosed monkey (GSN), involved only the A22W30 motif. Here, we show that residues A22, A25, W30, and W33 of SIVgsn71 Vpu are all essential to antagonize human BST-2, whereas a single mutation of either A22 or W30 did not affect the ability to antagonize GSN BST-2. Similar to A18, which is located in the middle of the A14xxxxxxxW22 motif in HIV-1 NL4-3 Vpu and is essential to antagonize human BST-2, A29, located in the middle of the A25W33 motif of SIVgsn71 Vpu was found to be necessary for antagonizing human but not GSN BST-2. Further mutational analyses revealed that residues L21 and K32 of SIVgsn71 Vpu were also essential for antagonizing human BST-2. On the other hand, the ability of SIVgsn71 Vpu to target GSN BST-2 was unaffected by single amino acid substitutions but required multiple mutations to render SIVgsn71 Vpu inactive against GSN BST-2. These results suggest additional requirements for SIVgsn71 Vpu antagonizing human BST-2, implying evolution of the bst-2 gene under strong selective pressure. IMPORTANCE Genes related to survival against life-threating pathogens are important determinants of natural selection in animal evolution. For instance, BST-2, a protein showing broad-spectrum antiviral activity, shows polymorphisms entailing different phenotypes even among primate species, suggesting that the bst-2 gene of primates has been subject to strong selective pressure during evolution. At the same time, viruses readily adapt to these evolutionary changes. Thus, we found that the Vpu of an SIVgsn isolate (SIVgsn-99CM71) can target BST-2 from humans as well as from its natural host, thus potentially facilitating zoonosis. Here, we mapped residues in SIVgsn71 Vpu potentially contributing to cross-species transmission. We found that the requirements for targeting human BST-2 are distinct from and more complex than those for targeting GSN BST-2. Our results suggest that the human bst-2 gene might have evolved to acquire more restrictive phenotype than GSN bst-2 against viral proteins after being derived from their common ancestor.


Assuntos
Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Aminoácidos , Animais , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Cercopithecus , Regulação para Baixo , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/metabolismo , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/genética , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/isolamento & purificação , Especificidade da Espécie , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/genética
4.
Am J Primatol ; 84(1): e23347, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813123

RESUMO

Many primates exhibit behavioral flexibility which allows them to adapt to environmental change and different habitat types. The golden monkey (Cercopithecus mitis kandti) is a little-studied endangered primate subspecies endemic to the Virunga massif and the Gishwati forest in central Africa. In the Virunga massif, golden monkeys are mainly found in the bamboo forest, while in the Gishwati forest they live in mixed tropical montane forest. Here we describe and compare the diet of golden monkeys in both fragments. Over 24 consecutive months from January 2017 we used scan sampling to record feeding and ranging behavior of two Virunga groups and one Gishwati group totaling ca. 240 individuals. We also examined the phenology of bamboo and fruit trees, key seasonal food plant species for the monkeys. Golden monkeys fed on more than 100 plant species. The Virunga groups were mostly folivorous (between 72.8% and 87.16% of the diet) and fed mostly on young bamboo leaves and bamboo shoots, while 48.69% of the diet of the Gishwati group consisted of fruit from 22 different tree and shrub species. Bamboo shoots and fruit are seasonally available foods and were consumed regularly throughout the period when they were available. Despite being the smallest of the three study groups, the Gishwati group had a larger home range area (150.07 ha) compared to both Virunga groups (25.24 and 91.3 ha), likely driven by the differences in availability and distribution of fruit and bamboo in the habitats. Like other blue monkey subspecies, golden monkeys appear to have a flexible dietary strategy enabling them to adjust diet and ranging behavior to local habitats and available food resources. Additional studies and continuing conservation efforts are needed to better understand how variation in feeding and ranging ecology affects reproduction, population growth, and carrying capacity.


Assuntos
Cercopithecus , Comportamento Alimentar , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ecossistema , Ruanda
5.
Primates ; 62(6): 879-886, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515900

RESUMO

A recent debate on the taxonomic identification of the monkeys depicted in a fresco from Room 6 of Building Complex Beta in the Bronze Age town of Akrotiri, Thera (Greece) has triggered a multitude of different interpretations deriving from a fruitful exchange of diverse academic approaches. Thus, Pareja et al. (Primates 61:159-168, 2020a) identified those Aegean monkeys as Asian langurs (Semnopithecus spp.), whereas Urbani and Youlatos (Antiquity 94:e9, 2020a) and Binnberg et al. (J Gr Archaeol 6:in press, 2021) argued for the identification as African vervets (Chlorocebus spp.), and recently Pruetz and Greenlaw (Primates 62:703-707, 2021) introduced the African L'Hoest's monkeys (Allochrocebus lhoesti) and Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) into the debate. This comment intends to present thoughts on the latter contention. In this context, our approach encompassed the morphological analysis of specific features of the face and torso, the cultural context of the use of the blue color for representing the Aegean monkeys, the detailed artistic rendering of Aegean painters, the geographical distribution ranges of the potential candidate monkey species, and the historical context of trading monkeys or exchanging monkey imageries in the eastern Mediterranean region and Africa. All this evidence supports our contention that vervets still represent the most parsimonious models for the monkeys depicted in Room 6. This debate, based on multidisciplinary research, stands as a constructive example for the perspectives that need to be followed for the development of archeoprimatology.


Assuntos
Cercopithecus , África , Animais , Grécia , Haplorrinos
6.
Primates ; 62(6): 1005-1018, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403014

RESUMO

Samango monkeys (Cercopithecus albogularis schwarzi) in the Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa, experience a highly seasonal climate, with relatively cold, dry winters. They must show behavioural flexibility to survive these difficult conditions near the southern limit of the species' distribution and maintain the minimum nutritional intake they require. Through environmental monitoring and behavioural observations of a habituated group of samango monkeys, we explored how they adapted to the highly seasonal climate they experienced in the mountains. Our results indicated that the monkeys varied their foraging behaviours to account for changes in climate and daylight availability. The samangos increased their food intake in colder months, specifically leaves, likely due to an increased need for calories during winter to maintain body temperature. Samango monkeys have anatomical and physiological adaptations for digesting leaves, and these are likely important in explaining their ability to adapt to the broad range of climatic conditions they experience.


Assuntos
Cercopithecus , Comportamento Alimentar , Animais , Ecologia , Estações do Ano
7.
Infect Genet Evol ; 94: 105032, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384935

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is distributed worldwide and poses a significant threat to human health. Cross-species transmission of HBV from human to non-human primates could occur, which has been confirmed in three individual events. In this study, HBV DNA was detected in one golden monkey fatal case in China. The following genetic sequencing and analysis demonstrated the virus had a close genetic relationship with HBV genotype C in humans. To our knowledge, this is the first report suggested that HBV is related with a non-human primate fatal case in China.


Assuntos
Cercopithecus , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Animais , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Hepatite B/virologia , Masculino
8.
Primates ; 62(5): 703-707, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232418

RESUMO

In a recent exchange, Pareja et al. (Primates 61: 159-168, 2020a; Primates 61: 767-774, 2020b) and Urbani and Youlatos (Primates, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10329-020-00825-2 , 2020a) dispute the re-interpretation of the primate species depicted in a Bronze Age fresco from Room 6 of Building Complex Beta at Akrotiri, Thera. They review the history of interpretations of this artwork and combine the expertise of scholars that traditionally focus on such research with the scientific expertise of primatologists to reexamine the artwork. Additionally, they emphasize the morphological traits exhibited by these painted primates. We review and expand their list of candidate primates here in a decision table to demonstrate that the African link is better supported by the morphological traits than the Asian one proposed by Pareja et al. (2020a, b). Using such evidence, we show that other guenons of the tribe Cercopithecini, such as L'Hoest's monkey (Allochrocebus lhoesti) and the Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana), provide equal support for the African link as the vervet monkey proposed by Urbani and Youlatos (2020a). However, the historical context supports the traditional interpretation that the Akrotiri fresco depicts vervet monkeys from this region. This discourse provides an open forum for scholars in various fields to contribute to an important problem that crosses disciplinary boundaries.


Assuntos
Cercopithecus , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops
9.
Am J Primatol ; 83(6): e23261, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956342

RESUMO

The natural history and taxonomic status of two central African primates, Cercopithecus dryas and Cercopithecus salongo have long been in question. Recent studies confirmed that C. dryas is a basal member of the savanna monkey clade, and that it prefers dense undergrowth in lowland rainforest. While these studies advanced our knowledge of this enigmatic species, key aspects of its natural history remain poorly documented. Furthermore, the lack of a field study that documents pelage patterns of both sexes and different age classes of C. dryas has led to a disagreement over the validity of C. salongo as a sister taxon to C. dryas. Using the results of two multi-strata camera trap surveys in Lomami National Park (Democratic Republic of the Congo) and its buffer zone, we conducted a third survey in the understory of degraded forest to accumulate videos of C. dryas/salongo. We used these videos to test the hypothesis that C. dryas and C. salongo are synonymous, and to assess the species' group composition, density, behavior and vocalizations. Camera traps revealed an ontogenetic change in pelage pattern that supports the view that C. salongo is the adult of C. dryas. Videos revealed that adult males develop a blue perineum and scrotum, and a red subcaudal patch, similar to other savanna monkeys. We provide a preliminary assessment of C. dryas' group composition, density, behavior, and vocalizations. This long-overlooked monkey is an exceptional member of the Chlorocebus clade, and all aspects of its biology require further investigation.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae , Parques Recreativos , Animais , Cercopithecus , Chlorocebus aethiops , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Masculino
10.
Vet Med Sci ; 7(3): 1023-1033, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natural infections with soil-transmitted nematodes occur in non-human primates (NHPs) and have the potential to cross primate-species boundaries and cause diseases of significant public health concern. Despite the presence of NHPs in most urban centres in Kenya, comprehensive studies on their gastrointestinal parasites are scant. OBJECTIVE: Conduct a cross-sectional survey to identify zoonotic nematodes in free-ranging NHPs found within four selected urban and peri-urban centres in Kenya. METHODS: A total of 86 NHPs: 41 African green monkeys [AGMs] (Chlorocebus aethiops), 30 olive baboons (Papio anubis), 5 blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni) and 10 red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) were sampled once in situ and released back to their habitat. Microscopy was used to identify nematodes egg and larvae stages in the samples. Subsequently, PCR coupled with high-resolution melting (PCR-HRM) analysis and sequencing were used to identify nodule worms. RESULTS: NHPs inhabiting densely populated urban environs in Kenya were found infected with a rich diversity of nematodes including three potentially zoonotic nematodes including Oesophagostomum stephanostomum, Oesophagostomum bifurcum and Trichostrongylus colubriformis and co-infections were common. CONCLUSION: Phylogenetic analysis showed that O. stephanostomum from red-tailed and blue monkeys have a close evolutionary relatedness to human isolates suggesting the zoonotic potential of this parasite. Moreover, we also report the first natural co-infection of O. bifurcum and O. stephanostomum in free-ranging AGMs.


Assuntos
Cercopithecus , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coinfecção/veterinária , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Papio anubis , Animais , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
11.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(3): 876-890, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986826

RESUMO

Guenons (tribe Cercopithecini) are the most widely distributed nonhuman primate in the tropical forest belt of Africa and show considerable phenotypic, taxonomic, and ecological diversity. However, genomic information for most species within this group is still lacking. Here, we present a high-quality de novo genome (total 2.90 Gb, contig N50 equal to 22.7 Mb) of the mona monkey (Cercopithecus mona), together with genome resequencing data of 13 individuals sampled across Nigeria. Our results showed differentiation between populations from East and West of the Niger River ∼84 ka and potential ancient introgression in the East population from other mona group species. The PTPRK, FRAS1, BNC2, and EDN3 genes related to pigmentation displayed signals of introgression in the East population. Genomic scans suggest that immunity genes such as AKT3 and IL13 (possibly involved in simian immunodeficiency virus defense), and G6PD, a gene involved in malaria resistance, are under positive natural selection. Our study gives insights into differentiation, natural selection, and introgression in guenons.


Assuntos
Cercopithecus/genética , Introgressão Genética , Especiação Genética , Genoma , Seleção Genética , Animais , Feminino , Imunidade/genética
12.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(4): 1309-1313, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998304

RESUMO

A 4-yr-old male intact lesser spot-nosed guenon (Cercopithecus petaurista), housed at a North American zoological facility, presented with acute lethargy, inappetence, and mild neurologic signs. Physical examination revealed hemorrhagic pleural effusion in the right hemithorax. This guenon's condition improved over several days but then deteriorated, and the guenon presented with lethargy and weakness. A hemorrhagic pleural effusion was identified within the left hemithorax. The guenon developed respiratory and cardiac arrest while anesthetized. Gross examination revealed tract formation in the liver, adhesions of the liver to the diaphragm, hemorrhagic thoracic and abdominal effusion, and a single trematode within the right hemithorax. Morphologic features and species identification by PCR confirmed that the parasite was Fascioloides magna. Histologic examination revealed tract formation in the liver associated with biliary hyperplasia, fibrosis and hepatic necrosis, severe bile peritonitis, and pleuritis. This is the first report of an infection by F. magna in a primate.


Assuntos
Cercopithecus , Fasciolidae , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Cercopithecus/parasitologia , Fasciolidae/genética , Evolução Fatal , Fígado , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
13.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(5): 583-587, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202512

RESUMO

Blastocystis sp. is a kind of protozoa living in the intestinal tract of human and animals, which will cause intestinal diseases such as diarrhea, abdominal distension and vomiting. This paper was aimed to understand the infection of Blastocystis sp. In golden monkeys and the transmission path in North China. Thirty-seven feces samples from golden monkeys and 116 cockroach samples from Shijiazhuang Zoo were collected from July to October 2019 for PCR analysis of Blastocystis sp. Genetic diversity analysis was further conducted on the samples with positive PCR results. The results showed that the infection rate was 48.7% (18/37) in golden monkeys and 82.8% (96/116) in cockroaches, respectively. The genetic evolution analysis based on small subunit ribosomal RNA demonstrated that three subtypes (ST) of Blastocystis sp. including ST1, ST2, and ST3 existed in the intestinal tract of golden monkeys, while only ST2 was detected in the intestinal tract of cockroaches. This paper may provide supports for the quarantine and control of Blastocystis sp. for the zoo in Northern China.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Infecções por Blastocystis/transmissão , Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Baratas/parasitologia , Vetores de Doenças , Insetos Vetores , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Macacos/transmissão , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/transmissão , Animais , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Cercopithecus , China/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
14.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 91(6): 541-557, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492683

RESUMO

Primates are hypothesized to "fall back" on challenging-to-process foods when preferred foods are less available. Such dietary shifts may be accompanied by changes in oral processing behavior argued to be selectively important. Here, we examine the oral processing behavior of Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) in the Taï Forest across their dietary breadth, testing relationships among food intake, fruit availability, preference, and oral processing behaviors including those involved in food ingestion and breakdown. We conducted 1,066 focal follows from April 2016 to September 2017 documenting frequencies of incisor, canine, and cheek tooth mastications (i.e., chews) per ingestive action (n = 11,906 feeding events). We used phenological survey and scan sample data collected between 2004 and 2009 to examine dietary preference and food availability. Our analyses show that Diana monkeys processed foods in significantly different ways (H2 = 360.8, p < 0.001), with invertebrates requiring the least oral processing, fruit requiring intermediate amounts, and leaves requiring the most oral processing. There was no relationship between fruit availability and consumption of preferred or nonpreferred fruits (p > 0.05); however, preferred fruits were processed with significantly fewer mastications (i.e., less chewing) than nonpreferred fruits (U = 6,557, p < 0.001). We thus demonstrate that, when preferred foods are scarce, Diana monkeys do not fall back on difficult-to-process foods. Changes in processing profiles occurred throughout the year and not solely when preferred foods were in short supply. Though preferred fruits required less processing than nonpreferred fruits, we found no relationship between fruit preference and fruit availability. Diana monkeys' lack of readily identifiable fallback foods may be attributable to the relatively high tree diversity and productivity of the Taï Forest. We conclude that Diana monkeys engage in resource switching, consuming a relatively easy-to-process diet year-round.


Assuntos
Cercopithecus/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares , Mastigação , Animais , Costa do Marfim , Dieta , Feminino , Frutas , Invertebrados , Masculino , Folhas de Planta
15.
Primates ; 61(6): 785-796, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506350

RESUMO

Reliable data on the distribution and threats facing primate species are crucial to identifying priority sites for conservation and designing effective management plans. Boutourlini's blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis boutourlinii) is a little-known arboreal primate endemic to the forests of western Ethiopia. This subspecies is categorized as Vulnerable on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List and the distribution of extant populations is largely unknown. To increase our knowledge of the spatial distribution and conservation status of Boutourlini's blue monkey, we carried out intensive reconnaissance surveys from January 2010 to May 2011 across approximately 40% of its potential range and conducted interviews with local people at each of the survey locations. We carried out geospatial analyses and mapped the distribution of Boutourlini's blue monkey localities with respect to elevation, protected area status, and changes in forest cover over time using ArcGIS 10.4.0. Through our surveys, we discovered 30 previously unknown Boutourlini's blue monkey populations in three administrative regions of western Ethiopia (Amhara, Oromia, and Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's Regions). A total of 34 different groups were sighted and counted at the survey sites, averaging 14.7 members (range 8-23) per group. There are now 32 Boutourlini's blue monkey populations of recently confirmed occurrence at altitudes ranging from 1039 to 2780 m asl, seven in forests of greater than 50 km2. Crop feeding by Boutourlini's blue monkeys was reported by people at seven sites and confirmed through direct observation at three of these sites. None of the known extant populations of Boutourlini's blue monkeys occur within a strictly protected area (e.g., national park) where exploitative human activities are outlawed. A complete reassessment of the distribution and conservation status of Boutourlini's blue monkey will require further surveys across the remaining approximately 60% of its potential range.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Cercopithecus , Ecossistema , Altitude , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Produtos Agrícolas , Dieta , Etiópia
16.
Primates ; 61(4): 563-566, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533283

RESUMO

Interactions between monkeys and birds are rarely observed and, consequently, rarely described in the scientific literature. We recorded two encounters between birds (Prionops plumatus and Strix woodfordii) and red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) in a woodland-mosaic habitat in western Tanzania. We observed a male red-tailed monkey consume a small bird in its entirety. Although only a few feathers remained, we provisionally identified the bird as a white-crested helmetshrike. We also observed a group of red-tailed monkeys mobbing, but not killing, an African wood owl on the forest floor. This is the first reported observation of this kind. These encounters suggest that guenons may generalize large-bodied avians as threats and small-bodied avians as potential prey. Hetero-specific encounters such as these provide insights into primate diet and anti-predatory behavior.


Assuntos
Agressão , Cercopithecus , Dieta , Cadeia Alimentar , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Masculino , Aves Canoras , Estrigiformes , Tanzânia
17.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2020: 5691324, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454802

RESUMO

Primates are the mammals of the order Primate that is characterized by advanced development of binocular vision and enlargement of the cerebral hemispheres. The aim of this study was to investigate the abundance, diversity, and distribution of primates on Welel Mountain. From August 2017 to February 2018, we collected data from different parts of Welel Mountain during wet and dry seasons of the year and analyzed them using SPSS version 20. We identified four primate species: Chlorocebus aethiops, Cercopithecus mitis, Papio anubis, and Colobus guereza. We conducted t-test analysis for abundance and distribution of primates in wet and dry season of the year, and the P value obtained was 0.20. The mean percentages of primates in forest, woodland, and shrubs were 43.16%, 32.26%, and 24.58%, respectively. Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H') value was higher in wet season than in dry season. The current study showed that the species are distributed more evenly in wet season than in dry season, and the number of young individuals is more than that of adults. This indicates that currently the status of primates population on Welel Mountain is good. Therefore, to keep the status of primates in the study area effective, wildlife management and conservation policy should be formulated.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Primatas/classificação , Animais , Cercopithecus , Chlorocebus aethiops , Colobus , Etiópia , Florestas , Estações do Ano
18.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(6): 2789-2796, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445593

RESUMO

Blastocystis sp. is a common enteric protist that colonizes humans and a wide range of animals. Although some studies have reported incidences of Blastocystis sp. in humans and animals in China, there are limited data available concerning the prevalence among people and non-human primates. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence, subtype distribution and genetic characteristics of Blastocystis sp. in primates, and to investigate the potential for zoonotic transmission between human and non-human primates. A total of 185 faecal samples from non-human primates and 1,118 samples from human volunteers were collected in Hebei province. The overall prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in non-human primates was 32.97% (61/185) based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the barcode region of the SSU rRNA gene. Rates of prevalence were highest among Cercopithecus neglectus (100%, 5/5) and were absent in Cebus apella and Colobus guereza. The prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in humans was 34.88% (390/1,118), and the highest rates were 41.24% in children three years of age. There was a higher detection rate in humans with diarrhoea (53.68%). Five potentially zoonotic subtypes (ST1, ST2, ST3, ST5 and ST9) were identified; among these, ST1 and ST2 were more prevalent than others in non-human primates. Similarly, two subtypes (ST2 and ST5) were detected in humans and ST2 was also the most prevalent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the prevalence and subtype composition of Blastocystis sp. in Hebei province, and the first study concerning the relationship of Blastocystis sp. among primates in China. The findings of the study will improve our understanding of the genetic diversity and public health potential of Blastocystis sp. enteric infections in addition to providing a profile of subtype characteristics of Blastocystis sp. in primates of northern China.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Blastocystis/genética , Variação Genética , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Adolescente , Animais , Blastocystis/classificação , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Cercopithecus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Colobus , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Prevalência , Sapajus apella
19.
Integr Zool ; 15(5): 385-400, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297450

RESUMO

Understanding the determinants of ranging patterns in species susceptible to habitat fragmentation is fundamental for assessing their long-term adaptability to an increasingly human-dominated landscape. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the influence of ground-based food availability, remotely sensed plant productivity, and indigenous forest use on the ranging patterns of the endangered samango monkey (Cercopithecus albogularis schwarzi). We collected monthly ranging data on two habituated samango monkey groups, from February 2012 to December 2016, from our field site in the Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa. We used linear mixed models to explore how food availability, plant productivity, and indigenous forest use influenced monthly ranging patterns, while controlling for group size, number of sample days and day length. We found that as more areas of high plant productivity (derived from remotely sensed EVI) were incorporated into the ranging area, both total and core monthly ranging areas decreased. In addition, both total ranging area and mean monthly daily path length decreased as more indigenous forest was incorporated into the ranging area. However, we found no effect of either ground-based food availability or remotely sensed plant productivity on ranging patterns. Our findings demonstrate the behavioral flexibility in samango monkey ranging, as samangos can utilize matrix habitat during periods of low productivity but are ultimately dependent on access to indigenous forest patches. In addition, we highlight the potential of using remotely sensed areas of high plant productivity to predict ranging patterns in a small ranging, forest-dwelling guenon, over ground-based estimates of food availability.


Assuntos
Cercopithecus/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Alimentos , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Animais , Florestas , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , África do Sul
20.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 172(1): 3-24, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124976

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The guenons (tribe Cercopithecini) are a diverse and primarily arboreal radiation of Old World monkeys from Africa. However, preliminary behavioral observations of the lesula (Cercopithecus lomamiensis), a little-known guenon species described in 2012, report it spending substantial amounts of time on the ground. New specimens allow us to present the first description of lesula postcranial morphology and apply a comparative functional morphology approach to supplement our knowledge of its locomotor behavior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To infer the substrate use preferences of the lesula, 22 postcranial variables correlated with locomotion were assessed in a sample of 151 adult guenon specimens, including two C. lomamiensis. Using multivariate statistical analyses, we predict the amount of time the lesula spends on the ground relative to the comparative sample. RESULTS: Results suggest that the lesula spends nearly half its time on the ground, and the two available individuals were classified as semiterrestrial and terrestrial with strong support. Comparisons with two outgroup cercopithecid taxa (Colobus guereza and Macaca mulatta) demonstrate that, as a group, guenons retain signals of a generalized, semiterrestrially adapted postcranium compared to specialized arboreal cercopithecids. DISCUSSION: These results corroborate preliminary behavioral observations of the lesula as a semiterrestrial to terrestrial primate and imply multiple evolutionary transitions in substrate use among the guenon radiation. A broader view of cercopithecoid evolution suggests that a semiterrestrial ancestor for extant guenons is more parsimonious than an arboreal one, indicating that the arboreal members of the group are probably recently derived from a more semiterrestrial ancestor.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Cercopithecus/anatomia & histologia , Cercopithecus/fisiologia , Locomoção , Esqueleto/anatomia & histologia , Animais , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Masculino
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